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  1. Bohr's Atomic Model and Paraconsistent Logic.Pandora Hadzidaki -
    Bohr’s atomic model is one of the better known examples of empirically successful, albeit inconsistent, theoretical schemes in the history of physics. For this reason, many philosophers use this model to illustrate their position for the occurrence and the function of inconsistency in science. In this paper, I proceed to a critical comparison of the structure and the aims of Bohr’s research program – the starting point of which was the formulation of his model – with some of its contemporary (...)
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  2. Glen E. Rodgers. Traveling with the Atom: A Scientific Guide to Europe and Beyond. 551 Pp., App., Indexes. Croydon: Royal Society of Chemistry, 2019. £29.99 (Paper); ISBN 9781788015288. E-Book Available. [REVIEW]Alan Rocke - 2021 - Isis 112 (1):175-176.
  3. The Chemical Philosophy of Robert Boyle: Mechanicism, Chymical Atoms, and Emergence.Marina P. Banchetti - 2020 - Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
    This book examines the way in which Robert Boyle seeks to accommodate his complex chemical philosophy within the framework of a mechanistic theory of matter. More specifically, the book proposes that Boyle regards chemical qualities as properties that emerged from the mechanistic structure of chymical atoms. Within Boyle’s chemical ontology, chymical atoms are structured concretions of particles that Boyle regards as chemically elementary entities, that is, as chemical wholes that resist experimental analysis. Although this interpretation of Boyle’s chemical philosophy has (...)
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  4. Jean Perrin and the Philosophers’ Stories: The Role of Multiple Determination in Determining Avogadro’s Number.Klodian Coko - 2020 - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science 10 (1):143-193.
    The French physicist Jean Baptiste Perrin is widely credited with providing the conclusive argument for atomism. The most well-known part of Perrin’s argument is his description of thirteen different procedures for determining Avogadro’s number (N)–the number of atoms, ions, and molecules contained in a gram-atom, gram-ion, and gram-mole of a substance, respectively. Because of its success in ending the atomism debates Perrin’s argument has been the focus of much philosophical interest. The various philosophers, however, have reached different conclusions, not only (...)
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  5. What Was Perrin Really Doing in His Proof of the Reality of Atoms?Robert Hudson - 2020 - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science 10 (1):194-218.
  6. Reflections on the Reception of Jean Perrin’s Experiments by His Contemporaries.Milena Ivanova - 2020 - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science 10 (1):219-224.
  7. Atomism in Quantum Mechanics and Information.Vasil Penchev - 2020 - Metaphysics eJournal (Elsevier: SSRN) 13 (12):1-11.
    The original conception of atomism suggests “atoms”, which cannot be divided more into composing parts. However, the name “atom” in physics is reserved for entities, which can be divided into electrons, protons, neutrons and other “elementary particles”, some of which are in turn compounded by other, “more elementary” ones. Instead of this, quantum mechanics is grounded on the actually indivisible quanta of action limited by the fundamental Planck constant. It resolves the problem of how both discrete and continuous (even smooth) (...)
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  8. Ficino, Lucretius and Atomism.Elena Nicoli - 2018 - Early Science and Medicine 23 (4):330-361.
    In this article, I retrace the genesis of Marsilio Ficino’s engagement with the Roman poet and philosopher Titus Lucretius Caro. I show that one of the reasons for Ficino’s early interest in and positive assessment of Lucretius’ philosophy was his favourable attitude toward atomistic notions in the early stages of his intellectual life. Having become acquainted with atomistic ideas through Platonic sources, the young Ficino initially considered atomism – and especially Lucretius’ version of it – perfectly compatible with his own (...)
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  9. Chemical Atomism: A Case Study in Confirmation and Ontology.Joshua D. K. Brown - 2015 - Synthese 192 (2):453-485.
    Quine, taking the molecular constitution of matter as a paradigmatic example, offers an account of the relation between theory confirmation and ontology. Elsewhere, he deploys a similar ontological methodology to argue for the existence of mathematical objects. Penelope Maddy considers the atomic/molecular theory in more historical detail. She argues that the actual ontological practices of science display a positivistic demand for “direct observation,” and that fulfillment of this demand allows us to distinguish molecules and other physical objects from mathematical abstracta. (...)
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  10. From Corpuscles to Elements: Chemical Ontologies From Van Helmont to Lavoisier.Marina Paola Banchetti-Robino - 2014 - In Lee McIntyre & Eric Scerri (eds.), Philosophy of Chemistry: Growth of a New Discipline. Springer. pp. 141-154.
  11. The Relevance of Boyle's Chemical Philosophy for Contemporary Philosophy of Chemistry.Marina Paola Banchetti-Robino - 2013 - In Jean-Pierre Llored (ed.), The Philosophy of Chemistry: Practices, Methodologies, and Concepts.
  12. Seeing Things: The Philosophy of Reliable Observation.Robert Hudson - 2013 - Oxford University Press.
    In Seeing Things, Robert Hudson assesses a common way of arguing about observation reports called "robustness reasoning." Robustness reasoning claims that an observation report is more likely to be true if the report is produced by multiple, independent sources. Seeing Things argues that robustness reasoning lacks the special value it is often claimed to have. Hudson exposes key flaws in various popular philosophical defenses of robustness reasoning. This philosophical critique of robustness is extended by recounting five episodes in the history (...)
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  13. Sobre as Relações Históricas Entre a Física E a Metafísica Na Obra de Pierre Duhem.Fábio Rodrigo Leite - 2013 - Scientiae Studia 11 (2):305-331.
  14. The Scientist's Atom and the Philosopher's Stone: How Science Succeeded and Philosophy Failed to Gain Knowledge of Atoms. [REVIEW]Victor Boantza - 2012 - Isis 103:217-218.
  15. A Visual History of Jean Perrin's Brownian Motion Curves.Charlotte Bigg - 2011 - In Lorraine Daston & Elizabeth Lunbeck (eds.), Histories of Scientific Observation. University of Chicago Press.
  16. David E. Fisher: Much Ado About (Practically) Nothing. A History of the Noble Gases. [REVIEW]Sandra D. Hojniak - 2011 - Foundations of Chemistry 13 (2):167-169.
    David E. Fisher: Much Ado about (Practically) Nothing. A History of the Noble Gases Content Type Journal Article Pages 1-3 DOI 10.1007/s10698-011-9114-0 Authors Sandra D. Hojniak, Department of Chemistry, Laboratory of Coordination Chemistry, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200F, 3001 Leuven, Belgium Journal Foundations of Chemistry Online ISSN 1572-8463 Print ISSN 1386-4238.
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  17. The Isomorphism of Space, Time and Matter in Seventeenth-Century Natural Philosophy.Carla Rita Palmerino - 2011 - Early Science and Medicine 16 (4):296-330.
    This article documents the general tendency of seventeenth-century natural philosophers, irrespective of whether they were atomists or anti-atomists, to regard space, time and matter as magnitudes having the same internal composition. It examines the way in which authors such as Fromondus, Basson, Sennert, Arriaga, Galileo, Magnen, Descartes, Gassendi, Charleton as well as the young Newton motivated their belief in the isomorphism of space, time and matter, and how this belief reflected on their views concerning the relation between geometry and physics. (...)
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  18. Making Contact with Molecules: On Perrin and Achinstein.Stathis Psillos - 2011 - In Gregory J. Morgan (ed.), Philosophy of Science Matters: The Philosophy of Peter Achinstein. Oxford University Press. pp. 177.
  19. Dalton’s Chemical Atoms Versus Duhem’s Chemical Equivalents.Karen R. Zwier - 2011 - Philosophy of Science 78 (5):842-853.
    Paul Needham has claimed in several recent papers that Dalton’s chemical atomism was not explanatory. I respond to his criticism of Dalton by arguing that explanation admits of degrees and that under a view that allows for a spectrum of explanatory value, it is possible to see ample worth in Dalton’s atomistic explanations. Furthermore, I argue that even Duhem, who rejected atomism, acknowledged the explanatory worth of Dalton’s atomism.
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  20. John Dalton’s Puzzles: From Meteorology to Chemistry.Karen R. Zwier - 2011 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 42 (1):58-66.
    Historical research on John Dalton has been dominated by an attempt to reconstruct the origins of his so-called "chemical atomic theory". I show that Dalton's theory is difficult to define in any concise manner, and that there has been no consensus as to its unique content among his contemporaries, later chemists, and modern historians. I propose an approach which, instead of attempting to work backward from Dalton's theory, works forward, by identifying the research questions that Dalton posed to himself and (...)
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  21. What to Do If You Want to Defend a Theory You Cannot Prove: A Method of "Physical Speculation".Peter Achinstein - 2010 - Journal of Philosophy 107 (1):35-56.
  22. Les Atomes: A Landmark Book in Chemistry. [REVIEW]Gary D. Patterson - 2010 - Foundations of Chemistry 12 (3):223-233.
    There have been occasions when the publication of a particular book has had a singular impact on the conceptual world of the chemist. Sometimes the publication occurs near the beginning of a major change in discourse, and sometimes more near the end. Jean Perrin published Les Atomes in 1913 as the culmination of a century-long controversy over the size and physical reality of atoms and molecules. After its publication almost all chemists and physicists agreed that atoms and molecules of the (...)
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  23. Editorial 34.Eric R. Scerri - 2010 - Foundations of Chemistry 12 (1):1-3.
  24. The Significance of "Chymical Atomism".William Newman - 2009 - Early Science and Medicine 14 (1-3):248-264.
    The historical treatment of atomism and the mechanical philosophy largely neglects what I call "chymical atomism," namely a type of pre-Daltonian corpuscular matter theory that postulated particles of matter which were operationally indivisible. From the Middle Ages onwards, alchemists influenced by Aristotle's Meteorology, De caelo, and De generatione et corruptione argued for the existence of robust corpuscles of matter that resisted analysis by laboratory means. As I argue in the present paper, this alchemical tradition entered the works of Daniel Sennert (...)
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  25. Evident Atoms: Visuality in Jean Perrin’s Brownian Motion Research.Charlotte Bigg - 2008 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 39 (3):312-322.
    The issue of shifting scales between the microscopic and the macroscopic dimensions is a recurrent one in the history of science, and in particular the history of microscopy. But it took on new dimensions in the context of early twentieth-century microscophysics, with the progressive realisation that the physical laws governing the macroscopic world were not always adequate for describing the sub-microscopic one. The paper focuses on the researches of Jean Perrin in the 1900s, in particular his use of Brownian motion (...)
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  26. Atom and Aether in Nineteenth-Century Physical Science.Alan F. Chalmers - 2008 - Foundations of Chemistry 10 (3):157-166.
    This paper suggests that the cases made for atoms and the aether in nineteenth-century physical science were analogous, with the implication that the case for the atom was less than compelling, since there is no aether. It is argued that atoms did not play a productive role in nineteenth-century chemistry any more than the aether did in physics. Atoms and molecules did eventually find an indispensable home in chemistry but by the time that they did so they were different kinds (...)
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  27. Pierre Gassendi’s Philosophy and Science: Atomism for Empiricists. [REVIEW]Teresa Castelão‐Lawless - 2007 - Isis 98:385-386.
  28. Atomismus.Monte Johnson - 2005 - In Jaeger Friedrich (ed.), Enzyklopädie der Neuzeit: Band 1 Abendland–Beleuchtung. Stuttgart: J.N.B. Metzler. pp. 783-789.
    Encyclopedia article briefly summarizing the history of atomism from antiquity to modernity.
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  29. Chemical Kinds and Essences Revisited.Rom Harré - 2004 - Foundations of Chemistry 7 (1):7-30.
    The philosophical problem of the utility andmeaning of essences for chemistry cannot beresolved by Wittgenstein's principle thatessence cannot explain use, because use isdisplayed in a field of family resemblances.The transition of chemical taxonomy fromvernacular and mystical based terms to theorybased terms stabilized as a unified descriptivetaxonomy, removes chemical discourse from itsconnection with the vernacular. The transitioncan be tracked using the Lockean concepts ofreal and nominal essences, and the changingpriorities between them. Analyzing propertiesdispositionally, initiating a search forgroundings strengthens the case for (...)
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  30. Language of Chemistry: from the Formal Structures to the Experimental Facts لغة الكيمياء: من البني الصورية إلى الوقائع التجريبية.Salah Osman - 2004 - In Towards a Philosophy of the Chemistry نحو فلسفة للكيمياء. Alexandria, Egypt: Al Maaref Establishment Press. pp. 92 - 113.
    الكيمياء علمٌ تجريبي بطبيعته، يشتغل معمليًا بالجواهر تحليلاً وتركيبًا، ويُقيم بناءاته النسقية استرشادًا بقواعد محددة تحكم إجراءات البحث التجريبي ونتائجه. وكشأن أي نشاط علمي آخر، تستلزم الممارسة الكيميائية لغة جزئية خاصة تصف بناءاتها التجريبية وتُنمّط أشكالها. وما دام التحليل والتركيب – كإجراءين تجريبيين – هما عمادا البحث الكيميائي وجوهره، فمن الضروري أن تحوي لغة الكيمياء تمثيلات صورية توصف بدورها بأنها صيغٌ أو عبارات تحليلية وتركيبية. يمكننا إذن الزعم بأن ثمة علاقة اعتماد متبادلة بين لغة الكيمياء وممارساتها المعملية؛ فاللغة تؤثر مباشرة (...)
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  31. The Atom in the Chemistry Curriculum: Fundamental Concept, Teaching Model or Epistemological Obstacle?Keith S. Taber - 2003 - Foundations of Chemistry 5 (1):43-84.
    Research into learners' ideas aboutscience suggests that school and collegestudents often hold alternative conceptionsabout `the atom'. This paper discusses whylearners acquire ideas about atoms which areincompatible with the modern scientificunderstanding. It is suggested that learners'alternative ideas derive – at least in part –from the way ideas about atoms are presented inthe school and college curriculum. Inparticular, it is argued that the atomicconcept met in science education is anincoherent hybrid of historical models, andthat this explains why learners commonlyattribute to atoms properties (...)
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  32. Ludwig Boltzmann—The Man Who Trusted Atoms.N. de Courtenay - 2002 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 33 (1):125-128.
  33. Duhem’s Theory of Mixture in the Light of the Stoic Challenge to the Aristotelian Conception.Paul Needham - 2002 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 33 (4):685-708.
    The bulk of Duhem's writing which bears on the understanding of mixtures suggests he adopted an Aristotelian position which he opposed only to the atomic view. A third view from antiquity-that of the Stoics-seems not to be taken into account. But his lines of thought are not always as explicit as could be wished. The Stoic view is considered here from a perspective which Duhem might well have adopted. This provides a background against which his somewhat unorthodox Aristotelianism might be (...)
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  34. Elements, Principles, and Corpuscles: A Study of Atomism and Chemistry in the Seventeenth Century. [REVIEW]Jole Shackelford - 2002 - Isis 93:117-118.
    This book addresses two related generalizations that persist in the history of seventeenth‐century chemistry, both of which are crucial to the canonical narrative of the scientific revolution. The first is that the experimental program of Robert Boyle led him to abandon the Aristotelian and Paracelsian chemical theories of his predecessors and adopt a reductionist, materialist matter theory from the French mechanical philosophers Pierre Gassendi and René Descartes, forever changing the nature of chemical theory and paving the way for the modernization (...)
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  35. Atomic Notation and Atomistic Hypotheses Translated by Paul Needham.Paul Needham - 2000 - Foundations of Chemistry 2 (2):127-180.
    This article was first published as “Notation atomique et hypothèses atomistiques”, Revue des questions scientifiques, 31 (1892), 391– 457. It is the second of a series of articles Duhem was to publish in the Catholic journal Revue des questions scientifiques, in which he presents his understanding of what can justifiably be said about the structure of chemical substances as captured by chemical formulas. The argument unfolds following a broadly historical development of events throughout the course of the century which was (...)
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  36. The Atom in the History of Human Thought by Bernard Pullman.Morton F. Arnsdorf - 1999 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 42 (3):442-444.
  37. 25 Centuries of Atoms and Void. Pullman, Bernard, the Atom in the History of Human Thought, Translated by Axel R. Reisinger.William R. Everdell - 1999 - Foundations of Chemistry 1 (3):305-309.
  38. The Atom in the History of Human Thought by Bernard Pullman; Axel Reisinger. [REVIEW]Arthur Greenberg - 1999 - Isis 90:575-576.
  39. Duhem's Physicalism.Paul Needham - 1998 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 29 (1):33-62.
    Duhem is often described as an anti-realist or instrumentalist. A contrary view has recently been expressed by Martin (1991) (Pierre Duhem: Philosophy and History in the Work of a Believing Physicist (La Salle, IL: Open Court)), who suggests that this interpretation makes it difficult to understand the vantage point from which Duhem argues in La science allemande (1915) that deduction, however impeccable, cannot establish truths unless it begins with truths. In the same spirit, the present paper seeks to establish that (...)
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  40. Quantitative Parsimony.Daniel Nolan - 1997 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 48 (3):329-343.
    In this paper, I motivate the view that quantitative parsimony is a theoretical virtue: that is, we should be concerned not only to minimize the number of kinds of entities postulated by our theories (i. e. maximize qualitative parsimony), but we should also minimize the number of entities postulated which fall under those kinds. In order to motivate this view, I consider two cases from the history of science: the postulation of the neutrino and the proposal of Avogadro's hypothesis. I (...)
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  41. Macroscopic Objects: An Exercise in Duhemian Ontology.Paul Needham - 1996 - Philosophy of Science 63 (2):205-224.
    Aristotelian ideas are presented in a favorable light in Duhem's historical works surveying the history of the notion of chemical combination (1902) and the development of mechanics (1903). The importance Duhem was later to ascribe to Aristotelian ideas as reflected in the weight he attached to medieval science is well known. But the Aristotelian influence on his own mature philosophical perspective, and more particularly on his concern for logical coherence and the development of his ontological views, is not generally acknowledged. (...)
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  42. Philosophy and the Kinetic Theory of Gases.Henk W. De Regt - 1996 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 47 (1):31 - 62.
    This article examines the role of philosophy in the development of the kinetic theory of gases. Two opposing accounts of this role, by Peter Clark and John Nyhof, are discussed and criticized. Contrary to both accounts, it is argued that philosophical views of scientists can fundamentally influence the results of their scientific work. This claim is supported by a detailed analysis of the philosophical views of Maxwell and Boltzmann, and of their work on the kinetic theory, especially concerning the so-called (...)
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  43. Reviews : Lynn Sumida Joy, Gassendi the Atomist: Advocate of History in an Age of Science, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987, £27.50, Xiii + 331 Pp. [REVIEW]Dalia Judovitz - 1991 - History of the Human Sciences 4 (1):131-133.
  44. Physical and Metaphysical Atomism: 1666-1682 in An Intimate Relation. Studies in the History and Philosophy of Science.Tm Lennon - 1989 - Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science 116:81-95.
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  45. Early Seventeenth-Century Atomism: Theory, Epistemology, and the Insufficiency of Experiment.Christoph Meinel - 1988 - Isis 79:68-103.
  46. Philosophical Objections to the Kinetic Theory.John Nyhof - 1988 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 39 (1):81-109.
    Towards the end of the 19th century there were those who wished to see the kinetic theory abandoned. This paper attempts to show that this reaction was primarily due to philosophical objections rather than the result of scientific difficulties encountered by the kinetic theory. First the relevant philosophical background is examined as well as the relation between the kinetic theory and thermodynamics. Next the scientific difficulty known as the specific heats ratio anomaly is discussed and finally Boltzmann's philosophy of science (...)
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  47. The Infancy of Atomic Physics: Hercules in His Cradle by Alex Keller; The Question of the Atom From the Karlsruhe Congress to the First Solvay Conference, 1860-1911 by Mary Jo Nye. [REVIEW]Laurie Brown & Robert Michaelson - 1985 - Isis 76:102-104.
  48. Chemical Atomism in the Nineteenth Century by Alan J. Rocke. [REVIEW]David Knight - 1985 - Isis 76:129-130.
  49. Arrhenius, the Atomic Hypothesis, and the 1908 Nobel Prizes in Physics and Chemistry.Elisabeth Crawford - 1984 - Isis 75:503-522.
  50. The Reception of Chemical Atomism in Germany.Alan Rocke - 1979 - Isis 70:519-536.
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