About this topic
Summary Brentano is widely regarded as the first, or at least among the first, to propose a fitting-attitude account of value. According to his account, an object or state of affairs is good just in case it is correct to love it (but Brentano's notion of love is very wide). Brentano's work on this strongly impressed G.E. Moore, but was brought to prominence again mostly by Chisholm, as well as some of his students. More recently, Brentano's contributions have been discussed in the context of various issues surrounding buck-passing accounts of value. A related topic of scholarship is the influence of Brentano on economic thought, both Austrian and Keynesian. Note well: although this category focuses mostly on ethical value, it also covers works by and on Brentano on aesthetic value.
Key works Brentano's central work in this area is Brentano 1889/1969. Essays and lecture notes of relevance were posthumously collected in Brentano 1973. His work directly influenced the ethical work of Meinong and Ehrenfels, whose Meinong 1894 and von Ehrenfels 1897 are unfortunately unavailable in English (but see Marek 2009 and Smith 1986). The earliest prominent English-language discussion of Brentano's ethical work is Moore 1903. The revival of Brentano in modern metaethics is largely due to a single work: Chisholm 1986. A number of Chisholm students developed the view further - see especially Lemos 1994 and Zimmerman 2001. Work on Brentano's aesthetics is quite limited, mostly because his essays and notes on the subject, collected posthumously in Brentano 1959, remain untranslated. Still, useful expository work on Brentano's aesthetics is provided by Pasquerella 1993 (another Chisholm student). For the connection between the ethics and the aesthetics, see Baumgartner & Pasquerella 2004. For Brentano's influence on Austrian economics, see Smith 1994, and for his influence on Keynes, see Baldwin 2006.
Introductions Brentano 1889/1969 is sufficiently lucid to serve as its own introduction, but no other work parallels Chisholm 1986. A shorter good introduction is Simons 2013.
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  1. Précis of Brentano’s Philosophical System.Uriah Kriegel - forthcoming - European Journal of Philosophy.
    Here is a rather difficult two-part question: How may we grasp (a) the nature of reality and (b) the nature of value? As I understand the man, answering this question was the principal, overarching aim of Franz Brentano’s philosophical work. More specifically, he wanted to provide an answer that respected a self-imposed theoretical constraint, namely, that our grasp of a thing’s status as real or as valuable be ultimately grounded in direct encounter with certain aspects of our conscious experience. The (...)
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  2. Brentano on Consciousness, Intentionality, Value, Will, and Emotion: Reply to Symposiasts.Uriah Kriegel - forthcoming - European Journal of Philosophy.
    It is a regrettable feature of this book symposium that it appears only after the book itself. If I could solicit from three outstanding philosophers detailed analyses of substantial portions of the book before publishing it, the book would have been far better. Below, I indicate some of the ways the book would have been better.
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  3. Kriegel on Brentano on Value and Fittingness.Jonas Olson - forthcoming - European Journal of Philosophy.
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  4. Brentano's Metaethics.Jonas Olson - forthcoming - In U. Kriegel (ed.), Routledge Handbook of Brentano and the Brentano School. Routledge.
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  5. Moore, Brentano, and Scanlon: A Defense of Indefinability.Miles Tucker - 2020 - Philosophical Studies 177 (8):2261-2276.
    Mooreans claim that intrinsic goodness is a conceptual primitive. Fitting-attitude theorists object: they say that goodness should be defined in terms of what it is fitting for us to value. The Moorean view is often considered a relic; the fitting-attitude view is increasingly popular. I think this unfortunate. Though the fitting-attitude analysis is powerful, the Moorean view is still attractive. I dedicate myself to the influential arguments marshaled against Moore’s program, including those advanced by Scanlon, Stratton-Lake and Hooker, and Jacobson; (...)
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  6. Brentano and the Birth of a New Paradigm in Philosophy of Emotion.Íngrid Vendrell Ferran - 2020 - In D. Fisette, Guillaume Frechette & Hynek Janoušek (eds.), Franz Brentano's Philosophy after Hundred Years. From History of Philosophy to Reism. Springer.
    This paper argues that the view of the emotions put forward by Brentano, and the modifications and refinements of his claims undertaken by his followers, led to the birth of new paradigm in the philosophy of emotion. The paper is structured in four main sections. The first section presents the context in which Brentano’s theory emerged. Section 2 is devoted to Brentano’s three main claims on the emotions, focusing on their intentionality, their dependency on cognitions, and their relation to values. (...)
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  7. Wittgenstein and Heidegger Against a Science of Aesthetics.Andreas Vrahimis - 2020 - Estetika 57 (1):64-85.
    Wittgenstein’s and Heidegger’s objections against the possibility of a science of aesthetics were influential on different sides of the analytic/continental divide. Heidegger’s anti-scientism leads him to an alētheic view of artworks which precedes and exceeds any possible aesthetic reduction. Wittgenstein also rejects the relevance of causal explanations, psychological or physiological, to aesthetic questions. The main aim of this paper is to compare Heidegger with Wittgenstein, showing that: there are significant parallels to be drawn between Wittgenstein’s and Heidegger’s anti-scientism about aesthetics, (...)
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  8. Exceptions in Nonderivative Value.Garrett Cullity - 2019 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 98 (1):26-49.
    According to most substantive axiological theories – theories telling us which things are good and bad – pleasure is nonderivatively good. This seems to imply that it is always good, even when directed towards a bad object, such as another person’s suffering. This implication is accepted by the Mainstream View about misdirected pleasures: it holds that when someone takes pleasure in another person’s suffering, his being pleased is good, although his being pleased by suffering is bad. This view gains some (...)
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  9. Normativité et intentionnalité : pour un pluralisme normatif.Marie-Hélène Desmeules - 2018 - Bulletin d'Analyse Phénoménologique 14 (2):1-33.
    Brentano et Husserl reconnurent tous deux que certaines de nos intentionnalités posent des enjeux normatifs. Seulement, Brentano croyait que les intentionnalités ne peuvent être qualifiées normativement que si elles sont incompatibles avec une autre façon opposée de se rapporter intentionnellement à un même objet. Husserl insista pour sa part sur le fait qu’il n’y a des enjeux normatifs que là où il y a une relation intentionnelle et positionnelle. Malgré cette distinction, en imposant ces conditions (incompatibilité et position) pour qu’il (...)
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  10. Brentano et le réalisme moral.Gemmo Iocco - 2018 - Bulletin D’Analyse Phénoménologique 14 (3):1-19.
    Dans ses écrits sur l’éthique, Brentano affirme que les propriétés morales — comme « bon » — sont l’objet d’une représentation intuitive non sensible dont le contenu est de nature « mentale ». Si la nature mentale de ces contenus en garantit le caractère d’évidence, elle en complexifie aussi l’élucidation ontologique et épistémologique, qui doit tenir compte de la classification brentanienne des actes psychiques. C’est justement cette complexité constitutive qui a fait de la théorie éthique de Brentano un passage obligé (...)
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  11. Franz Brentano e il cognitivismo emotivo.Gemmo Iocco - 2018 - Rivista Internazionale di Filosofia e Psicologia 9 (1):45-56.
    Riassunto: Il presente studio intende mostrare la natura specifica del cognitivismo emotivo proposto da Franz Brentano. In maniera più o meno evidente, la teoria del valore delineata da Brentano ha ricoperto un ruolo di primaria importanza nel dibattito assiologico-etico di fine Ottocento e inizio Novecento ed è ampiamente discussa anche all’interno del dibattito contemporaneo. Nel contributo vengono richiamati gli aspetti generali di tale teoria soffermandosi sulla nozione di “rappresentazione intuitiva” intesa come modalità che permette di conoscere ciò che giusto e (...)
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  12. Brentano's Philosophical System: Mind, Being, Value.Uriah Kriegel - 2018 - Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Uriah Kriegel presents a rich exploration of the philosophy of the great nineteenth-century thinker Franz Brentano. He locates Brentano at the crossroads where the Anglo-American and continental European philosophical traditions diverged. At the centre of this account of Brentano's philosophy is the connection between mind and reality. Kriegel aims to develop Brentano's central ideas where they are overly programmatic or do not take into account philosophical developments that have taken place since Brentano's death a century ago; and to offer a (...)
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  13. Marty and Brentano.Laurent Cesalli & Kevin Mulligan - 2017 - In Uriah Kriegel (ed.), The Routledge Handbook of Franz Brentano and the Brentano School. London and New York: Routledge. pp. 251-263.
    The Swiss philosopher Anton Marty (Schwyz, 1847 - Prague, 1914) belongs, with Carl Stumpf, to the first circle of Brentano’s pupils. Within Brentano’s school (and, to some extent, in the secondary literature), Marty has often been considered (in particular by Meinong) a kind of would-be epigone of his master (Fisette & Fréchette 2007: 61-2). There is no doubt that Brentano’s doctrine often provides Marty with his philosophical starting points. But Marty often arrives at original conclusions which are diametrically opposed to (...)
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  14. Brentano on Beauty and Aesthetics.Wolfgang Huemer - 2017 - In Uriah Kriegel (ed.), Routledge Companion to Brentano and the Brentano School. London & New York: Routledge.
    In his entire oeuvre Brentano defended a scientific conception of philosophy and advocated the adoption of a rigorous, scientific method. Given this background it might come as a surprise that in his reflections on aesthetics he firmly rejected the classic definition of aesthetics as the science of beauty. This must not be read as an expression of disinterest in – or a dismissal of – aesthetics, though. It is rather an expression of Brentano's view concerning the position of aesthetics in (...)
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  15. Two Kinds of Ethical Intuitionism: Brentano’s and Reid's.Olson Jonas - 2017 - The Monist 100 (1):106-119.
    This paper explores Franz Brentano’s metaethics by comparing it to Thomas Reid’s. Brentano and Reid share a commitment to moral realism and they are both aptly classified as intuitionists concerning moral knowledge and the nature of moral judgment. However, their respective versions of intuitionism are importantly different, in ways that reflect more general differences between their respective epistemological views. Sections III and IV of the paper focus more exclusively on Brentano’s metaethics and some of its unorthodox features. These features tie (...)
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  16. The Routledge Handbook of Franz Brentano and the Brentano School.Uriah Kriegel (ed.) - 2017 - London and New York: Routledge.
    Both through his own work and that of his students, Franz Clemens Brentano had an often underappreciated influence on the course of 20 th - and 21 st -century philosophy. _The Routledge Handbook of Franz Brentano and the Brentano School_ offers full coverage of Brentano’s philosophy and his influence. It contains 38 brand-new essays from an international team of experts that offer a comprehensive view of Brentano’s central research areas—philosophy of mind, metaphysics, and value theory—as well as of the principal (...)
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  17. Brentano's Philosophical Program.Uriah Kriegel - 2017 - In U. Kriegel (ed.), Routledge Handbook of Franz Brentano and the Brentano School. London and New York: Routledge. pp. 21-32.
    Franz Brentano was not a systematic writer, but he was very much a systematic thinker. Through his manuscripts, lecture notes, letters, dictations, and occasional published writings, one can discern a systematic, unified approach to the true, the good, and the beautiful. My goal here is to articulate explicitly this approach, and the philosophical program it reflects. The exercise requires going over big stretches of terrain with some efficiency; I will go just as deep into Brentano’s approaches to the true, the (...)
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  18. Brentano on Emotion and the Will.Michelle Montague - 2017 - In U. Kriegel (ed.), Routledge Handbook of Franz Brentano and the Brentano School. London and New York: Routledge. pp. 110-123.
    Franz Brentano’s theory of emotion is tightly bound up with many of his other central claims, in such a way that one has to work out how it relates to these other claims if one is to understand its distinctive character. There are two main axes of investigation. The first results from the fact that Brentano introduces his theory of emotion as part of his overall theory of mind, which consists of a number of closely interconnected theses concerning the nature (...)
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  19. De Brentano à Thémistius, et retour Éléments pour une «esthétique» aristotélicienne.Alain Petit - 2016 - Revue Philosophique De Louvain 114 (3):407-420.
    L’article revient, à la lumière de Brentano, sur l’«esthétique» d’Aristote. Si Aristote a insisté sur la manière dont la perception suppose la donation d’un perceptible existant à l’extérieur, il semble qu’il est aussi fait droit à ce qu’aurait de spécifique le percept, en tant qu’il constituerait un objet perçu interne à l’âme. Il faut dès lors revenir sur la passivité que constituerait la sensation, et insister sur l’activité perceptive de l’âme en tant qu’elle vise, déjà dans la sensation, un objet (...)
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  20. Sobre o caráter apriorístico do princípio ético.Franz Brentano - 2014 - Ethic@ - An International Journal for Moral Philosophy 13 (2).
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  21. Brentano at the Intersection of Psychology, Ontology, and the Good.Susan Gabriel - 2013 - In D. Fisette & G. Frechette (eds.), Themes from Brentano. Rodopi.
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  22. A Origem Do Conceito de "Bom" Em Brentano.Fernanda da Silva Rodrigues Pereira - 2013 - Prometeus: Filosofia em Revista 6 (11).
    Trata-se de mostrar como as noções de correção e incorreção dos sentimentos têm papel fundamental no modo como adquirimos o conceito de bom segundo a filosofia moral de Brentano. Com vistas a elucidar o sentimento como uma atitude emotiva que se modaliza na forma de amor ou ódio para com o objeto intencional, apresenta-se a classificação brentaniana dos fenômenos psíquicos em representação, juízo e sentimento. Mediante a tese da analogia entre juízo e sentimento, busca-se esclarecer que algo poderá ser considerado (...)
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  23. Brentano, Franz.Peter Simons - 2013 - In H. Lafollette (ed.), International Encyclopedia of Ethics. Wiley.
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  24. La ética de las emociones de Francisco Brentano.Ingrid Vendrell Ferran - 2012 - Anuario Filosófico 45 (1):145 - 173.
    En este artículo se analiza la teoría de las emociones de Brentano, según la cual éstas son actos intencionales basados en juicios y tienen un papel central en el reconocimiento del valor y en la motivación para la acción. Tras una exposición del panorama intelectual de las teorías de las emociones a finales del siglo XIX, sigue el análisis de la teoría de Brentano y de su proyecto ético, para terminar remarcando la influencia de su legado en los autores de (...)
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  25. An Image of a Higher World: Ethical Renewal in Franz Brentano and Edmund Husserl.Michael Gubser - 2011 - Santalka: Filosofija, Komunikacija 17 (3):39-49.
    Although interpreters have long recognized Franz Brentano’s powerful impact on his students, the career-long persistence of his hold on Edmund Husserl is still underestimated. Conventional narratives of Husserl’s development describe his mentor’s pervasive early impact followed by a sharp break from the master’s philosophy. My essay challenges this account by arguing that Husserl’s shift toward transcendental phenomenology within the domain of ethics marked a reappraisal – even a reinvigoration – of Brentanian premises, rather than an attempt to discard them.
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  26. Schriften Zur Ethik Und Ästhetik.Franz Brentano - 2010 - Ontos.
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  27. Un modele axiologique de l'intentionnalité?Samuel Le Quitte - 2010 - Bulletin d'Analyse Phénoménologique 6 (8):192-212.
    Introduction Nous aborderons ici le problème de l?intentionnalité des sentiments et du statut de leurs corrélats, les valeurs. La thèse « standard » en la matière, que l?on trouve aussi bien chez Brentano que chez Husserl, avec néanmoins des nuances significatives sur lesquelles nous aurons à revenir, veut que ces actes de l?affectivité s?édifient sur la base des représentations, considérées comme les conditions de l?apparaître en général. Pour Brentano, tout acte psychique est ou suppose une représentation comme rapport à un (...)
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  28. La ambivalente posición de Max Scheler ante la ética de Franz Brentano.Sergio Sánchez-migallón - 2010 - Tópicos: Revista de Filosofía 39:45-75.
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  29. Relations, Quasi-Assumptions and Material Aprioris: Reality and Values in Brentano, Meinong, Husserl.Beatrice Centi - 2009 - In Beatrice Centi & Huemer Wolfgang (eds.), Value and Ontology. Ontos. pp. 12-45.
  30. Relations, Quasi-Assumptions, and Material Aprioris: Reality and Values in Brentano, Meinong, Husserl.Beatrice Centi - 2009 - In B. Centi & W. Huemer (eds.), Value and Ontology. Ontos.
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  31. Brentano, Marty, and Meinong on Emotions and Values.Arkadiusz Chrudzimski - 2009 - In Beatrice Centi & Huemer Wolfgang (eds.), Value and Ontology. Ontos. pp. 12--171.
    At least since Hume we have a serious problem with explaining our moral valuations. Most of us – with notable exception of certain (in)famous esoteric thinkers like Nietzsche or De Sade – share a common intuition that our moral claims are in an important sense objective. We believe that they can be right or wrong; and we believe that if they happen to be right, then they are binding for each human being conducting a similar action in similar circumstances. Now (...)
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  32. Love and Hate: Brentano and Stumpf on Emotions and Sense Feelings.Denis Fisette - 2009 - Gestalt Theory 31 (2):115-128.
    Study of the controversy between Franz Brentano and his student Carl Stumpf on emotions and sense-feelings. The issue is whether the pleasure that provides an object such as a work of art is intentional, as it is the case in Brentano's theory in which it is closely related to the class of emotions (love and hate), or merely phenomenal as Stumpf wants it. The paper is divided into two parts : I first examine several aspects of the relationship between Stumpf (...)
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  33. Franz Brentano's Ethics of Social Renewal.Michael Gubser - 2009 - Philosophical Forum 40 (3):339-366.
  34. Experiencing Art: Austrian Aesthetics Between Psychology and Psychologism.Wolfgang Huemer - 2009 - In B. Centi & W. Huemer (eds.), Value and Ontology. Ontos. pp. 12--267.
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  35. The Wrong Kind of Solution to the Wrong Kind of Reason Problem.Jonas Olson - 2009 - Utilitas 21 (2):225-232.
    The so-called Wrong Kind of Reason (WKR) problem for Scanlon's account of value has been much discussed recently. In a recent issue of Utilitas Gerald Lang provides a highly useful critique of extant proposed solutions to the WKR problem and suggests a novel solution of his own. In this note I offer a critique of Lang's solution and respond to some criticisms Lang directs at a Brentano-style approach suggested by Sven Danielsson and me.
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  36. Fitting Attitude Analyses of Value and the Partiality Challenge.Jonas Olson - 2009 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 12 (4):365-378.
    According to ‘Fitting Attitude’ (FA) analyses of value, for an object to be valuable is for that object to have properties—other than its being valuable—that make it a fitting object of certain responses. In short, if an object is positively valuable it is fitting to favour it; if an object is negatively valuable it is fitting to disfavour it. There are several variants of FA analyses. Some hold that for an object to be valuable is for it to be such (...)
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  37. Value Facts and Value Experiences in Early Phenomenology.Maria E. Reicher - 2009 - In Beatrice Centi & Wolfgang Huemer (eds.), Values and Ontology. Frankfurt/Main: Ontos. pp. 105–135.
    The topic of this paper is the relationship between value facts (e.g., that this is good) and value experiences (e.g., appreciation). Its aim is, first, to give a concise account of the value theories of some important early phenomenologists (Franz Brentano, Christian von Ehrenfels, Alexius Meinong), second, to show that they raise questions and put forward arguments that are still worthy of note, and, third, to critically assess these arguments. Among others, the following questions are discussed: Can past and other (...)
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  38. Modernism and Brentano's conception of ethics.Miroslav Pauza - 2008 - Filosoficky Casopis 56 (3):363-371.
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  39. Modernismus a Brentanova Koncepce Etiky.Miroslav Pauza - 2008 - Filosoficky Casopis 56:363-371.
    [Modernism and Brentano’s conception of ethics].
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  40. Sur l’analogie entre théorie et pratique chez Brentano.Denis Seron - 2008 - Bulletin d'Analyse Phénoménologique 4 (3).
    Les pages qui suivent sont consacrées à un certain problème qui est au fondement de l’éthique de Franz Brentano. Je tâcherai de clarifier et de problématiser l’idée brentanienne d’une analogie entre logique et éthique, entre correction logique et justice éthique, entre l’existant et le bien. Après en avoir dégager la signification générale, j’en indiquerai les conséquences les plus importantes sur l’éthique brentanienne dans son ensemble. Une première conséquence, que je commenterai en détail, est l’« objectivisme » éthique de Brentano, dont (...)
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  41. Brentano and the Buck-Passers.Sven Danielsson & Jonas Olson - 2007 - Mind 116 (463):511 - 522.
    According to T. M. Scanlon's 'buck-passing' analysis of value, x is good means that x has properties that provide reasons to take up positive attitudes vis-à-vis x. Some authors have claimed that this idea can be traced back to Franz Brentano, who said in 1889 that the judgement that x is good is the judgement that a positive attitude to x is correct ('richtig'). The most discussed problem in the recent literature on buckpassing is known as the 'wrong kind of (...)
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  42. Naturalistic Explanations of Apodictic Moral Claims: Brentano’s Ethical Intuitionism and Nietzsche’s Naturalism. [REVIEW]Imtiaz Moosa - 2007 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 10 (2):159 - 182.
    In this article (1) I extract from Brentano’s works (three) formal arguments against “genealogical explanations” of ethical claims. Such explanation can also be designated as “naturalism” (not his appellation); (2) I counter these arguments, by showing how genealogical explanations of even apodictic moral claims are logically possible (albeit only if certain unlikely, stringent conditions are met); (3) I show how Nietzsche’s ethics meets these stringent conditions, but evolutionary ethics does not. My more general thesis is that naturalism and intuitionism in (...)
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  43. Naturalistic Explanations of Apodictic Moral Claims: Brentano’s Ethical Intuitionism and Nietzsche’s Naturalism.Imtiaz Moosa - 2007 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 10 (2):159-182.
    In this article (1) I extract from Brentano’s works (three) formal arguments against “genealogical explanations” of ethical claims. Such explanation can also be designated as “naturalism” (not his appellation); (2) I counter these arguments, by showing how genealogical explanations of even apodictic moral claims are logically possible (albeit only if certain unlikely, stringent conditions are met); (3) I show how Nietzsche’s ethics meets these stringent conditions, but evolutionary ethics does not. My more general thesis is that naturalism and intuitionism in (...)
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  44. Keynes and Ethics.Thomas Baldwin - 2006 - In R. E. Backhouse & B. W. Bateman (eds.), Cambridge Companion to Keynes. Cambridge University Press.
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  45. Brentano's Value Theory: Beauty, Goodness, and the Concept of Correct Emotion.Wilhelm Baumgartner & Lynn Pasquerella - 2004 - In Dale Jacquette (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Brentano. Cambridge University Press. pp. 220.
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  46. The Cambridge Companion to Brentano.Dale Jacquette (ed.) - 2004 - Cambridge University Press.
    Franz Brentano (1838-1917) led an intellectual revolution that sought to revitalize German-language philosophy and to reverse its post-Kantian direction. His philosophy laid the groundwork for philosophy of science as it came to fruition in the Vienna Circle, and for phenomenology in the work of such figures as his student Edmund Husserl. This volume brings together newly commissioned chapters on his important work in theory of judgement, the reform of syllogistic logic, theory of intentionality, empirical descriptive psychology and phenomenology, theory of (...)
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  47. Brentano and Husserl on the Phenomenon of Love.Noel Kavanagh - 2004 - Maynooth Philosophical Papers 2:98-107.
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  48. L'origine De La Connaissance Morale Suivi De La Doctrine Du Jugement Correct.Franz Brentano - 2003 - Gallimard.
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  49. Inseln des Unglücks“. Über das Schlechte in der Summation des Guten – Aristoteles-Brentano-Katkov.Klaus Hedwig - 2003 - Studia Phaenomenologica 3 (1):99-112.
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  50. „Inseln des Unglücks“: Über Das Schlechte in der Summation des Guten Aristoteles-Brentano-Katkov.Klaus Hedwig - 2003 - Studia Phaenomenologica 3 (1/2):99-114.
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