Chinese Philosophy

Edited by JeeLoo Liu (California State University, Fullerton)
About this topic
Summary Chinese philosophy is built on the metaphysical assumption that qi (traditionally translated as “material force” or “vital energy”) pervades the Universe and all things are composed of qi. This ontology leads to a conception of the world as an organic whole, in which everything is interconnected – from nature to the human world, from inorganic objects to sensible things. Chinese philosophers had a purely this-worldly concern; their goal was to improve on the world given. Originated in the primitive form of nature worship, ancient Chinese developed a sense of admiration and affection towards the natural world around them. This religious spirit prompted a philosophical pursuit of the order of the universe and the ontological foundation for all existence. Ancient Chinese thinkers had an intense desire to find the best way to make the right political decisions, to alleviate social problems, and to properly conduct themselves. Sociopolitical philosophy and ethics are thus the two core areas in Chinese philosophy. At the same time, since social structure, political polity and human conduct should all cohere with the cosmic order, Chinese philosophy is fundamentally rooted in its cosmology. This cosmology is manifested mostly in the philosophy of the Yijing. Chinese cosmology is built on the belief that there is a cosmic order or cosmic pattern, which serves not only as the source for all existence, but also as the governing rule for all cosmic developments. This pattern was commonly referred to as ‘Dao’ by ancient philosophers. The pursuit ofDao would become an ultimate goal shared by all Chinese philosophers. Under the holistic cosmic picture, the cosmic order also governs human affairs. Consequently, Dao takes on a normative connotation: it signifies the right way for human affairs and the normative principle for human conduct. In this sense, Daostands for the highest moral precept for human beings. There are three main branches in Chinese philosophy – Confucianism, Daoism and Buddhism. Each school has its distinct answer to the quest of ultimate reality and the roles humans should play in this world. To educate others what constitutes virtue and to inspire others to act in accordance with Dao, was thus the self-assigned mission for most Chinese philosophers.
Key works The first systematic introduction to Chinese philosophy is the two-volume set Fung Yu-lan 1997, first published in the 1930s. This book is arguably the most influential introduction to the history of Chinese philosophy, even though some of Fung’s analyses are often contested by contemporary Chinese scholars. The two-volume set has been translated into English by Derk Bodde (Feng & Bodde 1937). A condensed and more accessible version of Fung’s History is also translated by Derk Bodde (Feng 1948). Among Chinese scholars, Lao 2005’s thee-volume (in four books) set is widely respected and frequently consulted. A more recent and analytic introduction to Chinese philosophy is Liu 2006. This book does not cover the history of Chinese philosophy beyond Chinese Buddhism, however. Mou 2008 has a more comprehensive coverage of all eras in the history of Chinese philosophy, but at the cost of sacrificing philosophical details. For readers who cannot read primary Chinese texts, Chan 1963 is a good source of representative selections of Chinese philosophical works.
Introductions

Chan 1963 provides a comprehensive coverage and fairly representative selections of all major philosophers or philosophical schools in Chinese history. The editor provides succinct introductions for each selection. It is a must-have sourcebook for scholars who can read only English, even though the old-fashioned Wade-Giles spelling of Chinese names in this book could create confusion for beginners.  

Feng & Bodde 1937 provides a comprehensive coverage of various schools in the history of Chinese philosophy. At times, the introduction is packed with quotes, with little analysis. It is nonetheless an authoritative introduction to this date.

Feng 1948 is not just an abridgment of Feng & Bodde 1937. Fung wrote this short history with the aim to give a complete picture of Chinese philosophical history in a nutshell. This book is far more accessible and interesting than Feng & Bodde 1937. Originally published in New York: Macmillan, 1948.

Lao Ssu-Kwang勞思光, Xinbian Zhongguo Zhexue Shi新編中國哲學史. 3 volumes. Guangxi, China: Guanxi shifandaxue chubanshe, 2005.

There is no English translation of this three-volume set. This is a revised version of Lao’s famed History of Chinese Philosophy (Zhongguo zhexue shi 中國哲學史), originally published in Hong Kong: Youlian chubanshe, 1968. Lao’s History provides detailed logical analysis of the philosophical problems and theories of all the schools covered in this book. It is widely referred to by Chinese scholars.

Liu 2006 provides an up-to-date introduction to Chinese philosophy in the analytic style. In its analysis of primary texts, it also reflects topics and discourses on Chinese philosophy in contemporary scholarship in English. The scope of this book covers classical philosophical schools and four major schools in Chinese Buddhism.

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  1. Transcendence and Non-Naturalism in Early Chinese Thought.Alexus McLeod & Joshua R. Brown - 2020 - London: Bloomsbury.
    Contemporary scholars of Chinese philosophy often presuppose that early China possessed a naturalistic worldview, devoid of any non-natural concepts, such as transcendence. Challenging this presupposition head-on, Joshua R. Brown and Alexus McLeod argue that non-naturalism and transcendence have a robust and significant place in early Chinese thought. -/- This book reveals that non-naturalist positions can be found in early Chinese texts, in topics including conceptions of the divine, cosmogony, and apophatic philosophy. Moreover, by closely examining a range of early Chinese (...)
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  2. Catholicity Under Heaven: Reformed Ecclesiology and Chinese Visions of Cosmopolitanism.Henry S. Kuo - 2021 - Ecclesiology 17 (1):51-71.
    Reformed catholicity suffers from a fragility that causes it to easily fragment over comparatively small differences. This study wagers that an important resource that can be useful for addressing this problem is the Chinese philosophy of tianxia. The article introduces the idea of a ‘Reformed catholicity under Heaven’ by placing a more liberal interpretation of tianxia in conversation with the problems in Reformed approaches to the church’s catholicity. In doing so, the article demonstrates tianxia’s ecclesiological usefulness while articulating two dimensions (...)
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  3. How Globalization Shifts the Global Economic and Political Balance.Leonid Grinin - forthcoming - Journal of Chinese Philosophy:1-13.
    One of the main accusations directed toward globalization is that it deepens the gap between the developed and developing countries dooming them to eternal backwardness. The article demonstrates that the actual situation is very different. It is shown that this is due to globalization that the developing countries are generally growing much faster than the developed states. The World System core starts weakening while its periphery gains strength. At the same time there is a continuing divergence between the main bulk (...)
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  4. How Does Genuineness-Substance ( Cheng - Ti ) Act?: A Clarification of the Phenomenon of Genuineness Based on Zhong Yong.Yinghua Lu - forthcoming - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy:1-23.
    Based on the text Zhong Yong 中庸, this article clarifies the phenomenological experience of genuineness. The Introduction presents the discussion of genuineness-substance from Zhou Dunyi 周敦頤 and Mou Zongsan 牟宗三, pointing out their omission of the concrete activity of genuineness. Section 2 explains concepts such as ti 體, the endowment of Heaven, the original nature, right, norm, with an indication that genuineness denotes keeping and developing an original status. Section 3 then shows that the original status of human nature is (...)
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  5. The Confucian Strategy in African Americans’ Racial Equality Discourse.Tao Zhang - forthcoming - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy:1-21.
    From the 1870s to the 1950s, African Americans frequently referred to the Chinese sage Confucius when demanding justice from American white society. This hitherto unnoticed strategy emphasized Confucian morality to undermine the theoretical basis of American racism. It exposed the hypocrisy of white society on racial relations and illuminated a different path for blacks’ racial advancement. In the process, blacks added an American racial color to Confucius’ image while portraying themselves as cosmopolitan and rational fighters for racial fairness. Chinese culture (...)
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  6. The Need for More than Role Relations.I. M. Sullivan - forthcoming - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy:1-19.
    This article argues for the necessity of a social group ontology in Confucian ethics. The heart of Confucian ethics is self-cultivation begun in familial relations. Social group categories can disrupt family structures in ways that can only be ignored at a high cost to the well-being of biological family members who do not share the dominant group identities. To make this disruption clear, I will articulate the challenge queer lives pose for classical Confucian self-cultivation. This discussion will give rise to (...)
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  7. The Revival of Tantrism: Tibetan Buddhism and Modern China.Martino Dibeltulo Concu - 2015 - Dissertation, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor
    This dissertation considers how Tantrism, a ritual tradition vanished in India and in China, but preserved in modern Japan and Tibet, became a component of the revival of Chinese Buddhism between the two World Wars. Tantrism became appealing to revivalists who, in China’s time of internal war and foreign invasion, sought to recover this lost tradition, writing about its rituals, initiations, and teachings in a nostalgic mode. In Republican China (1912-1949), Tantrism would generate an interest in Tibetan Buddhism, which would (...)
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  8. The Globalization of the “New Wave”.Olga Leonova - forthcoming - Journal of Chinese Philosophy:1-11.
    Globalization in the XXI century is an objective phenomenon that manifests itself as a complex system with many nonlinear relationships between its subjects and objects. Globalization of the “new wave” has a number of specific characteristics and trends. They have led to the emergence of negative consequences and unexpected results of globalization. These tendencies do not presuppose the process of de-globalization, but they are a sign of the passage from one model of globalization to another, from the monocentric structure of (...)
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  9. Reason and Moral Motivation in Mòzǐ.Myeong-Seok Kim - forthcoming - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy:1-27.
    Based on the observation that ancient Chinese thinkers formulated their conception of logic and agency mainly around the concept of biàn 辯, Chris Fraser argues that ancient Chinese thinkers had no concept of sentence or proposition, they did not engage in logical argumentation in its proper sense, and reason or rationality was not highly valued in ancient China for normative evaluation of actions. However, the text of the Mòzǐ 墨子 contains strong pieces of evidence against these claims, and I argue (...)
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  10. Osterhammel, Jürgen, Translated by Robert Savage, Unfabling the East: The Enlightenment’s Encounter with Asia.Dinu Luca - forthcoming - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy:1-5.
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  11. Pre-Celebrating Journal of Chinese Philosophy’s 50th Anniversary.Chung-Ying Cheng - 2021 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 48 (1):3.
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  12. The Confucian Four Books for Women: A New Translation of the Nü Sishu and the Commentary of Wang Xiang, Written byAnn Pang-White.Yu-Yin Cheng - 2021 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 48 (1):108-110.
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  13. Plantingian Religious Epistemology and World Religions: Prospects and Problems, Written byErik Baldwin and Tyler Dalton McNabb.Shawn M. Langley - 2021 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 48 (1):111-113.
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  14. The Philosophy of Chinese Moral Education: A History, Written by Zhuran You, A. G. Rud, and Yingzi Hu.Leonard J. Waks - 2021 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 48 (1):105-107.
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  15. The Documents Classic as Guide to Political Philosophy in the Early Empires.Michael Nylan - 2021 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 48 (1):40-55.
    This essay provides an overview of the prescriptions advanced by the Han-era Documents classic, since it was indisputably the Documents that served as the chief guide to political philosophy in the early empires for members of the elite with the requisite high cultural learning. It presents the authoritative pronouncements of the Documents on a number of key issues, such as, Who has the legitimacy to rule? How shall the good ruler and his officials act to retain legitimacy? What is the (...)
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  16. Virtue, Body, Mind and Spirit in the Shijing: New Perspectives on Pre-Warring States Conceptions of Personhood and Virtue.Lisa Raphals - 2021 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 48 (1):28-39.
    This paper addresses the location of virtue within a virtuous person. It examines the relations of body, mind and spirit in the Shijing 詩經, which describes virtue in terms of the bodies and minds of virtuous agents. I argue that virtue is attributed to outward behavior, rather than inner state, and that that behavior is described via the performance of the shen or gong body.
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  17. Global Universal Values and the Dialog Among Civilizations.Natalia Smakotina, Ivan Aleshkovski & Alexander Gasparishvili - 2021 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 48 (1):71-79.
    The article explores the extent to which experts from different countries share the same axiological approaches with regard to the dialogue among civilizations and international cooperation at governmental and grass-roots levels. The article shows how subject matter experts provide collaborative input into the features and limits that shape global universal values. Interactions among civilizations promoting their equality and partnership as opposed to clashes should be at the heart of the transformations of values. Such transformations are expected to foster mutual exchange (...)
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  18. Conversational Disgust and Social Oppression.George Tsai - 2021 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 48 (1):89-104.
    In recent years, philosophers have begun to uncover the role played by verbal conduct in generating oppressive social structures. I examine the oppressive illocutionary uses, and perlocutionary effects, of expressives: speech acts that are not truth-apt, merely expressing attitudes, such as desires, preferences, and emotions. Focusing on expressions of disgust in conversation, I argue for two claims: that expressions of disgust can activate in the local, conversational context the oppressive power of the underlying structures of oppression; that conversational expressions of (...)
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  19. Main Trends of Global Development: Its Reality and Prospects.Alexander N. Chumakov - 2021 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 48 (1):80-88.
    The article analyzes the main parameters of the modern world development, its architectonics and the most important development trends. Modern communications and principles of interaction of various social systems are also considered. As a result, the most significant cultural-cum-civilizational systems are distinguished – the West, China, the Islamic world and Russia, which represent four global trends or four vectors of power that fundamentally affect the current state and prospects of world development. It is emphasized that the West and China have (...)
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  20. Dimensions of Humility in Early Confucian Thought.Kwong-loi Shun - 2021 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 48 (1):13-27.
    Through an examination of the problematic forms of pride highlighted in early texts and the traits to which they are opposed, the paper identifies three main dimensions of humility in early Confucian thought. These include a deflated self-conception, caution and fearfulness, as well as seriousness and awe. It then shows that the term jing 敬 is closely related to all three dimensions, and hence that this is the term in early Confucian thought closest to encompassing all the different aspects of (...)
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  21. De and Virtue in Early Confucian Texts: Introduction.Xinzhong Yao - 2021 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 48 (1):5-12.
    The introduction to this special issue describes the emergence of the virtue ethics approach within the study of Confucian virtues in recent decades. It will first examine scholarly contributions to the discussion of Confucian virtue ethics and then raises questions concerning whether or not de 德 in early Confucian texts is identical with arête or virtue. It will then investigate the meaning and implication of de in Confucian contexts and make an argument for a new type of Confucian de ethics. (...)
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  22. Gadamer's Linguistic Turn Revisited in Dialogue with Cheng's Onto‐Generative Hermeneutics.Andrew Fuyarchuk - 2019 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy.
    Journal of Chinese Philosophy, EarlyView.
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  23. Nelson, Eric S., Daoism and Environmental Philosophy: Nourishing Life.Yumi Suzuki - forthcoming - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy:1-6.
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  24. How to Defend a Small State?—H an Fei Zi, Plato, and Mencius.Tongdong Bai - forthcoming - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy:1-14.
    How to defend a small state is an important issue in politics and military affairs. Three important philosophical texts, the Han Fei Zi 韓非子, Plato’s Republic, and the Mencius, discuss this issue. In this article, I will analyze the three accounts offered in these texts, and compare and contrast them. We will see that the Han Fei Zi, a text in the “realist” tradition, offers a typically realist yet rather interesting account of how to save a small state from stronger (...)
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  25. Van Els, Paul, The Wenzi : Creativity and Intertextuality in Early Chinese Philosophy.Fan He - forthcoming - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy:1-5.
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  26. Liang, Zhiping 梁治平, Conducting Government: Ideas of Governance in Ancient China 為政: 古代中國的致治理念.Yun Tang - forthcoming - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy:1-4.
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  27. Sun, Xiangchen 孫向晨, On Family/Home: Individuals and Relations 論家: 個體與親親.Yanyan Zhao - forthcoming - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy:1-5.
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  28. Zhang, Zhaowei 張昭煒, The Tacit Dimension of Chinese Confucianism 中國儒學緘默維度.Gensheng Fan - forthcoming - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy:1-5.
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  29. Li and Qi in the Yijing : A Reconsideration of Being and Nonbeing in Chinese Philosophy.Chung-Ying Cheng - 2009 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 36 (5):73-100.
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  30. Mou Zongsan on Confucian and Kant’s Ethics: A Critical Reflection.Wing-Cheuk Chan - 2011 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 38 (5):146-164.
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  31. Virtue and Politics: Some Conceptions of Sovereignty in Ancient China.Anne Cheng - 2011 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 38 (5):133-145.
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  32. “Spewing Jade and Spitting Pearls”: Li Zhi’s Ethics of Genuineness.Pauline C. Lee - 2011 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 38 (5):114-132.
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  33. Xunzi on The Origin of Goodness: A New Interpretation.Chenyang Li - 2011 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 38 (5):46-63.
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  34. A Transformative Conception of Confucian Ethics: The Yijing, Utility, and Rights.Chung-Ying Cheng - 2011 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 38 (5):7-28.
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  35. New Confucianism as A Philosophy of Humanity and Governance.Chung-Ying Cheng - 2011 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 38 (5):1-2.
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  36. A Confucian Philosophical Agenda.Justin Tiwald - 2011 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 38 (5):3-6.
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  37. Series Preface: Chinese Philosophy in Unearthed Texts.Chung–Ying Cheng - 2014 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 41 (1-2):187-190.
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  38. Healing the Planet.Joseph Grange - 2013 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 40 (5):251-271.
    Our planet is sick and perhaps on a tipping point of extinction. The causes are well known—global warming, the collapse of the world economy, human greed, and thermonuclear war—to name but a few agents at work in the contemporary world. America and China hold the world’s destiny in their grip. How they will interact is unknown. What is known is that both civilizations have in their traditions the ways and means to reverse this approaching apocalypse. Each country is now passing (...)
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  39. A Reinterpretation and Reconstruction of Confucian Philosophy.Shu-Hsien Liu - 2013 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 40 (5):239-250.
    This article further develops my understanding of Confucianism as a spiritual tradition. The spirit of Confucian philosophy remains the same as Confucius and Mencius in the ancient era, and Zhu Xi in the Song Dynasty, who developed liyi-fenshu into a comprehensive anthropo-cosmic philosophy. The idea is inherited by Contemporary Neo-Confucian scholars, reinterpreted to cope with the current emphasis on plurality, the aspect of fenshu, but maintained liyi as a regulative principle, sometimes radical reconstruction is needed to respond to contemporary issues (...)
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  40. A Political Constitution for the Pluralist World Society?Jürgen Habermas - 2013 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 40 (5):226-238.
    The chances of the project of a “cosmopolitan order” being successful are not worse now than they were in 1945 or in 1989–1990.This does not mean that the chances are good, but we should not lose sight of the scale of things. The Kantian project first became part of the political agenda with the League of Nations, in other words after more than 200 years; and the idea of a cosmopolitan order first received a lasting embodiment with the foundation of (...)
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  41. The Goose Lake Monastery Debate.Julia Ching - 2013 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 40 (5):189-204.
    The Goose Lake Monastery Debate was an important event in the history of Chinese thought, chiefly because it marked the differences between two of the greatest representatives of the movement of thought known in the West as Neo-Confucianism. In this article, it is my aim to offer a historical reconstruction of the events that took place, to give an exegetical analysis of the problems discussed, and to conclude with an interpretation that places these problems in a wider perspective. I hope (...)
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  42. The Significance of Xiong Shili’s Interpretation of Dignāga’s Ālambana-Parīkṣā.John Makeham - 2013 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 40 (5):205-225.
    This essay is an exercise in intellectual archaeology in which I seek to show that already in Xiong Shili’s first account of Yogācāra, Weishixue Gailun, we are able to find the first indications of a critical attitude to Yogācāra that would grow in intensity over the following two decades. These critiques served the rhetorical purpose of bolstering the authority of Xuanzang. Before long, however, Xiong even rejected that authority.
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  43. From Interpretation to Construction: Guo Xiang’s Ontological Individualism.Vincent Shen - 2013 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 40 (5):171-188.
    Guo Xiang’s ontological individualism represents a case of philosophical construction based on his interpretation of the Zhuangzi. His concept of the self-transformation of the individual who is selfborn, with self-nature and without dependence on others supports the idea of individual autonomy. Nevertheless, each individual’s act for self-interest still benefits other individuals in a non-teleological mutual accommodation. The path from duhua of each individual on the level of existence, to the xiangyin among individuals on the level of action consequence, to the (...)
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  44. Fathoming the Changes: The Evolution of Some Technical Terms and Interpretive Strategies in Yijing Exegesis.Richard J. Smith - 2013 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 40 (5):146-170.
    This essay maps the changing contours of Yijing exegesis, focusing in particular on certain specialized terms that deal with the related problems of “knowing fate” and “establishing fate”. Among the concepts to be discussed are hui, ji, jiu, li, li, lin, wang, heng, wujiu, xiong, yong, yuan, and zhen.
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  45. Illuminations of the Quotidian in Nishida, Chan/Zen Buddhism, and Sino-Japanese Philosophy.Steve Odin - 2013 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 40 (5):135-145.
    Return to the ordinary as extraordinary has become the signature motif for the Emersonian perfectionism of Stanley Cavell in contemporary American philosophy. In this article I develop Cavell’s notion of “the ordinary” as an intercultural theme for exploring aspects of traditional Chinese philosophy, especially Confucianism and Chan Buddhism. I further use Cavell’s philosophy of the ordinary to examine Sino-Japanese thought as found in the Zen tradition of Japan and its reformulation by Nishida Kitarô in modern Japanese philosophy. It will be (...)
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  46. On Interphilosophical Sino-Western Dialogue in the Contemporary World.Marián Gálik - 2013 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 40 (5):99-114.
    This article tries to put forward the problems of theory of Comparative Philosophy into the broad framework of Sino-Western dialogue in our global age. It begins with the critical evaluation of New Confucianism as the best scholarly elaborated Chinese philosophy in modern times, which on the basis of integrative studies within the broad dialogue may be able to help to create the polymorphous philosophy congenial for the contemporary world. Sharing harmony but not uniformity on the background of different vistas such (...)
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  47. Chinese Philosophy in Post-Soviet Russia.Alexander Lomanov - 2013 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 40 (5):115-134.
    This article introduces the main developments in studies on Chinese philosophy in Russia since the 1990s.At the backstage of upsurge of interest in cultural studies scholars tended to approach the Chinese philosophy from the angle of compatibility of modernization with continuity of tradition. Attention to the links between philosophy and civilization of China has made the impact to the work on encyclopedic-type reference books in Chinese philosophy. Along with studies in philosophy of Contemporary Confucianism scholars has debated on general problems (...)
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  48. Confucian Ethics in Modernity: Ontologically Rooted, Internationally Resposive, and Integratively Systematic.Chung-Ying Cheng - 2013 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 40 (5):76-98.
    This article, from my onto-generative and onto-hermeneutic theories, will explore how Confucian virtue ethics could be modernized and globalized by answering challenges of civic duties, human rights, policy planning and decision-making regarding social and communal development with considerations of maximal sustainable goodness or benefits to both individual and groups. In doing so, we come to recognize the multifunctional potency of Confucian virtues in meeting modern and postmodern needs and demands in a complicated global-local environment, and see how this development of (...)
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  49. God’s Knowledge and Ours: Kant and Mou Zongsan on Intellectual Intuition.Nicholas Bunnin - 2013 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 40 (5):47-58.
    This article examines Mou Zongsan’s claim that “if it is true that human beings cannot have intellectual intuition, then the whole of Chinese philosophy must collapse completely, and the thousands years of effort must be in vain. It is just an illusion.” I argue that Mou’s commitment to establishing and justifying a “moral metaphysics” was his main motivation for rejecting Kant’s denial of the possibility of humans having intellectual intuition. I consider the implications of Mou’s response to Kant for the (...)
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  50. Chinese Philosophy in Systematic Metaphysics.Robert Cummings Neville - 2013 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 40 (5):59-75.
    The chief problematic for contemporary systematic metaphysics is to develop categories for understanding the world as having value at the same time that it is explicable by science. Western philosophical thinking, with major exceptions, has tracked science by understanding the world to be factual but not intrinsically valuable. Chinese philosophy in all periods has understood human beings to be embedded within society which in turn is embedded within nature, all of which bear values of appropriate types. Themes in Chinese philosophy (...)
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