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  1. On the Non-Existence of Parallel Universes in Chemistry.Richard Bader - 2011 - Foundations of Chemistry 13 (1):11-37.
    This treatise presents thoughts on the divide that exists in chemistry between those who seek their understanding within a universe wherein the laws of physics apply and those who prefer alternative universes wherein the laws are suspended or ‘bent’ to suit preconceived ideas. The former approach is embodied in the quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM), a theory based upon the properties of a system’s observable distribution of charge. Science is experimental observation followed by appeal to theory that, upon (...)
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  2. Molecules with Very Weak Bonds: The Edge of Covalency.Jerome A. Berson - 2008 - Philosophy of Science 75 (5):947-957.
    Because most chemical reactions, by definition, cannot avoid breaking of bonds, weakly bonded species exist fleetingly in almost every chemical change. Historically, chemical quantum mechanics was aimed at explaining the nature of strong bonds. The theory involved a number of approximations to the full solution of the Schrödinger equation. The study of non‐Kekulé molecules provides an opportunity to test whether modern quantum chemical computations are competent to deal with the nature of molecules with very weak bonds. †To contact the author, (...)
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  3. Ronald J. Gillespie and Paul L. A. Popelier: Chemical Bonding and Molecular Geometry: From Lewis to Electron Densities. [REVIEW]John E. Bloor - 2002 - Foundations of Chemistry 4 (3):241-247.
  4. Pauling's Defence of Bent-Equivalent Bonds: A View of Evolving Explanatory Demands in Modern Chemistry.Julia R. Bursten - 2012 - Annals of Science 69 (1):69-90.
    Summary Linus Pauling played a key role in creating valence-bond theory, one of two competing theories of the chemical bond that appeared in the first half of the 20th century. While the chemical community preferred his theory over molecular-orbital theory for a number of years, valence-bond theory began to fall into disuse during the 1950s. This shift in the chemical community's perception of Pauling's theory motivated Pauling to defend the theory, and he did so in a peculiar way. Rather than (...)
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  5. Atoms and Bonds in Molecules and Chemical Explanations.Mauro Causá, Andreas Savin & Bernard Silvi - 2014 - Foundations of Chemistry 16 (1):3-26.
    The concepts of atoms and bonds in molecules which appeared in chemistry during the nineteenth century are unavoidable to explain the structure and the reactivity of the matter at a chemical level of understanding. Although they can be criticized from a strict reductionist point of view, because neither atoms nor bonds are observable in the sense of quantum mechanics, the topological and statistical interpretative approaches of quantum chemistry (quantum theory of atoms in molecules, electron localization function and maximum probability domain) (...)
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  6. Quantum Mechanics and Molecular Design in the Twenty First Century.Mark Eberhart - 2002 - Foundations of Chemistry 4 (3):201-211.
    It is argued that the conventional descriptions of chemical bonds as covalent, ionic, metallic, and Van der Waals are compromising the usefulness of quantum mechanics in the synthesis and design of new molecules and materials. Parallels are drawn between the state of chemistry now and when the idea that phlogiston was an element impeded the development of chemistry. Overcoming the current obstacles will require new methods to describe molecular structure and bonding, just as new concepts were needed before the phlogiston (...)
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  7. Comments on Bond's Article.Alan Gewirth - 1980 - Metaphilosophy 11 (1):54–69.
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  8. Chemical Reductionism Revisited: Lewis, Pauling and the Physico-Chemical Nature of the Chemical Bond.Martha L. Harris - 2008 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 39 (1):78-90.
    The wave-mechanical treatment of the valence bond, by Walter Heitler and Fritz London, and its ensuing foundational importance in quantum chemistry has been traditionally regarded as the basis for the argument that chemistry may be theoretically reduced to physics. Modern analyses of the reductionist claim focuses on the limitations to achieving full reduction in practice because of the approximations used in modern quantum chemical methods, but neglect the historical importance of the chemical bond as a chemical entity. This paper re-examines (...)
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  9. Heisenberg's Chemical Legacy: Resonance and the Chemical Bond. [REVIEW]Eamonn Healy - 2011 - Foundations of Chemistry 13 (1):39-49.
    Heisenberg’s explanation of how two coupled oscillators exchange energy represented a dramatic success for his new matrix mechanics. As matrix mechanics transmuted into wave mechanics, resulting in what Heisenberg himself described as …an extraordinary broadening and enrichment of the formalism of the quantum theory , the term resonance also experienced a corresponding evolution. Heitler and London’s seminal application of wave mechanics to explain the quantum origins of the covalent bond, combined with Pauling’s characterization of the effect, introduced resonance into the (...)
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  10. Two Conceptions of the Chemical Bond.Robin Findlay Hendry - 2008 - Philosophy of Science 75 (5):909-920.
    In this article I sketch G. N. Lewis’s views on chemical bonding and Linus Pauling’s attempt to preserve Lewis’s insights within a quantum‐mechanical theory of the bond. I then set out two broad conceptions of the chemical bond, the structural and the energetic views, which differ on the extent in which they preserve anything like the classical chemical bond in the modern quantum‐mechanical understanding of molecular structure. †To contact the author, please write to: Department of Philosophy, Durham University, 50 Old (...)
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  11. A Note on Michael Weisberg's: Challenges to the Structural Conception of Chemical Bonding. [REVIEW]Hinne Hettema - 2008 - Foundations of Chemistry 10 (2):135-142.
  12. Fitting Geomagnetic Fields Before the Invention of Least Squares: I. Henry Bond's Predictions of the Change in Magnetic Declination in London. [REVIEW]Richard J. Howarth - 2002 - Annals of Science 59 (4):391-408.
    The London mathematical practitioner Henry Bond correctly forecast in The Sea-Mans Kalendar for 1636 [?1638] that the then easterly magnetic declination in London would become zero in 1657 and would then increase westerly for 'at least 30 years'. In 1668, he published a table of predicted changes in annual declination for the years 1668-1716. Despite a detailed examination of his later claim to be able to determine longitude using a dip needle, the basis for his earlier forecasts was not examined (...)
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  13. The Bond of Being.Journet Kahn - 1951 - New Scholasticism 25 (3):340-342.
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  14. The Bond of Being.Lottie H. Kendzierski - 1950 - Thought: A Journal of Philosophy 25 (1):157-158.
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  15. Book Review:The Nature of the Chemical Bond Linus Pauling. [REVIEW]William Marias Malisoff - 1941 - Philosophy of Science 8 (1):133-.
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  16. Entropic Concepts in Electronic Structure Theory.Roman F. Nalewajski - 2014 - Foundations of Chemistry 16 (1):27-62.
    It is argued that some elusive “entropic” characteristics of chemical bonds, e.g., bond multiplicities (orders), which connect the bonded atoms in molecules, can be probed using quantities and techniques of Information Theory (IT). This complementary perspective increases our insight and understanding of the molecular electronic structure. The specific IT tools for detecting effects of chemical bonds and predicting their entropic multiplicities in molecules are summarized. Alternative information densities, including measures of the local entropy deficiency or its displacement relative to the (...)
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  17. The Source of Chemical Bonding.Paul Needham - 2014 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 45 (1):1-13.
    Developments in the application of quantum mechanics to the understanding of the chemical bond are traced with a view to examining the evolving conception of the covalent bond. Beginning with the first quantum mechanical resolution of the apparent paradox in Lewis’s conception of a shared electron pair bond by Heitler and London, the ensuing account takes up the challenge molecular orbital theory seemed to pose to the classical conception of the bond. We will see that the threat of delocalisation can (...)
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  18. What Does Hydrogen Bonding Say About the Nature of the Chemical Bond?Paul Needham - 2013 - In Vassilios Karakostas & Dennis Dieks (eds.), Epsa11 Perspectives and Foundational Problems in Philosophy of Science. Springer. pp. 321--330.
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  19. A Modern Version of Lewis’s Theory of Valency.Peter G. Nelson - 2015 - Foundations of Chemistry 17 (2):153-162.
    A modern version of Lewis’s theory of valency is presented. This takes account of the results of quantum–mechanical calculations on molecules. Topics covered are polar covalent bonds, hypervalency, coordinate bonds, nonintegral bonds, oxo-anions, variable valency among transition elements, and nonclassical compounds. A distinction is drawn between the valence shell of an atom and the Lewis shell. The concept of a fractional bond pair is presented.
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  20. Letter to the Editor: The Concept of Chemical Bond – Some Like It Fuzzy but Others Concrete.Shant Shahbazian & Mansour Zahedi - 2007 - Foundations of Chemistry 9 (1):85-95.
  21. Theories of the Chemical Bond and its True Nature.G. K. Vemulapalli - 2008 - Foundations of Chemistry 10 (3):167-176.
    Two different models for chemical bond were developed almost simultaneously after the Schrödinger formulation of quantum theory. These are known as the valence bond (VB) and molecular orbital (MO) theories. Initially chemists preferred the VB theory and ignored the MO theory. Now the VB theory is almost dropped out of currency. The context of discovery and Linus Pauling’s overpowering influence gave the VB theory its initial advantage. The current universal acceptance of the MO theory is due to its ability to (...)
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  22. Challenges to the Structural Conception of Chemical Bonding.Michael Weisberg - 2008 - Philosophy of Science 75 (5):932-946.
    The covalent bond, a difficult concept to define precisely, plays a central role in chemical predictions, interventions, and explanations. I investigate the structural conception of the covalent bond, which says that bonding is a directional, submolecular region of electron density, located between individual atomic centers and responsible for holding the atoms together. Several approaches to constructing molecular models are considered in order to determine which features of the structural conception of bonding, if any, are robust across these models. Key components (...)
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  23. Putting Quantum Mechanics to Work in Chemistry: The Power of Diagrammatic Representation.Andrea I. Woody - 2000 - Philosophy of Science 67 (3):627.
    Most contemporary chemists consider quantum mechanics to be the foundational theory of their discipline, although few of the calculations that a strict reduction would seem to require have ever been produced. In this essay I discuss contemporary algebraic and diagrammatic representations of molecular systems derived from quantum mechanical models, specifically configuration interaction wavefunctions for ab initio calculations and molecular orbital energy diagrams. My aim is to suggest that recent dissatisfaction with reductive accounts of chemical theory may stem from both the (...)
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