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Summary Chinese Buddhist philosophy primarily results from traditional Chinese Buddhist thinkers’ efforts to inherit, reinterpret, and develop theories and thoughts in various Chinese translations of Indian Mahayana scriptures and treatises. Five Chinese Buddhist schools or traditions are of philosophical significance: the Three-Treatise school, the Consciousness-Only school, the Tiantai school, the Huayan school, and Chinese Zen (Chan) Buddhism. Among them, the Three-Treatise and Consciousness-Only schools are the Chinese descendants of, respectively, Indian Madhyamaka and Yogācāra; however, both have all but disappeared after the Tang dynasty (618−907). The other three schools, Tiantai, Huayan, and Zen/Chan, are indigenous and can be seen as philosophically the most representative traditions of Chinese Buddhism. Considerably owing to the influence of Chinese thought and culture, Chinese Buddhist way of thinking is fundamentally nondualistic in character, emphasizing, more than Indian Mahayana does, the mutual sameness and interpenetration of the ultimate and the conventional. The thinking tends to be somewhat nondiscursive, involving holistic views expressed in paradoxical language, with particular concern on the practical. Meanwhile, Tathāgatagarbha thought receives much attention among Chinese Buddhist thinkers, and the widespread conviction is that all sentient beings have Buddha-nature and can attain Buddhahood.
Key works Refer to the subcategories.
Introductions Lai 2008 discusses the history of Chinese Buddhist thought up to the Tang dynasty. Inada 1997 comments on the Chinese reception of Buddhism. Liu 1985 and Liu 1989 elucidate the notion of Buddha-nature in Chinese Buddhism.
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  1. Ryuichi Abe (2015). Revisiting the Dragon Princess: Her Role in Medieval Engi Stories and Their Implications in Reading the Lotus Sutra. Japanese Journal of Religious Studies 42 (1).
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  2. Barry Allen (2015). Chan Buddhism. In Vanishing Into Things: Knowledge in Chinese Tradition. Harvard University Press. pp. 140-165.
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  3. Stephen C. Angle (2014). Sages and Self-Restriction: A Response to Joseph Chan. Philosophy East and West 64 (3):795-798.
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  4. Endo Asai (2014). The Lotus Sutra as the Core of Japanese Buddhism: Shifts in Representations of its Fundamental Principle. Japanese Journal of Religious Studies 41 (1).
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  5. E. B. & H. Kern (1964). Saddharma-Puṇḍarīka or the Lotus of the True LawSaddharma-Pundarika or the Lotus of the True Law. Journal of the American Oriental Society 84 (4):490.
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  6. R. L. Backus, Karl Ludvig Reichelt & Kathrina van Wagenen Bugge (1969). Truth and Tradition in Chinese Buddhism: A Study of Chinese Mahayana Buddhism. Journal of the American Oriental Society 89 (4):832.
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  7. Chung-Ying Cheng (2001). Preface: The Lotus Sutra and Chinese Philosophy. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 28 (4):353-353.
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  8. King Pong Chiu (2016). Lee, Yun-Sang 李潤生, The Koan of Chan Buddhism 禪宗公案. Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 15 (4):649-651.
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  9. Stephen G. Covell (2014). Interfaith Dialogue and a Lotus Practitioner: Yamada Etai, the Lotus Sutra, and the Religious Summit Meeting on Mt. Hiei. Japanese Journal of Religious Studies 41 (1).
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  10. Bernard Faure & Diana Y. Paul (1985). Philosophy of Mind in Sixth-Century China: Paramārtha's "Evolution of Consciousness"Philosophy of Mind in Sixth-Century China: Paramartha's "Evolution of Consciousness". Journal of the American Oriental Society 105 (4):758.
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  11. Asaf Federman (2009). Literal Means and Hidden Meanings: A New Analysis of Skillful Means. Philosophy East and West 59 (2):pp. 125-141.
    The Buddhist concept of skillful means , as introduced inMahāyāna sūtras, exposes a new awareness of the gap between text and meaning. Although the term is sometimes taken to point to the Buddha's pedagogical skills, this interpretation ignores the provocative use of the term in Mahāyāna texts. Treating skillful means as a universal Buddhist concept also fails to explain why and for what purpose it first became predominant in the Mahāyāna. Looking at the use of skillful means in the Lotus (...)
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  12. Victor Forte (2016). Like Cats and Dogs: Contesting the Mu Kōan in Zen Buddhism by Steven Heine. Philosophy East and West 66 (2):671-676.
    Steven Heine’s latest book on the history of kōans, Like Cats and Dogs: Contesting the Mu Kōan in Zen Buddhism, is his second monograph dedicated to a single kōan case record. The author’s first such offering, Shifting Shape, Shaping Text: Philosophy and Folklore in the Fox Kōan, focused on the second case record of the thirteenth-century Gateless Gate collection. Published at the end of the 1990s the text was a response, in many ways, to the two authors who dominated the (...)
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  13. Lois M. Fusek & J. I. Crump (1972). Chan-Kuo Ts'e. Journal of the American Oriental Society 92 (2):336.
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  14. Dick Garner (1977). Skepticism, Ordinary Language and Zen Buddhism. Philosophy East and West 27 (2):165-181.
    The goal of tranquility through non-Assertion, Advocated by sextus empiricus, Is examined and his method criticized. His understanding of non-Assertion is compared with that of seng-Chao (383-414) and chi-Tsang (549-623). Zen buddhism shares the quest for tranquility, But offers more than sextus did to help us attain it, And avoids the excessively metaphysical thought of these two chinese buddhists. Wittgenstein, Whose goal was that philosophical problems completely disappear, And austin, Who rejected many standard western dichotomies, Offer a method superior to (...)
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  15. Paul Groner (2014). The Lotus Sutra and the Perfect-Sudden Precepts. Japanese Journal of Religious Studies 41 (1).
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  16. Ming Dong Gu (2015). Momentary Return of the Cosmic Unconscious: The Nature of Zen/Chan Enlightenment. Asian Philosophy 25 (4):402-417.
    Zen/Chan, which used to be a Far Eastern philosophy-cum-religion, has evolved into a global cultural phenomenon. Despite the many views expressed by numerous thinkers in the world, the consensus on Chan and Chan enlightenment remains an agnostic Oriental mysticism. By exploring Chan and enlightenment from a combined perspective of history, philosophy, psychology, religion and linguistics, this article proposes a hitherto unexpressed view. Chan enlightenment is a prenatal physico-psychological existence, which grows out of a fetal subject’s perception of the womb. Although (...)
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  17. David Hawkes & J. I. Crump (1966). Intrigues: Studies of the Chan-Kuo Ts'e. Journal of the American Oriental Society 86 (1):62.
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  18. Steven Heine (2015). The Chan Whip Anthology: A Companion to Zen Practice by Jeffrey L. Broughton. Philosophy East and West 65 (4):1291-1293.
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  19. Steven Heine (2014). Does Even a Rat Have Buddha‐Nature? Analyzing Key‐Phrase Rhetoric for the Wu Gongan. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 41 (3-4):250-267.
    The Wu Gongan is primarily known for its minimalist expression based on Zhaozhou's “No” response to a monk's question of whether a dog has Buddha-nature. Crucial for the key-phrase method of meditation of Dahui Zonggao, the term Wu is not to be analyzed through logic or poetry. However, an overemphasis on the nondiscursive quality overlooks sophisticated rhetoric through metaphors used for the anxiety of doubt caused by Wu undermining conventional assumptions that is compared to a cornered rat; and the experience (...)
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  20. A. L. Herman (1980). Ah, but There is a Paradox of Desire in Buddhism: A Reply to Wayne Alt. Philosophy East and West 30 (4):529-532.
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  21. Leon Hurvitz & Kenneth K. S. Ch'en (1977). The Chinese Transformation of Buddhism. Journal of the American Oriental Society 97 (2):225.
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  22. Leon Hurvitz & Kenneth K. S. Chen (1965). Buddhism in China, a Historical Survey. Journal of the American Oriental Society 85 (3):448.
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  23. Leon Hurvitz & Joseph Edkins (1969). Chinese Buddhism: A Volume of Sketches, Historical, Descriptive, and Critical. Journal of the American Oriental Society 89 (3):650.
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  24. Leon Hurvitz & Alexander Coburn Soper (1959). Literary Evidence for Early Buddhist Art in China. Journal of the American Oriental Society 79 (2):146.
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  25. C. I. Jiwei (2015). Reply to Joseph Chan. Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 14 (4):593-595.
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  26. Hwa Yol Jung (1991). The Way of Ecopiety: An Essay in Deep Ecology From a Sinitic Perspective. Asian Philosophy 1 (2):127 – 140.
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  27. P. W. K., Jacques Gernet & Franciscus Verellen (1996). Buddhism in Chinese Society: An Economic History From the Fifth to the Tenth Centuries. Journal of the American Oriental Society 116 (3):609.
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  28. Sallie B. King (1989). Buddha Nature and the Concept of Person. Philosophy East and West 39 (2):151-170.
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  29. Zencho Kitagawa (2014). The Words of the Lotus Sutra in Nichiren’s Thought. Japanese Journal of Religious Studies 41 (1).
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  30. David R. Knechtges, Sharon J. Fidler & J. I. Crump (1977). Index to the Chan-Kuo Ts'e. Journal of the American Oriental Society 97 (3):357.
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  31. Paul W. Kroll, Antonino Forte & Fazang (2001). A Jewel in Indra's Net: The Letter Sent by Fazang in China to Ǔisang in KoreaA Jewel in Indra's Net: The Letter Sent by Fazang in China to Uisang in Korea. Journal of the American Oriental Society 121 (3):511.
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  32. Paul W. Kroll & Seishi Karashima (2002). A Glossary of Dharmaraksa's Translation of the Lotus Sutra Zheng Fa Hua Jing Ci Dian. Journal of the American Oriental Society 122 (3):653.
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  33. Whalen Lai (2000). Philosophical Meditations on Zen Buddhism (Review). Philosophy East and West 50 (4):631-632.
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  34. Whalen W. Lai (1978). Illusionism (Māyavāda) in Late T'ang Buddhism: A Hypothesis on the Philosophical Roots of the Round Enlightenment Sūtra (Yüan-Chüeh-Ching). Philosophy East and West 28 (1):39-51.
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  35. Peter H. Lee (1962). Fa-Tsang and ŬisangFa-Tsang and Uisang. Journal of the American Oriental Society 82 (1):56.
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  36. Chen-Kuo Lin & Michael Radich (eds.) (2014). A Distant Mirror: Articulating Indic Ideas in Sixth and Seventh Century Chinese Buddhism. Hamburg University Press.
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  37. David Loy (2007). Buddhism in the Public Sphere: Reorienting Global Interdependence (Review). Philosophy East and West 58 (1):144-147.
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  38. David R. Loy (2004). Evil and/or/as The Good: Omnicentrism, Intersubjectivity, and Value Paradox in Tiantai Buddhist Thought (Review). Philosophy East and West 54 (1):99-103.
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  39. Jay McDaniel & John B. Cobb Jr (1975). Introduction: Conference on "Mahāyāna Buddhism and Whitehead". Philosophy East and West 25 (4):393-405.
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  40. Steve Odin (2001). Peace and Compassion in the Microcosmic–Macrocosmic Paradigm of Whitehead and the Lotus Sutra. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 28 (4):371–384.
  41. Howard L. Parsons (1951). Buddha and Buddhism: A New Appraisal. Philosophy East and West 1 (3):8-37.
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  42. Lucinda Joy Peach (2002). Social Responsibility, Sex Change, and Salvation: Gender Justice in the "Lotus Sūtra". Philosophy East and West 52 (1):50-74.
    What can the "Lotus Sūtra" teach us about social responsibility? This question is explored through the lens of gender by examining the specifically female-gendered images in the "Lotus Sūtra" in order to assess its messages regarding normative gender relations, and the implications of these messages for gender justice in the contemporary world. First, gender imagery in the Lotus is explored. Second, these images are compared with those found elsewhere in the Buddhist tradition in order to provide a clearer assessment of (...)
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  43. Mario Poceski (2006). The Origins of Buddhist Monastic Codes in China: An Annotated Translation and Study of the Chanyuan Qinggui (Review). Philosophy East and West 56 (3):499-502.
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  44. Lucius C. Porter & Lewis Hodous (1926). Chinese Buddhism. Journal of the American Oriental Society 46:78.
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  45. Gene Reeves (2001). Divinity in Process Thought and the Lotus Sutra. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 28 (4):357–369.
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  46. Gene Reeves (2001). Introduction: The Lotus Sutra and Process Thought. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 28 (4):355–356.
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  47. E. H. S. & Holmes Welch (1968). The Practice of Chinese Buddhism, 1900-1950. Journal of the American Oriental Society 88 (2):366.
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  48. Stuart Sargent & Bernard Faure (1996). Original Insights Never Fully Present: Chan/Zen/DeconstructionThe Rhetoric of Immediacy: A Cultural Critique of Chan/Zen Buddhism. Journal of the American Oriental Society 116 (1):77.
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  49. J. K. Shryock & W. E. Soothill (1931). The Lotus of the Wonderful Law. Journal of the American Oriental Society 51 (2):185.
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  50. Mark Siderits (1987). The Sense-Reference Distinction in Indian Philosophy of Language. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 14 (3):331-355.
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