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  1. Paradoxical Language in Chan Buddhism.Chien-Hsing Ho - 2020 - In Yiu-Ming Fung (ed.), Dao Companion to Chinese Philosophy of Logic. Dordrecht: Springer. pp. 389-404.
    Chinese Chan or Zen Buddhism is renowned for its improvisational, atypical, and perplexing use of words. In particular, the tradition’s encounter dialogues, which took place between Chan masters and their interlocutors, abound in puzzling, astonishing, and paradoxical ways of speaking. In this chapter, we are concerned with Chan’s use of paradoxical language. In philosophical parlance, a linguistic paradox comprises the confluence of opposite or incongruent concepts in a way that runs counter to our common sense and ordinary rational thinking. One (...)
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  2. Illuminating a Truth: Dṛṣṭānta and Huatou.Jeson Woo - 2020 - Religions 11 (9):1-11.
    In Chan/Seon/Zen (禪, hereafter referred to as Chan) Buddhism, the gongan (公案), a word that can be literally translated as “public case”, is conceived as both the tool by which enlightenment is brought about and an expression of the enlightened mind itself. Among the diverse styles of gongan, perhaps the most puzzling is a form of its key phrase, huatou (話頭), that utilizes specific things in the world. These things are either real and empirically observable, or conversely, unreal and merely (...)
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  3. The Philosophical Thought of Wang Chong.Alexus McLeod - 2018 - Palgrave Macmillan.
    This book is a study of the methodological, metaphysical, and epistemological work of the Eastern Han Dynasty period scholar Wang Chong. It presents Wang’s philosophical thought as a unique and syncretic culmination of a number of ideas developed in earlier Han and Warring States philosophy. Wang’s philosophical methodology and his theories of truth, knowledge, and will and determinism offer solutions to a number of problems in the early Chinese tradition. His views also have much to offer contemporary philosophy, suggesting new (...)
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  4. Recognizing "Truth" in Chinese Philosophy.Lajos L. Brons - 2016 - Logos and Episteme 7 (3):273-286.
    The debate about truth in Chinese philosophy raises the methodological question How to recognize "truth" in some non-Western tradition of thought? In case of Chinese philosophy it is commonly assumed that the dispute concerns a single question, but a distinction needs to be made between the property of /truth/, the concept of TRUTH, and the word *truth*. The property of /truth/ is what makes something true; the concept of TRUTH is our understanding of /truth/; and *truth*· is the word we (...)
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  5. Interdependence and Nonduality: On the Linguistic Strategy of the Platform Sūtra.Chien-Hsing Ho - 2016 - Philosophy East and West 66 (4):1231-1250.
    Although Chan, or Zen, Buddhism traditionally claimed itself as a special transmission outside doctrinal teachings that eschews the written word, it has long been praised for its improvisational, atypical, intriguing, and intricate use of words. Prominent Chan masters are characteristically skillful in employing paradoxical and aporetic phrases, figurative and poetic expressions, negations, questions, repetitions, and so forth, to express their thoughts, indicate their awakened states of mind, cut off the interlocutor’s habitual dualistic thinking, or evoke in him or her an (...)
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  6. Correlative Reasoning About Water in Mengzi 6A2.Nicholaos Jones - 2016 - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 15 (2):193-207.
    Mengzi 孟子 6A2 contains the famous water analogy for the innate goodness of human nature. Some evaluate Mengzi’s reasoning as strong and sophisticated; others, as weak or sophistical. I urge for more nuance in our evaluation. Mengzi’s reasoning fares poorly when judged by contemporary standards of analogical strength. However, if we evaluate the analogy as an instance of correlative thinking within a yin-yang 陰陽 cosmology, his reasoning fares well. That cosmology provides good reason to assert that water tends to flow (...)
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  7. Ways of Doing Cross-Cultural Philosophy.Koji Tanaka - 2016 - In John Makeham (ed.), Learning from the Other: Australian and Chinese Perspectives on Philosophy. Canberra: Australian Academy of the Humanities. pp. 59-65.
  8. The Semantic Concept of Truth in Pre-Han Chinese Philosophy.Wai Ch'un1 Leong - 2015 - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 14 (1):55-74.
    In this paper I argue, contrary to Chad Hansen’s view , that pre-Han 漢 Chinese philosophy has the semantic concept of truth. Hansen argues that, first, pre-Han Chinese thinkers do not have motivations to introduce the concept of truth in their philosophy due to their peculiar theory of language; second, the concept does not fit well with philosophical texts at that time, and in particular, the Mozi 墨子 text about the three standards of doctrine. However, I argue that Chinese thinkers (...)
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  9. Semantics Without Truth in Later Mohist Philosophy of Language.Frank Saunders - 2014 - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 13 (2):215-229.
    In this paper, I examine the concept of truth in classical Chinese philosophy, beginning with a critical examination of Chad Hansen’s claim that it has no such concept. By using certain passages that emphasize analogous concepts in the philosophy of language of the Later Mohist Canons, I argue that while there is no word in classical Chinese that functions as truth generally does in Western philosophy for grammatical reasons, the Later Mohists were certainly working with a notion of semantic adequacy (...)
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  10. Distinctions, Judgment, and Reasoning in Classical Chinese Thought.Chris Fraser - 2013 - History and Philosophy of Logic 34 (1):1-24.
    The article proposes an account of the prevailing classical Chinese conception of reasoning and argumentation that grounds it in a semantic theory and epistemology centered on drawing distinctions between the similar and dissimilar kinds of things that do or do not fall within the extension of ‘names’. The article presents two novel interpretive hypotheses. First, for pre-Hàn Chinese thinkers, the functional role associated with the logical copula is filled by a general notion of similarity or sameness. Second, these thinkers’ basic (...)
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  11. Ontic Indeterminacy and Paradoxical Language: A Philosophical Analysis of Sengzhao’s Linguistic Thought.Chien-Hsing Ho - 2013 - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 12 (4):505-522.
    For Sengzhao (374−414 CE), a leading Sanlun philosopher of Chinese Buddhism, things in the world are ontologically indeterminate in that they are devoid of any determinate form or nature. In his view, we should understand and use words provisionally, so that they are not taken to connote the determinacy of their referents. To echo the notion of ontic indeterminacy and indicate the provisionality of language, his main work, the Zhaolun, abounds in paradoxical expressions. In this essay, I offer a philosophical (...)
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  12. Preface: Chinese Logic as Threefold: Reference, Meaning and Use.Chung-Ying Cheng - 2012 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 39 (3):325-326.
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  13. Kurtz, Joachim, The Discovery of Chinese Logic: Leiden: Brill, 2011, Xiv + 474 Pages.Carine Defoort - 2012 - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 11 (4):527-532.
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  14. Truth In Moist Dialectics.Chris Fraser - 2012 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 39 (3):351-368.
    The article assesses Chad Hansen's arguments that both early and later Moist texts apply only pragmatic, not semantic, terms of evaluation and treat “appropriate word or language usage,” not semantic truth. I argue that the early Moist “three standards” are indeed criteria of a general notion of correct dao 道 , not specifically of truth. However, as I explain, their application may include questions of truth. I show in detail how later Moist texts employ terms with the same expressive role (...)
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  15. One Name, Infinite Meanings: Jizang’s Thought on Meaning and Reference.Chien-Hsing Ho - 2012 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 39 (3):436-452.
    Jizang sets forth a hermeneutical theory of “one name, infinite meanings” that proposes four types of interpretation of word meaning to the effect that a nominal word X means X, non-X, the negation of X, and all things whatsoever. In this article, I offer an analysis of the theory, with a view to elucidating Jizang's thought on meaning and reference and considering its contemporary significance. The theory, I argue, may best be viewed as an expedient means for telling us how (...)
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  16. The Nonduality of Speech and Silence: A Comparative Analysis of Jizang’s Thought on Language and Beyond.Chien-Hsing Ho - 2012 - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 11 (1):1-19.
    Jizang (549−623 CE), the key philosophical exponent of the Sanlun tradition of Chinese Buddhism, based his philosophy considerably on his reading of the works of Nāgārjuna (c.150−250 CE), the founder of the Indian Madhyamaka school. However, although Jizang sought to follow Nāgārjuna closely, there are salient features in his thought on language that are notably absent from Nāgārjuna’s works. In this paper, I present a philosophical analysis of Jizang’s views of the relationship between speech and silence and compare them with (...)
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  17. Why White Horses Are Not Horses and Other Chinese Puzzles.Thierry Lucas - 2012 - Logique Et Analyse 56:185-203.
    The aim of this paper is on the one hand to remind the Western reader of some aporias of Chinese antiquity, and on the other hand to show that a logic of sorts or of types similar to that which has been proposed to explain the relation between categories (in the mathematical sense of the term) and logic brings much light on these aporias. This should be contrasted with older traditional explanations using conventional syllogistics or feeling satised with too simple (...)
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  18. Names, Cranes, and the Later Moists.Dan Robins - 2012 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 39 (3):369-385.
    The Later Moists grounded our linguistic abilities in our ability to distinguish between kinds on the basis of manifest similarities and differences among things. Proper names, however, require a different treatment. According to the Moists, when we use a proper name, we borrow a word for one kind of thing and use it to refer to something else, as when we name dogs “crane.” This view probably responds in part to arguments that the possibility of using any word to refer (...)
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  19. The Really Hard Problem: Meaning in a Material World – By Owen Flanagan.James Behuniak - 2011 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 38 (2):323-327.
  20. Did Buddhism Ever Go East?: The Westernization of Buddhism in Chad Hansen's Daoist Historiography.Douglas L. Berger - 2011 - Philosophy East and West 61 (1):38-55.
    The scholarly career of Professor Chad Hansen has been devoted in large measure to an elucidation of the relationship between the classical Chinese language and the structure and aims of pre-Qin philosophical thought. His “mass-noun” hypothesis of classical Chinese thought, his notion of dao 道 as “guiding discourse,” and his clarifications of the significance of Mohism are marked achievements from which all of us have benefited immensely. In the opening chapters of A Daoist Theory of Chinese Thought, Hansen prefaces his (...)
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  21. Zhuangzi and Early Chinese Philosophy: Vagueness, Transformation and Paradox (Review).Aaron B. Creller - 2011 - Philosophy East and West 61 (2):385-388.
    Steve Coutinho's Zhuangzi and Early Chinese Philosophy: Vagueness, Transformation and Paradox, is a comparative philosophy project masterfully carried out on two levels, the methodological and the interpretive. Coutinho provides a translation of the Zhuangzi that is both contextually rooted and philosophically rich. Whether or not one agrees with Coutinho's interpretation, there is much to be gleaned from his book. The first few chapters create a meta-philosophical structure that the rest of the book puts to use. Given the lucid movement from (...)
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  22. Abstract Concept Formation in Archaic Chinese Script Forms: Some Humboldtian Perspectives.Kwan 關子尹 Tze-Wan - 2011 - Philosophy East and West 61 (3):409-452.
    Starting from the Humboldtian characterization of Chinese writing as a "script of thoughts," this article makes an attempt to show that notwithstanding the important role played by phonetic elements, the Chinese script also relies on visual-graphical means in its constitution of meaning. In point of structure, Chinese characters are made up predominantly of components that are sensible or even tangible in nature. Out of these sensible components, not only physical objects or empirical states of affairs can be expressed, but also (...)
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  23. Xunzi as a Semantic Inferentialist: Zhengmin, Bian-Shuo and Dao-Li.Chung-I. Lin - 2011 - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 10 (3):311-340.
    This essay argues that the idea of name-rectification ( zheng ming 正名) in the Xunzi can be properly reconstructed as revealing a normative pragmatic semantic theme that linguistic contents embody, and are embedded in, the normative, justificatory network, or pattern, of dao li 道理 (proper routes/patterns of norm) which, in turn, is constituted and manifested by social inferential justificatory practices of bian shuo 辯說 (dialectical justification/explanation).
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  24. Inference in the Mengzi 1a: 7.Koji Tanaka - 2011 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 38 (3):444-454.
    In 1A:7 of the Mengzi, Mengzi tries to convince King Xuan of Qi that he is a “true” king. As a reading of Mengzi’s reasoning involved in his attempt at persuasion, David Nivison advances an inferential view, according to which Mengzi’s persuasion involves inferences. In this paper, I consider the assumptions underlying the objections raised against Nivison’s inferential view. I argue that these objections assume a contemporary Western view about the nature of logic and inferences. I propose an alternative characterisation (...)
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  25. Do Differences in Grammatical Form Between Languages Explain Differences in Ontology Between Different Philosophical Traditions?: A Critique of the Mass-Noun Hypothesis.Xiaomei Yang - 2011 - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 10 (2):149-166.
    It is an assumed view in Chinese philosophy that the grammatical differences between English or Indo-European languages and classical Chinese explain some of the differences between the Western and Chinese philosophical discourses. Although some philosophers have expressed doubts about the general link between classical Chinese philosophy and syntactic form of classical Chinese, I discuss a specific hypothesis, i.e., the mass-noun hypothesis, in this essay. The mass-noun hypothesis assumes that a linguistic distinction such as between the singular terms and the predicates (...)
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  26. Grounding "Language" in the Senses: What the Eyes and Ears Reveal About Ming 名 (Names) in Early Chinese Texts.Jane Geaney - 2010 - Philosophy East and West 60 (2):pp. 251-293.
    For understanding early Chinese "theories of language" and views about the relation of speech to a nonalphabetic script, a thorough analysis of early Chinese metalinguistic terminology is necessary. This article analyzes the function of ming & (name) in early Chinese texts as a first step in that direction. It argues against the regular treatment of this term in early Chinese texts as the equivalent of "word." It examines ming in light of early Chinese ideas about sense perception, the mythology about (...)
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  27. ‘Right Words Are Like the Reverse’—The Daoist Rhetoric and the Linguistic Strategy in Early Chinese Buddhism.Hans-Rudolf Kantor - 2010 - Asian Philosophy 20 (3):283-307.
    ?Right words are like the reverse? is the concluding remark of chap. 78 in the Daoist classic Daodejing. Quoted in treatises composed by Seng Zhao (374?414), it designates the linguistic strategy used to unfold the Buddhist Madhyamaka meaning of ?emptiness? and ?ultimate truth?. In his treatise Things Do not Move, Seng Zhao demonstrates that ?motion and stillness? are not really contradictory, performing the deconstructive meaning of Buddhist ?emptiness? via the corresponding linguistic strategy. Though the topic of the discussion and the (...)
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  28. Li Tongxuan's Utilization of Chinese Symbolism in the Explication of the Avataṃasaka-Sūtra.Seunghak Koh - 2010 - Asian Philosophy 20 (2):141-158.
    This article deals with Li Tongxuan's explication of the Avata asaka-s tra in terms of the Sinification of Buddhism. While the affirmation of the present human condition is shared by other Chinese Huayan masters as well, this attitude is most evident in Li Tongxuan's explication of the scripture where the Chinese symbolisms such as yin-yang and five phases are amply employed. For him, every scriptural description on ordinary objects and names, especially directions, had profound religious implications. In order to reveal (...)
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  29. New Perspectives on Moist Logic.Fenrong Liu & Jialong Zhang - 2010 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 37 (4):605-621.
  30. Language and Emptiness in Chan Buddhism and the Early Heidegger.Eric S. Nelson - 2010 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 37 (3):472-492.
  31. The Later Mohists and Logic.Dan Robins - 2010 - History and Philosophy of Logic 31 (3):247-285.
    This article is a study of the Later Mohists' 'Lesser Selection (Xiaoqu)', which, more than any other early Chinese text, seems to engage in the study of logic. I focus on a procedure that the Mohists called mou . Arguments by mou are grounded in linguistic parallelism, implying perhaps that the Mohists were on the way to a formal analysis of argumentation. However, their main aim was to head off arguments by mou that targeted their own doctrines, and if their (...)
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  32. Proposition, Definition and Inference in Ancient Chinese Philosophy.Ningzhong Shi - 2010 - Frontiers of Philosophy in China 5 (3):414-431.
    This article attempts to explore ancient Chinese philosophical thought by analyzing how pioneering Chinese thinkers made judgments and inferences, and compares it to ancient Greek philosophy. It first addresses the starting-point and the object of cognition in Chinese ancient philosophy, then analyses how early thinkers construed definition and proposition, and finally discusses how they made inferences on the basis of definition and proposition. It points out that categorization is an important methodology in ancient Chinese philosophy, and that rectification of names (...)
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  33. Isolation and Involvement: Wilhelm Von Humboldt, François Jullien, and More.Christian Helmut Wenzel - 2010 - Philosophy East and West 60 (4):458-475.
    This is an essay about language, thought, and culture in general, and about Ancient Greek and Classical Chinese in particular. It is about the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, which says that language influences the mind, and applies this hypothesis to Greek and Chinese. It is also an essay in comparative philosophy as well as a contribution to the history of ideas. From the language side, I rely on the nineteenth-century German linguist Wilhelm von Humboldt, and from the culture side on the contemporary (...)
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  34. A Preliminary Discussion of Dai Zhen’s Philosophy of Language.Genyou Wu - 2010 - Frontiers of Philosophy in China 5 (4):523-542.
    Dai Zhen’s philosophy of language took the opportunity of a transition in Chinese philosophy to develop a form of humanist positivism, which was different from both the Song and Ming dynasties’ School of Principles and the early Qing dynasty’s philosophical forms. His philosophy of language had four primary manifestations: (1) It differentiated between names pointing at entities and real events and names describing summum bonum and perfection ; (2) In discussing the metaphysical issue of the Dao, it was the first (...)
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  35. ZHAI, Jincheng 翟錦程, the Study of the Theories of Ming 名 (Name) in the Pre-Qin Period 先秦名家研究.Jinmei Yuan - 2010 - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 9 (2):253-255.
  36. Xunzi’s Politicized and Moralized Philosophy of Language.Bo Chen - 2009 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 36 (1):107-139.
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  37. Language and Logic in Ancient China: Collected Papers on the Chinese Language and Logic.Janusz Chmielewski - 2009 - Pan.
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  38. Coutinho, Steve, Zhuangzi and Early Chinese Philosophy: Vagueness, Transformation, and Paradox. [REVIEW]Alan Fox - 2009 - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 8 (2):209-211.
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  39. A Sketch of the Diamondsutra's Logic of Not.Shigenori Nagatomo - 2009 - In David Edward Jones & Ellen R. Klein (eds.), Asian Texts, Asian Contexts: Encounters with Asian Philosophies and Religions. State University of New York Press.
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  40. Flowers and Steps in the Boolean Lattice of Hexagrams.Andreas Schã–ter - 2009 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 36 (4):113-128.
  41. Response to Frisina’s Response.Xiaomei Yang - 2009 - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 8 (3):333-336.
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  42. A Return to Intellectual History: A New Approach to Pre-Qin Discourse on Name. [REVIEW]Feng Cao - 2008 - Frontiers of Philosophy in China 3 (2):213-228.
    Discussions of name during the pre-Qin and Qin-Han period of Chinese history were very active. The concept ming at that time can be divided into two categories, one is the ethical-political meaning of the term and the other is the linguistic-logical understanding. The former far exceeds the latter in terms of overall influence on the development of Chinese intellectual history. But it is the latter that has received the most attention in the 20th century, due to the influence of Western (...)
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  43. Moral Contagion and Logical Persuasion in the Mozi《墨子》 1.Owen Flanagan - 2008 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 35 (3):473-491.
  44. Mohist Canons.Chris Fraser - 2008 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    The Mohist Canons are a set of brief statements on a variety of philosophical and other topics by anonymous members of the Mohist school , an influential philosophical, social, and religious movement of China's Warring States period (479-221 B.C.). [1] Written and compiled most likely between the late 4th and mid 3rd century B.C., the Canons are often referred to as the “later Mohist” or “Neo-Mohist” canons, since they seem chronologically later than the bulk of the Mohist writings, most of (...)
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  45. Mengzi, Strategic Language, and the Shaping of Behavior.Steven F. Geisz - 2008 - Philosophy East and West 58 (2):190-222.
    : This essay introduces a way of reading the Mengzi (Mencius) that complicates how we understand what Mengzi is recorded as saying. A pragmatic-strategic reading of the Mengzi is developed here, according to which Mengzi attends to and operates under important pragmatic constraints on speech. Based on a close reading of key passages, it is argued that truth-telling and descriptive accuracy are less important to Mengzi than guiding people along the Confucian path. This reading has implications for our understanding of (...)
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  46. The Finger Pointing Toward the Moon: A Philosophical Analysis of the Chinese Buddhist Thought of Reference.Chien-Hsing Ho - 2008 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 35 (1):159-177.
    In this essay I attempt a philosophical analysis of the Chinese Buddhist thought of linguistic reference to shed light on how the Buddhist understands the way language refers to an ineffable reality. For this purpose, the essay proceeds in two directions: an enquiry into the linguistic thoughts of Sengzhao (374-414 CE) and Jizang (549-623 CE), two leading Chinese Madhyamika thinkers, and an analysis of the Buddhist simile of a moon-pointing finger. The two approaches respectively constitute the horizontal and vertical axes (...)
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  47. Zhuangzi and the Experience of Language Itself.Eske Millgaard - 2008 - In Jay Goulding (ed.), China-West Interculture: Toward the Philosophy of World Integration: Essays on Wu Kuang-Ming's Thinking. Global Scholarly Publications.
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  48. Reinterpreting Gongsun Longzi and Critical Comments on Other Interpretations.Chung-Ying Cheng - 2007 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 34 (4):537–560.
  49. More Mohist Marginalia: A Reply to Makeham on Later Mohist Canon and Explanation B 67.Chris Fraser - 2007 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy and Culture 2:227–59.
    This note responds to an interpretation of Mohist Canon and Explanation B 671 published by John Makeham some years ago. Makeham’s interpretation makes significant contributions to our understanding of this passage, especially in calling attention to problems with two influential previous interpretations, those of A. C. Graham and Chad Hansen.3 Yet his reading presents difficulties of its own, which I will attempt to rectify here.
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  50. Language and Ontology in Early Chinese Thought.Chris Fraser - 2007 - Philosophy East and West 57 (4):420-456.
    : This essay critiques Chad Hansen’s "mass noun hypothesis," arguing that though most Classical Chinese nouns do function as mass nouns, this fact does not support the claim that pre-Qin thinkers treat the extensions of common nouns as mereological wholes, nor does it explain why they adopt nominalist semantic theories. The essay shows that early texts explain the use of common nouns by appeal to similarity relations, not mereological relations. However, it further argues that some early texts do characterize the (...)
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