Chinese Philosophy

Edited by JeeLoo Liu (California State University, Fullerton)
About this topic
Summary Chinese philosophy is built on the metaphysical assumption that qi (traditionally translated as “material force” or “vital energy”) pervades the Universe and all things are composed of qi. This ontology leads to a conception of the world as an organic whole, in which everything is interconnected – from nature to the human world, from inorganic objects to sensible things. Chinese philosophers had a purely this-worldly concern; their goal was to improve on the world given. Originated in the primitive form of nature worship, ancient Chinese developed a sense of admiration and affection towards the natural world around them. This religious spirit prompted a philosophical pursuit of the order of the universe and the ontological foundation for all existence. Ancient Chinese thinkers had an intense desire to find the best way to make the right political decisions, to alleviate social problems, and to properly conduct themselves. Sociopolitical philosophy and ethics are thus the two core areas in Chinese philosophy. At the same time, since social structure, political polity and human conduct should all cohere with the cosmic order, Chinese philosophy is fundamentally rooted in its cosmology. This cosmology is manifested mostly in the philosophy of the Yijing. Chinese cosmology is built on the belief that there is a cosmic order or cosmic pattern, which serves not only as the source for all existence, but also as the governing rule for all cosmic developments. This pattern was commonly referred to as ‘Dao’ by ancient philosophers. The pursuit ofDao would become an ultimate goal shared by all Chinese philosophers. Under the holistic cosmic picture, the cosmic order also governs human affairs. Consequently, Dao takes on a normative connotation: it signifies the right way for human affairs and the normative principle for human conduct. In this sense, Daostands for the highest moral precept for human beings. There are three main branches in Chinese philosophy – Confucianism, Daoism and Buddhism. Each school has its distinct answer to the quest of ultimate reality and the roles humans should play in this world. To educate others what constitutes virtue and to inspire others to act in accordance with Dao, was thus the self-assigned mission for most Chinese philosophers.
Key works The first systematic introduction to Chinese philosophy is the two-volume set Fung Yu-lan 1997, first published in the 1930s. This book is arguably the most influential introduction to the history of Chinese philosophy, even though some of Fung’s analyses are often contested by contemporary Chinese scholars. The two-volume set has been translated into English by Derk Bodde (Feng & Bodde 1937). A condensed and more accessible version of Fung’s History is also translated by Derk Bodde (Feng 1948). Among Chinese scholars, Lao 2005’s thee-volume (in four books) set is widely respected and frequently consulted. A more recent and analytic introduction to Chinese philosophy is Liu 2006. This book does not cover the history of Chinese philosophy beyond Chinese Buddhism, however. Mou 2008 has a more comprehensive coverage of all eras in the history of Chinese philosophy, but at the cost of sacrificing philosophical details. For readers who cannot read primary Chinese texts, Chan 1963 is a good source of representative selections of Chinese philosophical works.
Introductions

Chan 1963 provides a comprehensive coverage and fairly representative selections of all major philosophers or philosophical schools in Chinese history. The editor provides succinct introductions for each selection. It is a must-have sourcebook for scholars who can read only English, even though the old-fashioned Wade-Giles spelling of Chinese names in this book could create confusion for beginners.  

Feng & Bodde 1937 provides a comprehensive coverage of various schools in the history of Chinese philosophy. At times, the introduction is packed with quotes, with little analysis. It is nonetheless an authoritative introduction to this date.

Feng 1948 is not just an abridgment of Feng & Bodde 1937. Fung wrote this short history with the aim to give a complete picture of Chinese philosophical history in a nutshell. This book is far more accessible and interesting than Feng & Bodde 1937. Originally published in New York: Macmillan, 1948.

Lao Ssu-Kwang勞思光, Xinbian Zhongguo Zhexue Shi新編中國哲學史. 3 volumes. Guangxi, China: Guanxi shifandaxue chubanshe, 2005.

There is no English translation of this three-volume set. This is a revised version of Lao’s famed History of Chinese Philosophy (Zhongguo zhexue shi 中國哲學史), originally published in Hong Kong: Youlian chubanshe, 1968. Lao’s History provides detailed logical analysis of the philosophical problems and theories of all the schools covered in this book. It is widely referred to by Chinese scholars.

Liu 2006 provides an up-to-date introduction to Chinese philosophy in the analytic style. In its analysis of primary texts, it also reflects topics and discourses on Chinese philosophy in contemporary scholarship in English. The scope of this book covers classical philosophical schools and four major schools in Chinese Buddhism.

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  1. Book Review: The Sense of Antirationalism: The Religious Thought of Zhuangzi and Kierkegaard. [REVIEW]Robert Allinson - 2003 - Journal of Religion 83:477-479.
    This book is co-written in a lively, engaging form by Karen Carr, from the discipline of religious studies and Philip Ivanhoe, whose background is in the disciplines of religious studies and Asian languages and philosophy. Unlike typical co-authorship, these two authors write separate pieces about Zhuangzi and Soren Kierkegaard and then together offer a combined vision. Refreshingly, the emphasis is on contrast of exemplars of two different and irreconcilable ways instead of comparison between similar thinkers. The two authors are to (...)
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  2. Heidegger, Taoism, and the Question of Metaphysics.Joan Stambaugh - 1987 - In Graham Parkes (ed.), Heidegger and Asian Thought. University of Hawaii Press. pp. 79-92.
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  3. The Ethics of Head Transplant From the Confucian Perspective of Human Virtues.Jianhui Li & Yaming Li - 2022 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 47 (2):230-239.
    Head transplantation has ignited intense discussions about whether it should be done scientifically and ethically. This paper examines the ethics of head transplantation from a Confucian perspective and offers arguments against the permissibility of head transplantation. From a Confucian point of view, human beings are the most precious organisms in the world, and ren and li are the basic moral principles of human beings. As long as head transplant technology remains underdeveloped, this procedure should not be done because it will (...)
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  4. Who Would the Person Be After a Head Transplant? A Confucian Reflection.Lin Bian & Ruiping Fan - 2022 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 47 (2):210-229.
    This essay draws on classical Confucian intellectual resources to argue that the person who emerges from a head transplant would be neither the person who provided the head, nor the person who provided the body, but a new, different person. We construct two types of argument to support this conclusion: one is based on the classical Confucian metaphysics of human life as qi activity; the other is grounded in the Confucian view of personal identity as being inseparable from one’s familial (...)
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  5. The Irony of Confucius.Dimitra Amarantidou - forthcoming - Philosophy Compass.
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  6. Material Objects in Confucian and Aristotelian Metaphysics: The Inevitability of Hylomorphism.James Dominic Rooney - 2022 - Bloomsbury Academic.
    Hylomorphism is a metaphysical theory that accounts for the unity of the material parts of composite objects by appeal to a structure or ‘form’ characterizing those parts. I argue that hylomorphism is not merely a plausible or appealing solution to problems of material composition, but a position entailed by any coherent metaphysics of ordinary material objects. In fact, not only does hylomorphism have Aristotelian defenders, but it has had independent lives in both East and West. -/- I review three contemporary (...)
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  7. Confucian Free Expression and the Threat of Disinformation.David Elstein - 2022 - Sage Publications Ltd: Philosophy and Social Criticism 48 (4):568-579.
    Philosophy & Social Criticism, Volume 48, Issue 4, Page 568-579, May 2022. At present, there is a wide divergence in attitudes toward free speech in countries strongly influenced by Confucianism. Japan, Korea, and Taiwan have fairly robust rights of free expression. Mainland China does not, strongly restricting speech that the government judges threatens State interests. I argue that although traditional Confucian scholars supported many restrictions on expression, Confucian philosophers actually have good reason to want to protect expression about values. Subsequently, (...)
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  8. The Moral Significance of Human Likeness in Sex Robots: A Confucian Perspective.Lawrence Y. Y. Yung - 2021 - In Ruiping Fan & Mark J. Cherry (eds.), Sex Robots: Social Impact and the Future of Human Relations. Springer. pp. 115-127.
    There is a moral significance to transferring human likeness to a sex robot. Once the robot has been crafted with a human likeness, the representational contents of human-robot sex must be understood as the same as sex with a human. As a result, sex with a child-like sex robot, for example, is a representation of sex with an underage child. Sex with a robot modelled on a particular person is a representation of sex with that person objectified. Human likeness plays (...)
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  9. What Kinds of Use of Sex Robots Can Be Morally Allowed? A Confucian Perspective.Hanhui Xu - 2021 - In Ruiping Fan & Mark J. Cherry (eds.), Sex Robots: Social Impact and the Future of Human Relations. Springer. pp. 129-142.
    Generally speaking, sex robots are artificial entities designed to be humanlike in appearance and behavior, and which are primarily used for sexual purposes. In the literature on robot ethics, most work is influenced by either deontology or utilitarianism. In this article, I address some issues concerning sex robots from a Confucian standpoint. The first question that will be raised is whether sex robots can be morally permitted. Intuitively, such machines might not be morally acceptable for Confucianism since Confucians seem to (...)
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  10. Flowers in a Mirror: Critique of ‘Confucianization of Law’.Kang Sun - forthcoming - Asian Philosophy:1-23.
    The theory of ‘Confucianization of law’ put forward by T’ung-tsu Ch’ü in his book titled Law and Society in Traditional China has a great academic influence in the world. However, ‘Confucianization...
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  11. Sincerity (Cheng) as a Civic and Political Virtue in Classical Confucian Philosophy.Dawid Rogacz - forthcoming - Philosophy Compass:e12833.
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  12. Political Authority and Resistance to Injustice: A Confucian Perspective.Kevin K. W. Ip - forthcoming - Sage Publications Ltd: Philosophy and Social Criticism.
    Philosophy & Social Criticism, Ahead of Print. Those who bear the burdens of injustice and oppression are entitled to act in ways contrary to existing laws and institutions to secure their own entitlements and those of others. This article aims to articulate a Confucian perspective on resistance against injustice. There are reasons for thinking that the notion of resistance is fundamentally at odds with Confucian political thought. In this article, I move beyond this simple conflict/compatibility model and explore the complex (...)
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  13. Dao Companion to Chinese Philosophy of Logic.Yuan Ren - forthcoming - Tandf: History and Philosophy of Logic:1-3.
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  14. Confucian Free Expression and the Threat of Disinformation.David Elstein - 2022 - Philosophy and Social Criticism 48 (4):568-579.
    At present, there is a wide divergence in attitudes toward free speech in countries strongly influenced by Confucianism. Japan, Korea, and Taiwan have fairly robust rights of free expression. Mainland China does not, strongly restricting speech that the government judges threatens State interests. I argue that although traditional Confucian scholars supported many restrictions on expression, Confucian philosophers actually have good reason to want to protect expression about values. Subsequently, I consider how to address the problem of disinformation while preserving this (...)
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  15. On the Modern Value of the Thought of Confucian Social Governance Thought.鑫 向 - 2022 - Advances in Philosophy 11 (2):114-118.
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  16. Confucian Sentimental Representation: A New Approach to Confucian Democracy.Kyung Rok Kwon - 2021 - Routledge.
    Kwon conceptualizes a unique mode of political representation in East Asian society, which derives its moral foundation from Confucian virtue politics. Kwon analyses how affective accountability forms the basis for political representation in these societies and how this can be reconciled with liberal democracy.
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  17. Neo-Confucianism and Science in Korea: Humanity and Nature, 1706-1814.Sang-ho Ro - 2021 - Routledge.
    Historians of late premodern Korea have tended to regard it as a hermit kingdom, isolated from its neighbours and the wider world. In fact, as Ro argues in this book, Korean intellectuals were heavily influenced by both Chinese Neo-Confucianism and the European Enlightenment in the late 18th and 19th centuries. In the late Choson period the regime felt threatened by the new, more empirical, approaches to knowledge emerging from both the East and the West. For this reason many Korean intellectuals (...)
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  18. Confucianism and the Philosophy of Well-Being.Richard Kim - 2020 - Routledge.
    Well-being is topic of perennial concern. It has been of significant interest to scholars across disciplines, culture, and time. But like morality, conceptions of well-being are deeply shaped and influenced by one's particular social and cultural context. We ought to pursue, therefore, a cross-cultural understanding of well-being and moral psychology by taking seriously reflections from a variety of moral traditions. This book develops a Confucian account of well-being, considering contemporary accounts of ethics and virtue in light of early Confucian thought (...)
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  19. Secret Subversion I: Mou Zongsan, Kant, and Early Confucianism.Tang Wenming - 1920 - Routledge.
    Mou Zongsan, one of the representatives of Modern Confucianism, belongs to the most important Chinese philosophers in the 20th century. From a more traditional Confucian perspective, this book makes a critical analysis on Mou's "moral metaphysics", mainly his thoughts about Confucian ethos. The author observes that Mou simplifies Confucian ethos rooted in various and specific environments, making them equal to modern ethics, which is a subversion of the ethical order of life advocated by traditional Confucianism. Besides, the author believes that (...)
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  20. A History of Classical Chinese Thought.Li Zehou & Andrew Lambert - 2019 - Routledge.
    Translated, with a philosophical introduction.
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  21. Philosophy for Children in Confucian Societies: In Theory and Practice.Chi-Ming Lam - 2019 - Routledge.
    This book contributes to the theory and practice of Philosophy for Children, with a special emphasis on theoretical and practical issues confronting researchers and practitioners working in contexts that are strongly influenced by Confucian values and norms. It includes writings by prominent P4C scholars from four Confucian societies, viz., Mainland China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, and Japan. These writings showcase the diversity of the P4C model, providing a platform for researchers and practitioners to tell their stories in their own Confucian cultural (...)
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  22. Why Traditional Chinese Philosophy Still Matters: The Relevance of Ancient Wisdom for the Global Age.Ming Dong Gu & J. Hillis Miller - 2018 - Routledge.
    Traditional Chinese philosophy, if engaged at all, is often regarded as an object of antiquated curiosity and dismissed as unimportant in the current age of globalization. Written by a team of internationally renowned scholars, this book, however, challenges this judgement and offers an in-depth study of pre-modern Chinese philosophy from an interdisciplinary perspective. Exploring the relevance of traditional Chinese philosophy for the global age, it takes a comparative approach, analysing ancient Chinese philosophy in its relation to Western ideas and contemporary (...)
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  23. Confucius and the Modern World.Chen Lai - 2018 - Routledge.
    Confucius and modern China -- Whose justice and what ethics?-Confucian ethics and a global ethic -- Confuciansim and power discourse -- The Confucian tradition and public intellectuals -- Ecological orientation and modern interpretation of the Confucian doctrine of benevolence -- Confucian ritual study and modern society -- The Confucian views on the dialogue between Confucius and Jesus-Noumenon and origin -- Confucianism and modern East Asia -- Confucian ethics and China's modernization -- Modern Chinese culture and the predicament of Confucianism -- (...)
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  24. Aristotle and Confucius on Rhetoric and Truth: The Form and the Way.Haixia Lan - 2016 - Routledge.
    The current study argues that different cultures can coexist better today if we focus not only on what separates them but also on what connects them. To do so, the author discusses how both Aristotle and Confucius see rhetoric as a mode of thinking that is indispensable to the human understanding of the truths of things or dao-the-way, or, how both see the human understanding of the truths of things or dao-the-way as necessarily communal, open-ended, and discursive. Based on this (...)
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  25. Confucian Constitutionalism in East Asia.Bui Ngoc Son - 2016 - Routledge.
    Western liberal constitutionalism has expanded recently, with, in East Asia, the constitutional systems of Japan, South Korea and Taiwan based on Western principles, and with even the socialist polities of China and Vietnam having some regard to such principles. Despite the alleged universal applicability of Western constitutionalism, however, the success of any constitutional system depends in part on the cultural values, customs and traditions of the country into which the constitutional system is planted. This book explains how the values, customs (...)
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  26. New Confucianism in Twenty-First Century China: The Construction of a Discourse.Jesús Solé-Farràs - 2013 - Routledge.
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  27. Wisdom in Early Confucian and Israelite Traditions.Xinzhong Yao - 2006 - Routledge.
    Wisdom is an integral part of all philosophical and religious traditions in the world. Focusing on the concept of wisdom, this book examines the difficulties and problems facing comparative studies of the early Confucian and Israelite traditions by exploring the cosmological and ethical implications of wisdom in the older layers of Christian and Confucian texts. This book offers an invaluable contribution to our understanding of the significance of wisdom in the East and West, and to our knowledge of different and (...)
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  28. Taoism: The Enduring Tradition.Russell Kirkland - 2004 - Routledge.
    Presents volume thirteen of a fourteen-volume series on World Religions exploring the origins of Taoism in China, its central beliefs and restoration under China's religious freedom clause, rituals, sacred sites, and more.
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  29. Gateway to Wisdom: Taoist and Buddhist Contemplative and Healing Yogas Adapted for Western Students of the Way.John Blofeld - 1980 - Routledge.
    This book, first published in 1980, comprises separate sections on Taoist and Buddhist contemplative yogas, each divided into a theory part and a practice part.
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  30. A Discourse on the “Person as a Moral Being” in Contemporary Taiwan Society: A Perspective of Confucian and Karol Wojtyła’s Philosophical Anthropology.Justin Nnaemeka Onyeukaziri & Yang an ren - manuscript
    This work raises the philosophical implications of the contemporary Taiwanese as a Chinese cultural people that socio-philosophically defined herself as a moral or ethical person. The political history of Taiwan has been marked by her struggle for self-determination. Self-determination based and reflected on a self-affirmation and self-identification that is internationally recognized and legitimized. This, no doubt, beyond the generalized bent by all nations towards globalization and multi-culturalism, there has been a more and more openness to the western nations. As she (...)
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  31. Chinese and Global Philosophy: Postcomparative Transcultural Approaches and the Method of Sublation.Jana S. Rošker - forthcoming - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy:1-18.
    The essay deals with problems encountered by Western researchers working in the field of Chinese philosophy. It begins with a discussion of intercultural and transcultural methodologies and illuminates some of the most common issues inherent in traditional intercultural comparisons in the field of philosophy. Taking into account the current state of the so-called postcomparative discourses in the field of transcultural philosophy and starting from the notion of culturally divergent frames of reference, it focuses upon semantic aspects of the Chinese philosophical (...)
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  32. Much Adwu about Nothing: A Nonrealist Reading of Wang Bi’s Dao.Joseph Suk-Hwan Dowd - forthcoming - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy:1-13.
    In his Laozi Commentary and Structure of the Laozi’s Subtle Pointers, Wang Bi 王弼 seems to identify the Dao 道 with “absence” or “nothingness”. Despite this identification, some modern commentators regard Wang Bi’s Dao as a being. Other commentators deny that the Dao is a being but, nonetheless, seem to regard it as a reality of some kind. In contrast, I propose that Wang Bi’s Dao is literal absence and that we need not reify this absence in any way. Wang (...)
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  33. “Heteronomous Morality So Called by Kant” and Kant’s Heteronomous Morality? —On Mou Zongsan’s Confucian Reading of Kant’s Ethics.Weimin Shi - forthcoming - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy:1-21.
    Mou Zongsan 牟宗三 is well known for his Kantian interpretation of Confucianism, while his understanding of Kant’s ethics is itself colored very much by Confucianism. Mou not only coined the idea “heteronomous morality” ; he also maintained that Kant’s ethics actually espouses heteronomous morality. In this essay, I will first analyze Mou’s idea of heteronomy and his criticism of heteronomous morality and point out that, characterizing Zhu Xi’s 朱熹 philosophy as ethics of heteronomy, Mou gives up a fundamental element in (...)
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  34. Understanding Dao in Methodological Terms.Xinkan Zhao - forthcoming - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy:1-15.
    The notion of dao 道 in the Daodejing 道德經 typically receives either a metaphysical interpretation or a practical one. In this essay, I survey a series of recent interpretations and show that given the gap between the two dimensions, the extant interpretations typically have the problem of attributing ambiguity to the central notion of dao, whether explicitly or implicitly. In light of this, I venture a novel reading according to which the text is interpreted also in practical terms, more specifically (...)
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  35. The Notion of Awareness of Self-awareness and the Problem of Infinite Regress in the Cheng Weishi Lun.Chih-Chiang Hu - forthcoming - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy:1-18.
    This essay aims to show that the fourfold division theory of consciousness in the Cheng Weishi Lun 成唯識論 is the third way between phenomenology and the higher-order theories of consciousness. Regarding the problem of infinite regress, in particular, this theory represents an alternative between the reflexive model and the reflective model of self-consciousness. The main purpose of this essay is not to prove or to argue for the theory, but to clearly present its structure and the systematic or Abhidharmic way (...)
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  36. An Empirical Argument for Mencius’ Theory of Human Nature.Ilari Mäkelä - forthcoming - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy:1-25.
    Mencius 孟子 is famous for arguing that human nature is good. In this article, I offer a reading of Mencius’ argument which can be evaluated in terms of empirical psychology. In this reading, Mencius’ argument begins with three claims: humans naturally have prosocial inclinations, prosocial inclinations can be cultivated into mature forms of virtue, and the growth of prosocial inclinations is more natural than the growth of their alternatives. I also argue that each of these claims is well supported by (...)
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  37. Ng, Benjamin Wai-ming, ed., The Making of the Global Yijing in the Modern World: Cross-cultural Interpretations and Interactions.Bent Nielsen - forthcoming - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy:1-5.
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  38. Confucian Education: From Conformity to Cultivating Personal Distinction.Kurtis Hagen - forthcoming - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy:1-22.
    This article explores contrasting interpretations of early Confucian philosophy as they apply to education, focusing primarily on the Analects of Confucius, the Mencius, and the Xunzi 荀子. I first describe a common interpretation of the Confucian worldview, according to which an already perfected way is thought to have been established. This view tends to encourage thinking of education as a process of conveying the True Way and ensuring conformity to the norms that constitute it. I then describe and defend a (...)
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  39. Ames, Roger T., Human Becomings: Theorizing Persons for Confucian Role Ethics.Yuzhou Yang - forthcoming - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy:1-4.
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  40. Wu, Genyou 吳根友, A History of Chinese Philosophy (on the Qing Period) 中國哲學通史.Zemian Zheng - forthcoming - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy:1-5.
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  41. Parkes, Graham, How to Think About the Climate Crisis: A Philosophical Guide to Saner Ways of Living.Dimitra Amarantidou - forthcoming - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy:1-3.
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  42. Xu, Jiaxing 許家星, Scriptural Learning and Real Principle: A Study of Zhu Xi’s Scholarship on the Four Books 經學與實理: 朱子四書學研究.Shuhong Zheng - forthcoming - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy:1-5.
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  43. Huang, Yushun 黃玉順, The Formation of Chinese Theory of Justice: A Tradition of Ethics of Institution From the Duke of Zhou to Confucius, Mencius, and Xunzi 中國正義論的形成 : 周孔孟荀的制度倫理學傳統.Yiling Zhou - forthcoming - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy:1-4.
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  44. Academic Discourse of Chinese Philosophy and 21st Century China Studies—The Case of Confucian Views on War of Revenge.Ting-Mien Lee - 2021 - Kritike 15 (3):64-80.
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  45. Junzi Virtues: A Confucian Foundation for Harmony Within Organizations.Robin Stanley Snell, Crystal Xinru Wu & Hong Weng Lei - forthcoming - Asian Journal of Business Ethics.
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  46. L’Amitié Et la Piété Filiale Chez les Néo-Confucianistes de la Dynastie Ming.Miaw-fen Lu & Nicole G. Albert - 2020 - Diogène 1:61-84.
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  47. « Être » Ou « Devenir » Humain? La Famille En Tant Que Communauté Dans L’Éthique de Rôle Confucéenne.Roger T. Ames & Nicole G. Albert - 2020 - Diogène 3:21-44.
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  48. Confucianisme et féminisme en Corée.Heisook Kim & Brigitte Rollet - 2016 - Diogène 4:71-80.
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  49. Confucian Values and Popular Zen: Sekimon Shingaku in Eighteenth-Century Japan. Janine Anderson Sawada.T. H. Barrett - 1994 - Buddhist Studies Review 11 (2):201-203.
    Confucian Values and Popular Zen: Sekimon Shingaku in Eighteenth-Century Japan. Janine Anderson Sawada. Univerity of Hawaii Press, Honolulu 1993. xi, 256 pp. $30.
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  50. Transformations of the Confucian Way. John H. Berthrong.T. H. Barrett - 1999 - Buddhist Studies Review 16 (1):128-129.
    Transformations of the Confucian Way. John H. Berthrong. Westview, Boulder, Colorado, and Oxford 1998. xiv, 250 pp. Cloth £53.95, pbk £15.95. ISBN 0-8133-28055/2804-7.
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