15 found
    Various understandings and definitions of time will be reviewed. The nature and structure of time will be reviewed and the concepts of time and passage of time will be refreshed. The fundamental role played by energy and four natural forces in the actions, reactions and interactions concerning matter, anti-matter, energy in space and time will be critically analyzed. The reality how time is constructed during the construction of materials will be presented and discussed. The classical and quantum ideas in this (...)
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  2. Guest Editor: Foundations of Chemistry (Special Issue).Marina P. Banchetti - 2017 - Foundations of Chemistry 19 (1).
  3. Determining Sameness of Substance.Paul Needham - 2017 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 68 (4):953-979.
    ABSTRACT The idea that the extension of a chemical substance is fixed by determining what stands in the relation of being the same substance to a paradigm sample plays a substantial role in chemistry, and procedures of identification that don’t make direct use of the method can be traced back to ones that do. But paradigm samples are not typically selected by ostension, as in Putnam’s version of this procedure. The relevance of ostension is questioned after a discussion of the (...)
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  4. The manipulation of chemical reactions: probing the limits of interventionism.Georgie Statham - 2017 - Synthese 194 (12):4815-4838.
    I apply James Woodward’s interventionist theory of causation to organic chemistry, modelling three different ways that chemists are able to manipulate the reaction conditions in order to control the outcome of a reaction. These consist in manipulations to the reaction kinetics, thermodynamics, and whether the kinetics or thermodynamics predominates. It is possible to construct interventionist causal models of all of these kinds of manipulation, and therefore to account for them using Woodward’s theory. However, I show that there is an alternate, (...)
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  5. Scientific understanding and synthetic design.William Goodwin - 2009 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 60 (2):271-301.
    Next SectionOne of the indisputable signs of the progress made in organic chemistry over the last two hundred years is the increased ability of chemists to manipulate, control, and design chemical reactions. The technological expertise manifest in contemporary synthetic organic chemistry is, at least in part, due to developments in the theory of organic chemistry. By appealing to a notable chemist's attempts to articulate and codify the heuristics of synthetic design, this paper investigates how understanding theoretical organic chemistry facilitates progress (...)
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  6. Implementation and innovation in total synthesis.William Goodwin - 2008 - Foundations of Chemistry 10 (3):177-186.
    This article investigates how understanding the theory of organic chemistry facilitates the total synthesis of organic compounds. After locating the philosophical significance of this question within the methodology or epistemology of applied science, I summarize the results of previous work on this issue—roughly that theoretical organic chemistry underwrites a sequence of heuristic policies that help to isolate plausible synthetic routes from the array of possibilities provided by structural or descriptive organic chemistry. While this prior account makes a solid start, it (...)
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  7. What might philosophy of science look like if chemists built it?Roald Hoffmann - 2007 - Synthese 155 (3):321 - 336.
    Had more philosophers of science come from chemistry, their thinking would have been different. I begin by looking at a typical chemical paper, in which making something is the leitmotif, and conjecture/refutation is pretty much irrelevant. What in fact might have been, might be, different? The realism of chemists is reinforced by their remarkable ability to transform matter; they buy into reductionism where it serves them, but make no real use of it. Incommensurability is taken without a blink, and actually (...)
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  8. A process theory of enzyme catalytic power – the interplay of science and metaphysics.Ross L. Stein - 2006 - Foundations of Chemistry 8 (1):3-29.
    Enzymes are protein catalysts of extraordinary efficiency, capable of bringing about rate enhancements of their biochemical reactions that can approach factors of 1020. Theories of enzyme catalysis, which seek to explain the means by which enzymes effect catalytic transformation of the substrate molecules on which they work, have evolved over the past century from the “lock-and-key” model proposed by Emil Fischer in 1894 to models that explicitly rely on transition state theory to the most recent theories that strive to provide (...)
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  9. Fred basolo: From coello to inorganic chemistry: A lifetime of reactions. [REVIEW]George B. Kauffman & Laurie M. Kauffman - 2004 - Foundations of Chemistry 6 (3):247-250.
  10. Language of Chemistry: from the Formal Structures to the Experimental Facts لغة الكيمياء: من البني الصورية إلى الوقائع التجريبية.Salah Osman - 2004 - In Towards a Philosophy of the Chemistry نحو فلسفة للكيمياء. Alexandria, Egypt: Al Maaref Establishment Press. pp. 92 - 113.
    الكيمياء علمٌ تجريبي بطبيعته، يشتغل معمليًا بالجواهر تحليلاً وتركيبًا، ويُقيم بناءاته النسقية استرشادًا بقواعد محددة تحكم إجراءات البحث التجريبي ونتائجه. وكشأن أي نشاط علمي آخر، تستلزم الممارسة الكيميائية لغة جزئية خاصة تصف بناءاتها التجريبية وتُنمّط أشكالها. وما دام التحليل والتركيب – كإجراءين تجريبيين – هما عمادا البحث الكيميائي وجوهره، فمن الضروري أن تحوي لغة الكيمياء تمثيلات صورية توصف بدورها بأنها صيغٌ أو عبارات تحليلية وتركيبية. يمكننا إذن الزعم بأن ثمة علاقة اعتماد متبادلة بين لغة الكيمياء وممارساتها المعملية؛ فاللغة تؤثر مباشرة (...)
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  11. Straining to explain strain and synthesis.Jeffry L. Ramsey - 2004 - Foundations of Chemistry 6 (1):81-91.
  12. editorial: Substances versus Reactions.Joachim Schummer - 2004 - Hyle 10 (1):3 - 4.
    Is chemistry primarily about things or about processes, about chemical substances or about chemical reactions? Is a chemical reaction defined by the change of certain substances, or are substances defined by their characteristic chemical reactions? What appears to be a play on words to the modern scientist, is actually one of the most fundamental ontological question since antiquity, prompted by the most radical change – the chemical change or the ‘coming-to-be and passing-away’ as Aristotle’s treatise on theoretical chemistry came to (...)
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  13. Gestalt switch in molecular image perception: The aesthetic origin of molecular nanotechnology in supramolecular chemistry. [REVIEW]Joachim Schummer - 2004 - Foundations of Chemistry 8 (1):53-72.
    According to ‘standard histories’ of nanotechnology, the colorful pictures of atoms produced by scanning probe microscopists since the 1980s essentially inspired visions of molecular nanotechnology. In this paper, I provide an entirely different account that, nonetheless, refers to aesthetic inspiration, First, I argue that the basic idea of molecular nanotechnology, i.e., producing molecular devices, has been the goal of supramolecular chemistry that emerged earlier, without being called nanotechnology. Secondly, I argue that in supramolecular chemistry the production of molecular devices was (...)
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  14. Strain, structure, stability and reactivity.Kenneth B. Wiberg - 2004 - Foundations of Chemistry 6 (1):65-80.
  15. Proteins and probability: A criticism of M. Pierre Lecomte du nouy's argument for teleology based on some probability-estimates.Haig Khatchadourian - 1955 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 16 (2):223-228.