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  1. What Can the Discovery of Boron Tell Us About the Scientific Realism Debate?Jonathon Hricko - forthcoming - In Timothy D. Lyons & Peter Vickers (eds.), Contemporary Scientific Realism: The Challenge from the History of Science. New York, USA: Oxford University Press.
    This chapter examines the work in chemistry that led to the discovery of boron and explores the implications of this episode for the scientific realism debate. This episode begins with Lavoisier’s oxygen theory of acidity and his prediction that boracic acid contains oxygen and a hypothetical, combustible substance that he called the boracic radical. And it culminates in the work of Davy, Gay-Lussac, and Thénard, who used potassium to extract oxygen from boracic acid and thereby discovered boron. This episode constitutes (...)
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  2. Theodore Richards and the Discovery of Isotopes.K. Brad Wray - forthcoming - Foundations of Chemistry.
    I challenge Gareth Eaton’s recent claim that Theodore Richards should be counted among the discoverers of isotopes. In evaluating Eaton’s claim, I draw on two influential theories of scientific discovery, one developed by Thomas Kuhn, and one developed by Augustine Brannigan. I argue that though Richards’ experimental work contributed to the discovery, his work does not warrant attributing the discovery to him. Richards’ reluctance to acknowledge isotopes is well documented. Further, the fact that he made no claim to having made (...)
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  3. What Happened When Chemists Came to Classify Elements by Their Atomic Number?K. Brad Wray - forthcoming - Foundations of Chemistry:1-10.
    I respond to Scerri’s recent reply to my claim that there was a scientific revolution in chemistry in the early twentieth Century. I grant, as Scerri insists, that there are significant continuities through the change about which we are arguing. That is so in all scientific revolutions. But I argue that the changes were such that they constitute a Kuhnian revolution, not in the classic sense of The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, but in the sense of Kuhn’s mature theory, developed (...)
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  4. The generalization of the Periodic table. The "Periodic table" of dark matter.Vasil Penchev - 2021 - Computational and Theoretical Chemistry eJournal (Elsevier: SSRN) 4 (4):1-12.
    The thesis is: the “periodic table” of “dark matter” is equivalent to the standard periodic table of the visible matter being entangled. Thus, it is to consist of all possible entangled states of the atoms of chemical elements as quantum systems. In other words, an atom of any chemical element and as a quantum system, i.e. as a wave function, should be represented as a non-orthogonal in general (i.e. entangled) subspace of the separable complex Hilbert space relevant to the system (...)
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  5. Enzyme Classification and the Entanglement of Values and Epistemic Standards.Stijn Conix - 2020 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 84:37-45.
    This paper investigates the case of enzyme classification to evaluate different ideals for regulating values in science. I show that epistemic and non-epistemic considerations are inevitably and untraceably entangled in enzyme classification, and argue that this has significant implications for the two main kinds of views on values in science, namely, Epistemic Priority Views and Joint Satisfaction Views. More precisely, I argue that the case of enzyme classification poses a problem for the usability and descriptive accuracy of these two views. (...)
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  6. Problem of the Direct Quantum-Information Transformation of Chemical Substance.Vasil Penchev - 2020 - Computational and Theoretical Chemistry eJournal (Elsevier: SSRN) 3 (26):1-15.
    Arthur Clark and Michael Kube–McDowell (“The Triger”, 2000) suggested the sci-fi idea about the direct transformation from a chemical substance to another by the action of a newly physical, “Trigger” field. Karl Brohier, a Nobel Prize winner, who is a dramatic persona in the novel, elaborates a new theory, re-reading and re-writing Pauling’s “The Nature of the Chemical Bond”; according to Brohier: “Information organizes and differentiates energy. It regularizes and stabilizes matter. Information propagates through matter-energy and mediates the interactions of (...)
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  7. Particular Symmetries: Group Theory of the Periodic System.Pieter Thyssen & Arnout Ceulemans - 2020 - Substantia 4 (1):7-22.
    To this day, a hundred and fifty years after Mendeleev's discovery, the overal structure of the periodic system remains unaccounted for in quantum-mechanical terms. Given this dire situation, a handful of scientists in the 1970s embarked on a quest for the symmetries that lie hidden in the periodic table. Their goal was to explain the table's structure in group-theoretical terms. We argue that this symmetry program required an important paradigm shift in the understanding of the nature of chemical elements. The (...)
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  8. Reporting the discovery of new chemical elements: working in different worlds, only 25 years apart.K. Brad Wray & Line Edslev Andersen - 2020 - Foundations of Chemistry 22 (2):137-146.
    In his account of scientific revolutions, Thomas Kuhn suggests that after a revolutionary change of theory, it is as if scientists are working in a different world. In this paper, we aim to show that the notion of world change is insightful. We contrast the reporting of the discovery of neon in 1898 with the discovery of hafnium in 1923. The one discovery was made when elements were identified by their atomic weight; the other discovery was made after scientists came (...)
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  9. From The Principle Of Least Action To The Conservation Of Quantum Information In Chemistry: Can One Generalize The Periodic Table?Vasil Penchev - 2019 - Chemistry: Bulgarian Journal of Science Education 28 (4):525-539.
    The success of a few theories in statistical thermodynamics can be correlated with their selectivity to reality. These are the theories of Boltzmann, Gibbs, end Einstein. The starting point is Carnot’s theory, which defines implicitly the general selection of reality relevant to thermodynamics. The three other theories share this selection, but specify it further in detail. Each of them separates a few main aspects within the scope of the implicit thermodynamic reality. Their success grounds on that selection. Those aspects can (...)
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  10. Guest Editor: Foundations of Chemistry (Special Issue).Marina P. Banchetti - 2017 - Foundations of Chemistry 19 (1).
  11. Research and Implementation of AI in Welding Process Design.Jianwei WeiYun - 2017 - CHEMICAL ENGINEERING TRANSACTIONS 62.
    Aiming at the conflict between access and storage due to the continuous accumulation of knowledge storage in the field of artificial intelligence in welding, the author uses RDF (Resource Description Framework) to represent the technological knowledge of CO2 gas shielded welding, designs and implements a knowledge base based on Web semantic and stores it in HDFS, which is used to solve the difficulties of mass data storage. By studying the mechanism and characteristics of spatter in CO2 gas shielded welding, aiming (...)
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  12. Philosophy of Chemistry: Unkempt Jungle and Fertile Ground: Eric Scerri and Lee McIntyre : Philosophy of Chemistry: Growth of a New Discipline . Dordrecht: Springer, 2015. Xii+233pp, $99 HB.Micah Newman - 2016 - Metascience 25 (3):473-477.
  13. Meta-Incommensurability Between Theories of Meaning: Chemical Evidence.Nicholas W. Best - 2015 - Perspectives on Science 23 (3):361-378.
    Attempting to compare scientific theories requires a philosophical model of meaning. Yet different scientific theories have at times—particularly in early chemistry—pre-supposed disparate theories of meaning. When two theories of meaning are incommensurable, we must say that the scientific theories that rely upon them are meta-incommensurable. Meta- incommensurability is a more profound sceptical threat to science since, unlike first-order incommensurability, it implies complete incomparability.
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  14. The Chemical Revolution Revisited.Hasok Chang - 2015 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 49:91-98.
  15. Scientific Pluralism and the Chemical Revolution.Martin Kusch - 2015 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 49:69-79.
    In a number of papers and in his recent book, Is Water H₂O? Evidence, Realism, Pluralism (2012), Hasok Chang has argued that the correct interpretation of the Chemical Revolution provides a strong case for the view that progress in science is served by maintaining several incommensurable “systems of practice” in the same discipline, and concerning the same region of nature. This paper is a critical discussion of Chang's reading of the Chemical Revolution. It seeks to establish, first, that Chang's assessment (...)
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  16. Natural Kind Essentialism Revisited.Tuomas E. Tahko - 2015 - Mind 124 (495):795-822.
    Recent work on Natural Kind Essentialism has taken a deflationary turn. The assumptions about the grounds of essentialist truths concerning natural kinds familiar from the Kripke-Putnam framework are now considered questionable. The source of the problem, however, has not been sufficiently explicated. The paper focuses on the Twin Earth scenario, and it will be demonstrated that the essentialist principle at its core (which I call IDENT)—that necessarily, a sample of a chemical substance, A, is of the same kind as another (...)
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  17. Paneth’s Epistemology of Chemical Elements in Light of Kant’s Opus Postumum.Farzad Mahootian - 2013 - Foundations of Chemistry 15 (2):171-184.
    Friedrich Paneth’s conception of “chemical element” has functioned as the official definition adopted by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry since 1923. Paneth maintains a distinction between empirical and “transcendental” concepts of element; furthermore, chemical science requires fluctuation between the two. The origin of the empirical-transcendental split is found in Immanuel Kant’s classic Critique of Pure Reason (1781/1787). The present paper examines Paneth’s foundational concept of element in light of Kant’s attempt, late in life, to revoke key distinctions (...)
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  18. Translating Textbooks: Russian, German, and the Language of Chemistry.Michael Gordin - 2012 - Isis 103:88-98.
    Using the cases of three Russian chemistry textbooks from the 1860s—authored by Freidrich Beilstein, A. M. Butlerov, and D. I. Mendeleev—this essay analyzes their contemporary translation into German and the implications of their divergent histories for scholars' understanding of the processes of credit accrual and the choices of languages of science.
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  19. Elements of the Third Kind and the Spin-Dependent Chemical Force.R. Garth Kidd - 2011 - Foundations of Chemistry 13 (2):109-119.
    A lively philosophical debate has lately arisen over the nature of elementhood in chemistry. Two different senses in which the technical term ELEMENT is currently in use by chemists have been identified, leaving chemistry open to the logical fallacy of equivocation. This paper introduces a third, more elemental candidate: the high-enthalpy short-lived unbonded atom. An enthalpy index based on free-atoms-as-elements is established, whereby one can monitor the degree to which an atom’s spin-based attractive force is implemented exo-enthalpically when the atom (...)
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  20. What Have We Learned From the Recent Historiography of Alchemy?William R. Newman - 2011 - Isis 102 (2):313-321.
    Over the last two decades a new scholarship on alchemy has emerged, leading to a fundamental reformulation of knowledge about alchemists and their activities. We now know that medieval and early modern alchemists employed experiment in concert with theory to demonstrate the existence of stable “chymical atoms,” which were thought to combine with one another according to a hierarchical theory of matter. Employing laboratory-based analysis and synthesis, alchemists were among the first explicitly to enunciate the principle of mass balance and (...)
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  21. Metals: Typical and Less Typical, Transition and Inner Transition. [REVIEW]Fathi Habashi - 2010 - Foundations of Chemistry 12 (1):31-39.
    While most chemists agree on what is a metal and what is a non-metal there is a disagreement with respect to what is a metalloid and what is a transition metal. It is believed that this problem can be solved if two new terms are adopted: typical and less typical metals. These new terms will also help reconcile the European Periodic Table versus the North American regarding numbering of groups as well as the IUPAC numbering which could be as well (...)
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  22. The Elements and Conceptual Change.Robin Hendry - 2010 - In Helen Beebee & Nigel Sabbarton-Leary (eds.), The Semantics and Metaphysics of Natural Kinds. Routledge.
  23. Entropy and Chemical Substance.Robin Findlay Hendry - 2010 - Philosophy of Science 77 (5):921-932.
    In this essay I critically examine the role of entropy of mixing in articulating a macroscopic criterion for the sameness and difference of chemical substances. Consider three cases of mixing in which entropy change occurs: isotopic variants, spin isomers, and populations of atoms in different orthogonal quantum states. Using these cases I argue that entropy of mixing tracks differences between physical states, differences that may or may not correspond to a difference of substance. It does not provide a criterion for (...)
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  24. Hasok Chang;, Catherine Jackson . An Element of Controversy: The Life of Chlorine in Science, Medicine, Technology, and War. Ix + 407 Pp., Tables, Index. London: British Society for the History of Science, 2007. £22. [REVIEW]Buhm Soon Park - 2010 - Isis 101 (3):687-688.
  25. Les Atomes: A Landmark Book in Chemistry. [REVIEW]Gary D. Patterson - 2010 - Foundations of Chemistry 12 (3):223-233.
    There have been occasions when the publication of a particular book has had a singular impact on the conceptual world of the chemist. Sometimes the publication occurs near the beginning of a major change in discourse, and sometimes more near the end. Jean Perrin published Les Atomes in 1913 as the culmination of a century-long controversy over the size and physical reality of atoms and molecules. After its publication almost all chemists and physicists agreed that atoms and molecules of the (...)
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  26. How Chemistry Shifts Horizons: Element, Substance, and the Essential.Joseph E. Earley Sr - 2009 - Foundations of Chemistry 11 (2):65-77.
    In 1931 eminent chemist Fritz Paneth maintained that the modern notion of “element” is closely related to (and as “metaphysical” as) the concept of element used by the ancients (e.g., Aristotle). On that basis, the element chlorine (properly so-called) is not the elementary substance dichlorine, but rather chlorine as it is in carbon tetrachloride. The fact that pure chemicals are called “substances” in English (and closely related words are so used in other European languages) derives from philosophical compromises made by (...)
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  27. How Chemistry Shifts Horizons: Element, Substance, and the Essential.Joseph E. Earley - 2009 - Foundations of Chemistry 11 (2):65-77.
    In 1931 eminent chemist Fritz Paneth maintained that the modern notion of “element” is closely related to (and as “metaphysical” as) the concept of element used by the ancients (e.g., Aristotle). On that basis, the element chlorine (properly so-called) is not the elementary substance dichlorine, but rather chlorine as it is in carbon tetrachloride. The fact that pure chemicals are called “substances” in English (and closely related words are so used in other European languages) derives from philosophical compromises made by (...)
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  28. Hasok Chang and Catherine Jackson , An Element of Controversy: The Life of Chlorine in Science, Medicine, Technology and War. BSHS Monograph Series, Vol. 13. London: British Society for the History of Science, 2007. Pp. Ix+407. ISBN 978-0-906450-01-7. £15.00. [REVIEW]Ursula Klein - 2009 - British Journal for the History of Science 42 (1):128.
  29. The Solar Element: A Reconsideration of Helium's Early History.Helge Kragh - 2009 - Annals of Science 66 (2):157-182.
    Apart from hydrogen, helium is the most abundant chemical element in the universe, and yet it was only discovered on the Earth in 1895. Its early history is unique because it encompasses astronomy as well as chemistry, two sciences which the spectroscope brought into contact during the second half of the nineteenth century. In the modest form of a yellow spectral line known as D3, ‘helium’ was sometimes supposed to exist in the Sun's atmosphere, an idea which is traditionally ascribed (...)
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  30. The Polonium Brief: A Hidden History of Cancer, Radiation, and the Tobacco Industry.Brianna Rego - 2009 - Isis 100:453-484.
  31. Paneth, Kant, and the Philosophy of Chemistry.Klaus Ruthenberg - 2009 - Foundations of Chemistry 11 (2):79-91.
    Immanuel Kant has built up a dualistic epistemology that seems to fit to the peculiarities of chemistry quite well. Friedrich Paneth used Kant’s concept and characterised simple and basic substances which refer to the empirical and to the transcendental world, respectively. This paper takes account of the Kantian influences in Paneth’s philosophy of chemistry, and discusses pertinent topics, like observables, atomism and realism.
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  32. On Books and Chemical Elements.Santiago Alvarez, Joaquim Sales & Miquel Seco - 2008 - Foundations of Chemistry 10 (2):79-100.
    The history of the classification of chemical elements is reviewed from the point of view of a bibliophile. The influence that relevant books had on the development of the periodic table and, conversely, how it was incorporated into textbooks, treatises and literary works, with an emphasis on the Spanish bibliography are analyzed in this paper. The reader will also find unexpected connections of the periodic table with the Bible or the architect Buckminster Fuller.
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  33. Atom and Aether in Nineteenth-Century Physical Science.Alan F. Chalmers - 2008 - Foundations of Chemistry 10 (3):157-166.
    This paper suggests that the cases made for atoms and the aether in nineteenth-century physical science were analogous, with the implication that the case for the atom was less than compelling, since there is no aether. It is argued that atoms did not play a productive role in nineteenth-century chemistry any more than the aether did in physics. Atoms and molecules did eventually find an indispensable home in chemistry but by the time that they did so they were different kinds (...)
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  34. Some Presuppositions in the Metaphysics of Chemical Reactions.Rom Harré - 2008 - Foundations of Chemistry 10 (1):19-38.
    The project of chemistry to classify substances and develop techniques for their transformation into other substances rests on assumptions about the means by which compounds are constituted and reconstituted. Robert Boyle not only proposed empirical tests for a metaphysics of material corpuscules, but also a principle for designing experimental procedures in line with that metaphysics. Later chemists added activity concepts to the repertoire. The logic of activity explanations in modern times involves hierarchies of activity concepts, transitions between levels through non-dispositional (...)
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  35. The Chemical Revolution and its Chymical Antecedents.William Newman - 2008 - Early Science and Medicine 13 (2):171-191.
  36. Naming Elements After Scientists: An Account of a Controversy. [REVIEW]Geoff Rayner-Canham & Zheng Zheng - 2008 - Foundations of Chemistry 10 (1):13-18.
    Over the last two hundred years, there have been many occasions where the name of a newly-discovered element has provoked controversy and dissent but in modern times, the naming of elements after scientists has proved to be particularly contentious. Here we recount the threads of this story, predominantly through discourses in the popular scientific journals, the first major discussion on naming an element after a scientist ; the first definitive naming after a scientist ; and the first naming after a (...)
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  37. Materials in Eighteenth-Century Science: A Historical Ontology. [REVIEW]Lissa Roberts - 2008 - Isis 99:623-624.
  38. Discovering Water: James Watt, Henry Cavendish, and the Nineteenth‐Century “Water Controversy.”. [REVIEW]Ursula Klein - 2007 - Isis 98:653-654.
  39. After Substance: How Aristotle’s Question Still Bears on the Philosophy of Chemistry.Paul A. Bogaard - 2006 - Philosophy of Science 73 (5):853-863.
    This article will explore whether there are arguments for Aristotle's concept mixis which can aid our current discussions within the philosophy of chemistry. We remain troubled by the way and extent to which chemical substance in bulk can be identified with or reduced to the stability and structure of molecules, and whether these in turn can be identified with or reduced to elemental atoms and the quantum theoretical characterization of their electrons. Aristotle was as determined as we are to think (...)
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  40. Elements, Compounds, and Other Chemical Kinds.Robin Findlay Hendry - 2006 - Philosophy of Science 73 (5):864-875.
    In this article I assess the problems and prospects of a microstructural approach to chemical substances. Saul Kripke and Hilary Putnam famously claimed that to be gold is to have atomic number 79 and to be water is to be H2O. I relate the first claim to the concept of element in the history of chemistry, arguing that the reference of element names is determined by atomic number. Compounds are more difficult: water is so complex and heterogeneous at the molecular (...)
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  41. Chemical "Substances" That Are Not "Chemical Substances".Sr Joseph E. Earley - 2006 - Philosophy of Science 73 (5):841-852.
    The main scientific problems of chemical bonding were solved half a century ago, but adequate philosophical understanding of chemical combination is yet to be achieved. Chemists routinely use important terms ("element," "atom," "molecule," "substance") with more than one meaning. This can lead to misunderstandings. Eliminativists claim that what seems to be a baseball breaking a window is merely the action of "atoms, acting in concert." They argue that statues, baseballs, and similar macroscopic things "do not exist." When macroscopic objects like (...)
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  42. On the Continuity of Reference of the Elements: A Response to Hendry.Eric R. Scerri - 2006 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 37 (2):308-321.
    Robin Hendry has recently argued that although the term ‘element’ has traditionally been used in two different senses, there has nonetheless been a continuity of reference. The present article examines this author’s historical and philosophical claims and suggests that he has misdiagnosed the situation in several respects. In particular it is claimed that Hendry’s arguments for the nature of one particular element, oxygen, do not generalize to all elements as he implies. The second main objection is to Hendry’s view that (...)
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  43. Chemical Elements and the Problem of Universals.M. F. Sharlow - 2006 - Foundations of Chemistry 8 (3):225-242.
    In this paper, I explore a seldom-recognized connection between the ontology of abstract objects and a current issue in the philosophy of chemistry. Specifically, I argue that realism with regard to universals implies a view of chemical elements similar to F.A. Paneth’s thesis about the dual nature of the concept of element.
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  44. Assisted Nucleation of Θ′ Phase in Al–Cu–Sn: The Modified Crystallography of Tin Precipitates.L. Bourgeois *, J. F. Nie & B. C. Muddle - 2005 - Philosophical Magazine 85 (29):3487-3509.
    The formation of particles of elemental tin in association with the nucleation of the precipitate phase θ′ in an Al–1.7 at.% Cu–0.01 at.% Sn alloy has been investigated by high resolution transmission electron microscopy. Analysis of lattice images has demonstrated that these tin particles associated with θ′ platelets formed during short-term ageing (typically 3 min at 200 degrees Celcius) exhibit a crystallographic form that is distinctly different from that previously reported in such ternary alloys and also from that observed in (...)
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  45. From Elements to Atoms: A History of Chemical Composition. [REVIEW]John Powers - 2005 - Isis 96:119-120.
  46. A Well‐Ordered Thing: Dmitrii Mendeleev And The Shadow Of The Periodic Table. [REVIEW]A. Rocke - 2005 - Isis 96:289-291.
  47. Some Aspects of the Metaphysics of Chemistry and the Nature of the Elements.Eric Scerri - 2005 - Hyle 11 (2):127 - 145.
    There is now a considerable body of published work on the epistemology of modern chemistry, especially with regard to the nature of quantum chemistry. In addition, the question of the metaphysical underpinnings of chemistry has received a good deal of attention. The present article concentrates on metaphysical considerations including the question of whether elements and groups of elements are natural kinds. It is also argued that an appeal to the metaphysical nature of elements can help clarify the re-emerging controversies among (...)
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  48. Giving `Substance' to Chemistry.Alan Chalmers - 2004 - Metascience 13 (1):109-111.
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  49. Pierre Duhem: Mixture and Chemical Combination and Related Essays. Edited and Translated, with an Introduction, by Paul Needham.Robert J. Deltete & Anastasios Brenner - 2004 - Foundations of Chemistry 6 (3):203-232.
    The following is an essay review of Paul Needham's translation of Pierre Duhem's Lemixte et la combinaison chimique and a numberof other essays. In this review we describe theintent and general features of Le mixte and try to place it in the larger context of Duhem'sprogram for energetics. The long essay (Essay3) opposing Marcellin Berthelot'sthermochemistry is singled out for detailedcommentary, since it gives Duhem's reasons forendorsing Josiah Willard Gibbs's chemicalstatics. We argue that a chemical mechanics ofa Gibbsian sort, defended in (...)
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  50. Why There is No Salt in the Sea.Joseph E. Earley - 2004 - Foundations of Chemistry 7 (1):85-102.
    What, precisely, is `salt'? It is a certainwhite, solid, crystalline, material, alsocalled sodium chloride. Does any of that solidwhite stuff exist in the sea? – Clearly not.One can make salt from sea water easily enough,but that fact does not establish thatsalt, as such, is present in brine. (Paper andink can be made into a novel – but no novelactually exists in a stack of blank paper witha vial of ink close by.) When salt dissolves inwater, what is present is no (...)
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