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  1. On Causal Otan.A. Laird - 1922 - Classical Quarterly 16 (1):37-43.
    In A.J.P. XXXIII., pp. 426–435, Mr. A. C. Pearson attempted to prove that Тαѵ ‘not infrequently bears a causal signification … and that in such cases the temporal meaning is more or less evanescent, and sometimes entirely disappears.’ The use of Тαѵ where the verb refers to future time is not discussed, the purpose being ‘to establish that the classification which sums up the other occurrences of the construction as necessarily expressing “indefinite frequency” is incomplete; and that a rigorous insistence (...)
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  2. God, Evil, and Occasionalism.Matthew Shea & C. P. Ragland - 2018 - Religious Studies 54 (2):265-283.
    In a recent paper, Alvin Plantinga defends occasionalism against an important moral objection: if God is the sole direct cause of all the suffering that results from immoral human choices, this causal role is difficult to reconcile with God’s perfect goodness. Plantinga argues that this problem is no worse for occasionalism than for any of the competing views of divine causality; in particular, there is no morally relevant difference between God directly causing suffering and God indirectly causing it. First, we (...)
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  3. Transitivity, Self-Explanation, and the Explanatory Circularity Argument Against Humean Accounts of Natural Law.Marc Lange - 2018 - Synthese 195 (3):1337-1353.
    Humean accounts of natural lawhood have often been criticized as unable to account for the laws’ characteristic explanatory power in science. Loewer has replied that these criticisms fail to distinguish grounding explanations from scientific explanations. Lange has replied by arguing that grounding explanations and scientific explanations are linked by a transitivity principle, which can be used to argue that Humean accounts of natural law violate the prohibition on self-explanation. Lange’s argument has been sharply criticized by Hicks and van Elswyk, Marshall, (...)
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  4. Asymmetry in the Unificationist Theory of Causal Explanation.Sansom Roger & Shields Jannai - 2018 - Synthese 195 (2):765-783.
    The unificationist theory of causal explanation offers a theory of causation and explanation with no causal primitives. Kitcher proposed that it offered an account of explanatory asymmetry, but his proposal has been criticized for being too dependent on contingent facts and surreptitiously supposing causal realism. In addition, critics have argued that unificationism cannot account for asymmetry in a world with symmetric laws of physics and is lead to accept backwards explanation in certain epistemic situations. Unificationism has been defended from some (...)
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  5. Essay Review: Rational Artistry, Styles of Scientific Thinking in the European Tradition: The History of Argument and Explanation Especially in the Mathematical and Biomedical Sciences and ArtsStyles of Scientific Thinking in the European Tradition: The History of Argument and Explanation Especially in the Mathematical and Biomedical Sciences and Arts. CrombieAlistair . Pp. Xxxii + 2456. £180.Rob Iliffe - 1998 - History of Science 36 (3):329-357.
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  6. Essay Review: Rational Artistry, Styles of Scientific Thinking in the European Tradition: The History of Argument and Explanation Especially in the Mathematical and Biomedical Sciences and ArtsStyles of Scientific Thinking in the European Tradition: The History of Argument and Explanation Especially in the Mathematical and Biomedical Sciences and Arts. CrombieAlistair . Pp. Xxxii + 2456. £180.Rob Iliffe - 1998 - History of Science 36 (3):329-357.
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  7. On Explanations From 'Geometry of Motion'.Juha Saatsi - 2018 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 69 (1):253–273.
    This paper examines explanations that turn on non-local geometrical facts about the space of possible configurations a system can occupy. I argue that it makes sense to contrast such explanations from ‘geometry of motion’ with causal explanations. I also explore how my analysis of these explanations cuts across the distinction between kinematics and dynamics.
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  8. Evidence Based on What?Rani Lill Anjum, Roger Kerry & Stephen D. Mumford - 2015 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 21 (6):E11-E12.
  9. Mechanistic and Topological Explanations in Medicine: The Case of Medical Genetics and Network Medicine.Marie Darrason - 2018 - Synthese 195 (1):147-173.
    Medical explanations have often been thought on the model of biological ones and are frequently defined as mechanistic explanations of a biological dysfunction. In this paper, I argue that topological explanations, which have been described in ecology or in cognitive sciences, can also be found in medicine and I discuss the relationships between mechanistic and topological explanations in medicine, through the example of network medicine and medical genetics. Network medicine is a recent discipline that relies on the analysis of various (...)
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  10. Mutual Manipulability and Causal Inbetweenness.Totte Harinen - 2018 - Synthese 195 (1):35-54.
    Carl Craver’s mutual manipulability criterion aims to pick out all and only those components of a mechanism that are constitutively relevant with respect to a given phenomenon. In devising his criterion, Craver has made heavy use of the notion of an ideal intervention, which is a tool for illuminating causal concepts in causal models. The problem is that typical mechanistic models contain non-causal relations in addition to causal ones, which is why the standard concept of an ideal intervention is not (...)
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  11. Making Mechanism Interesting.Alex Rosenberg - 2018 - Synthese 195 (1):11-33.
    I note the multitude of ways in which, beginning with the classic paper by Machamer et al., the mechanists have qualify their methodological dicta, and limit the vulnerability of their claims by strategic vagueness regarding their application. I go on to generalize a version of the mechanist requirement on explanations due to Craver and Kaplan :601–627, 2011) in cognitive and systems neuroscience so that it applies broadly across the life sciences in accordance with the view elaborated by Craver and Darden (...)
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  12. Ambiguity and Explanation.Jonathan L. Shaheen - 2017 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 60 (8):839-866.
    This paper presents evidence that ‘because’ is importantly ambiguous between two closely related senses covering what are usually called causal explanations, on the one hand, and grounding or metaphysical explanations, on the other hand. To this end, it introduces the lexical categories of monosemy, polysemy and homonymy; describes a test for polysemy; and discusses the results of the test when applied to ‘because’. It also shows how to understand so-called hybrid explanations in light of the semantic facts established by the (...)
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  13. Time, Persistence, and Causality: Towards a Dynamic View of Temporal Reality.Rognvaldur Ingthorsson - 2002 - Dissertation, Umeå University
    The thesis revolves around the following questions. What is time? Is time tensed or tenseless? Do things endure or perdure, i.e. do things persist by being wholly present at many times, or do they persist by having temporal parts? Do causes bring their effects into existence, or are they only correlated with each other? Within a realist approach to metaphysics, the author claims that the tensed view of time, the endurance view of persistence, and the production view of causality naturally (...)
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  14. A Note on Causation.George Paul - 1934 - Analysis 2 (1-2):18-20.
  15. Philip Kitcher – Pragmatic Naturalism.Marie Kaiser & Ansgar Seide (eds.) - 2013 - Frankfurt/Main, Germany: ontos.
    Philip Kitcher is one of the most distinguished philosophers of our days. Since the rise of philosophy of biology in the 1960s Kitcher has deeply influenced and inspired many of the debates in this field. Among his most important books are The Advancement of Science (1993), In Mendel’s Mirror: Philosophical Reflections on Biology (2003), and Science in a Democratic Society (2011). However, Kitcher’s philosophical interest is not restricted to the philosophy of science. Rather, he has also made groundbreaking contributions to (...)
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  16. When Do Scientific Explanations Compete? Steps Toward a Heuristic Checklist.Todd Jones & Michael Pravica - 2017 - Metaphilosophy 48 (1-2):96-122.
    It's not uncommon for scientists to give different explanations of the same phenomenon, but we currently lack clear guidelines for deciding whether to treat such accounts as competitors. This article discusses how science studies can help create tools and guidelines for thinking about whether explanations compete. It also specifies how one family of discourse rules enables there to be differing accounts that appear to compete but don't. One hopes that being more aware of the linguistic mechanisms making compatible accounts appear (...)
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  17. II—Mechanistic Explanation: Its Scope and Limits.James Woodward - 2013 - Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 87 (1):39-65.
    This paper explores the question of whether all or most explanations in biology are, or ideally should be, ‘mechanistic’. I begin by providing an account of mechanistic explanation, making use of the interventionist ideas about causation I have developed elsewhere. This account emphasizes the way in which mechanistic explanations, at least in the biological sciences, integrate difference‐making and spatio‐temporal information, and exhibit what I call fine‐tunedness of organization. I also emphasize the role played by modularity conditions in mechanistic explanation. I (...)
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  18. Evaluation and Explanation in the Biomedical Sciences. [REVIEW]M. H. S. - 1975 - Review of Metaphysics 29 (2):340-340.
    This is the inauguratory volume of a new series in philosophy and medicine. The papers are the proceedings of the first trans-disciplinary symposium on philosophy and medicine held at the University of Texas Medical Branch, 1974. These essays are uniformly good, and they provide a necessary starting point for anyone wishing to do serious reflection in this area. None make the exaggerated claim that there is a philosophy of medicine, but rather, they take the unique nature of medicine, as the (...)
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  19. Causation and Persistence: A Theory of Causation. [REVIEW]Raymond Martin - 1998 - International Philosophical Quarterly 38 (3):333-335.
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  20. On the Causal Explanation of Scientific Judgment.Barry Barnes - 1980 - Social Science Information 19 (4-5):685-695.
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  21. On Computational Explanations.Anna-Mari Rusanen & Otto Lappi - 2016 - Synthese 193 (12):3931-3949.
    Computational explanations focus on information processing required in specific cognitive capacities, such as perception, reasoning or decision-making. These explanations specify the nature of the information processing task, what information needs to be represented, and why it should be operated on in a particular manner. In this article, the focus is on three questions concerning the nature of computational explanations: What type of explanations they are, in what sense computational explanations are explanatory and to what extent they involve a special, “independent” (...)
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  22. An Abstract or a Causal System.Brigitta Lurger & Wolfgang Faber - 2009 - In Brigitta Lurger & Wolfgang Faber (eds.), Rules for the Transfer of Movables: A Candidate for European Harmonisation or National Reforms? Sellier de Gruyter.
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  23. Freudian Explanations, Rational Explanation, and Meaning.Gary Fuller - 1977 - Philosophy Research Archives 3:812-831.
    Can the explanations which Freud gives of neurotic symptoms be seen as fitting into the pattern of rational explanation? After some clarification of the notion of a rational explanation, I shall be examining what I take to be the only plausible ways of trying to construe Freudian explanations as explanations of this type--by treating Freudian cases first as analogous to ordinary cases of pretending, secondly, as analogous to cases of superstitious belief, and finally as analogous to cases involving acts of (...)
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  24. Diagnosis and Causal Explanation in Psychiatry.Hane Htut Maung - 2016 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 60:15-24.
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  25. Constraint‐Based Reasoning for Search and Explanation: Strategies for Understanding Variation and Patterns in Biology.Sara Green & Nicholaos Jones - 2016 - Dialectica 70 (3):343-374.
    Life scientists increasingly rely upon abstraction-based modeling and reasoning strategies for understanding biological phenomena. We introduce the notion of constraint-based reasoning as a fruitful tool for conceptualizing some of these developments. One important role of mathematical abstractions is to impose formal constraints on a search space for possible hypotheses and thereby guide the search for plausible causal models. Formal constraints are, however, not only tools for biological explanations but can be explanatory by virtue of clarifying general dependency-relations and patterning between (...)
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  26. Causal Mechanisms and the Philosophy of Causation.Ruth Groff - 2016 - Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 46 (3).
    Lack of clarity about underlying philosophical commitments leads to lack of clarity at other levels of analysis. Here I show that the literature on so-called “causal mechanisms” is rife with conceptual problems, stemming from insufficient rigor with respect to the metaphysics of causation.
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  27. Proclus and Plotinus on Self-Constitution in the One.Jonathan Greig - 2014 - Dissertation, University of Edinburgh
    In his commentary on Plato's Parmenides, Proclus critiques an unnamed predecessor for attributing self-constitution to the One, claiming that the notion necessitates duality in its subject. Proclus almost certainly has in mind Plotinus in Ennead VI.8.13-22, where the latter attributes self-causation and determination to the One. However in the latter context, Plotinus is rather attempting to show how the One's unity entails that it is the cause of such self-determinative activity manifested in Intellect (as in the earlier Enn. VI.8.1-7). One (...)
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  28. Scientific Explanation and the Causal Structure of the World.Ronald N. Giere - 1988 - Philosophical Review 97 (3):444.
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  29. Metaphysics and Explanation.Carl Ginet, W. H. Capitan & D. D. Merrill - 1971 - Philosophical Review 80 (4):525.
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  30. Evidence Based or Person Centered? An Ontological Debate.Rani Lill Anjum - 2016 - European Journal for Person Centered Healthcare 4 (2):421-429.
    Evidence based medicine (EBM) is under critical debate, and person centered healthcare (PCH) has been proposed as an improvement. But is PCH offered as a supplement or as a replacement of EBM? Prima facie PCH only concerns the practice of medicine, while the contended features of EBM also include methods and medical model. I here argue that there are good philosophical reasons to see PCH as a radical alternative to the existing medical paradigm of EBM, since the two seem committed (...)
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  31. Causation in International Relations: Reclaiming Causal Analysis.Milja Kurki - 2008 - Cambridge University Press.
    World political processes, such as wars and globalisation, are engendered by complex sets of causes and conditions. Although the idea of causation is fundamental to the field of International Relations, what the concept of cause means or entails has remained an unresolved and contested matter. In recent decades ferocious debates have surrounded the idea of causal analysis, some scholars even questioning the legitimacy of applying the notion of cause in the study of International Relations. This book suggests that underlying the (...)
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  32. On Behalf of a Mutable Future.Patrick Todd - 2016 - Synthese 193 (7):2077-2095.
    Everyone agrees that we can’t change the past. But what about the future? Though the thought that we can change the future is familiar from popular discourse, it enjoys virtually no support from philosophers, contemporary or otherwise. In this paper, I argue that the thesis that the future is mutable has far more going for it than anyone has yet realized. The view, I hope to show, gains support from the nature of prevention, can provide a new way of responding (...)
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  33. Token Causal Powers.Jeff Engelhardt - 2016 - Philosophical Papers 45 (1-2):159-180.
    This paper proposes that the relation between property instances and token causal powers is akin to the relation between primary substances and property instances on the Aristotelian account of property instantiation. This view permits an individual to have two tokens of the same type of causal power. Paul Audi has argued that this cannot be: two tokens of the same power type are discernible, he claims, only if they are borne by discernible individuals. In the context of this criticism, he (...)
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  34. The Foundations of Quantum Mechanics in the Philosophy of Nature.Grete Hermann & Dirk Lumma - 1999 - The Harvard Review of Philosophy 7 (1):35-44.
    The following article by Grete Hermann arguably occupies an important place in the history of the philosophical interpretation of of quantum mechanics. The purpose of Hermann's writing on natural philosophy is to examine the revision of the law of causality which quantum mechanics seems to require at a fundamental level of theoretical description in physics. It is Hermann's declared intention to show that quantum mechanics does not disprove the concept of causality, "yet has clarified [it] and has removed from it (...)
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  35. Governed as It Were by Chance.Susan Ruddick - 2016 - Philosophy Today 60 (1):89-105.
    In this paper I explore this question of the ways we might form enabling assemblages with non-human others, by returning to Spinoza’s theory of the composite individual. The challenge, as I see it, is less that of a need to move beyond a romanticized view of Nature as a harmonious whole, Nature as a perpetual threat, or Nature as motivated by a final cause. The problem that confronts us, rather, is a problem of composition—which Nature do we ally with, what (...)
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  36. The Nature of Causation: A Singularist Account.Michael Tooley - 1990 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 20 (sup1):271-322.
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  37. The Intransitivity of Causation Revealed in Equations and Graphs.Christopher Hitchcock - 2001 - Journal of Philosophy 98 (6):273.
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  38. Causal Models with Frequency Dependence.Ronald N. Giere - 1984 - Journal of Philosophy 81 (7):384.
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  39. Are Causal Laws Purely General?Peter Alexander & Peter Downing - 1970 - Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 44 (1):15-50.
    Peter Alexander: It is presumably admitted that laws, whether causal or not, are universal in form; they are appropriately stated in universal categoricals or unrestricted hypotheticals. I assume that this is not at issue in the question set. I take our question to be this: given that causal laws are universal statements, can they be said to be about, to apply to, to hold for, individual things? -/- Peter Downing: Mr. Alexander maintains that there are 'irreducibly singular' causal statements, and (...)
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  40. Finite Element Analysis of Type IV Cracking in 2.25Cr–1Mo Steel Weldment Based on Micro-Mechanistic Approach.Sunil Goyal, K. Laha, K. S. Chandravathi, P. Parameswaran & M. D. Mathew - 2011 - Philosophical Magazine 91 (23):3128-3154.
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  41. The Mechanisms of Irradiation Creep in Graphite.R. V. Hesketh - 1965 - Philosophical Magazine 11 (113):917-927.
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  42. III.—On Causal Explanation.T. Percy Nunn - 1906 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 7 (1):50-80.
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  43. A Technique to Generate Essential Qualitative Explanations of Derived Causal Relations Based on a Functional Model.Yaoyang Zheng & Akio Gofuku - 2005 - Transactions of the Japanese Society for Artificial Intelligence 20:356-369.
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  44. The Chances of Explanation: Causal Explanation in the Social, Medical, and Physical SciencesPaul Humphreys.E. J. Lowe - 1991 - Isis 82 (4):783-784.
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  45. Scientific Explanation and the Causal Structure of the World. Wesley C. Salmon.Mary Hesse - 1986 - Isis 77 (1):123-124.
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  46. Rival Principles of Causal Explanation in Psychology.H. M. Johnson - 1939 - Psychological Review 46 (6):493-516.
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  47. Organismic Vs. Mechanistic Logic.R. H. Wheeler - 1935 - Psychological Review 42 (4):335-353.
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  48. Explaining Mathematical Explanation.Sam Baron - 2016 - Philosophical Quarterly 66 (264):458-480.
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  49. Mechanisms and Difference-Making.Stefan Dragulinescu - 2016 - Acta Analytica 32 (1):29-54.
    I argue that difference-making should be a crucial element for evaluating the quality of evidence for mechanisms, especially with respect to the robustness of mechanisms, and that it should take central stage when it comes to the general role played by mechanisms in establishing causal claims in medicine. The difference-making of mechanisms should provide additional compelling reasons to accept the gist of Russo-Williamson thesis and include mechanisms in the protocols for Evidence-Based Medicine, as the EBM+ research group has been advocating.
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  50. Because Without Cause: Non-Causal Explanations in Science and Mathematics.Marc Lange - 2016 - Oxford University Press USA.
    Not all scientific explanations work by describing causal connections between events or the world's overall causal structure. In addition, mathematicians regard some proofs as explaining why the theorems being proved do in fact hold. This book proposes new philosophical accounts of many kinds of non-causal explanations in science and mathematics.
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