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  1. added 2020-05-18
    The ‘Dynamics’ of Leibnizian Relationism: Reference Frames and Force in Leibniz’s Plenum.Edward Slowik - 2006 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 37:617-634.
    This paper explores various metaphysical aspects of Leibniz’s concepts of space, motion, and matter, with the intention of demonstrating how the distinctive role of force in Leibnizian physics can be used to develop a theory of relational motion using privileged reference frames. Although numerous problems will remain for a consistent Leibnizian relationist account, the version developed within our investigation will advance the work of previous commentators by more accurately reflecting the specific details of Leibniz’s own natural philosophy, especially his handling (...)
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  2. added 2020-05-04
    The Structure of Space and Time, and Physical Indeterminacy.Hanoch Ben-Yami - manuscript
    I introduce a sequence which I call indefinite: a sequence every element of which has a successor but whose number of elements is bounded; this is no contradiction. I then consider the possibility of space and time being indefinitely divisible. This is theoretically possible and agrees with experience. If this is space and time’s structure, then even if the laws of nature are deterministic, the behaviour of physical systems will be probabilistic. This approach may also shed light on directionality in (...)
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  3. added 2020-01-20
    Indeterminism in Physics, Classical Chaos and Bohmian Mechanics: Are Real Numbers Really Real?Nicolas Gisin - forthcoming - Erkenntnis:1-13.
    It is usual to identify initial conditions of classical dynamical systems with mathematical real numbers. However, almost all real numbers contain an infinite amount of information. I argue that a finite volume of space can’t contain more than a finite amount of information, hence that the mathematical real numbers are not physically relevant. Moreover, a better terminology for the so-called real numbers is “random numbers”, as their series of bits are truly random. I propose an alternative classical mechanics, which is (...)
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  4. added 2019-12-11
    Métaphysische Anfangsgründe der Mechanik.Wilhelm K. Essler – Joachim Labude – Stefanie Ucsnay - 1999 - Dialectica 53 (3-4):307–344.
  5. added 2019-11-06
    Max Plank’s Philosophy and Physics: An Introduction to The Philosophy of Physics.Michael J. Shaffer - forthcoming - In The Philosophy of Physics. Montreal: Minkowski Press. pp. 1-5.
  6. added 2019-10-16
    Newtonian Mechanics and its Philosophical Significance.Ryan Samaroo - forthcoming - In Eleanor Knox & A. Wilson (eds.), Routledge Companion to the Philosophy of Physics. London, UK: Routledge.
    Newtonian mechanics is more than just an empirically successful theory of matter in motion: it is an account of what knowledge of the physical world should look like. But what is this account? What is distinctive about it? To answer these questions, I begin by introducing the laws of motion, the relations among them, and the spatio-temporal framework that is implicit in them. Then I turn to the question of their methodological character. This has been the locus of philosophical discussion (...)
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  7. added 2019-09-11
    On the Ostrogradski Instability; or, Why Physics Really Uses Second Derivatives.Noel Swanson - forthcoming - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science:axz042.
    Candidates for fundamental physical laws rarely, if ever, employ higher than second time derivatives. Easwaran sketches an enticing story that purports to explain away this puzzling fact and thereby provides indirect evidence for a particular set of metaphysical theses used in the explanation. I object to both the scope and coherence of Easwaran's account, before going on to defend an alternative, more metaphysically deflationary explanation: in interacting Lagrangian field theories, it is either impossible or very hard to incorporate higher than (...)
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  8. added 2019-09-09
    Continuity in Nature and in Mathematics: Du Châtelet and Boscovich.Marij Van Strien - 2017 - In Michela Massimi, Jan-Willem Romeijn & Gerhard Schurz (eds.), EPSA15 Selected Papers. Springer. pp. 71-82.
    In the mid-eighteenth century, it was usually taken for granted that all curves described by a single mathematical function were continuous, which meant that they had a shape without bends and a well-defined derivative. In this paper I discuss arguments for this claim made by two authors, Emilie du Châtelet and Roger Boscovich. I show that according to them, the claim follows from the law of continuity, which also applies to natural processes, so that natural processes and mathematical functions have (...)
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  9. added 2019-09-04
    Locke and Leibniz on Matter and Solidity.Idan Shimony - 2019 - In Adriano Fabris & Giovanni Scarafile (eds.), Controversies in the Contemporary World. Amsterdam/ Philadelphia: pp. 49-67.
    In this paper I analyze the virtual debate between Locke and Leibniz on solidity as proposed in Leibniz’s chapter on solidity in his New Essays on Human Understanding. I first track the oddities of the dialogue presented in the New Essays’ chapter on solidity. In this virtual dialogue, Leibniz’s representative often digresses and sometimes overlooks or misrepresents some of Locke’s most important insights. I then argue that these oddities reflect Leibniz’s sentiment that a productive controversy on this issue cannot be (...)
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  10. added 2019-07-13
    How Dualists Should (Not) Respond to the Objection From Energy Conservation.Alin C. Cucu & J. Brian Pitts - 2019 - Mind and Matter 17 (1):95-121.
    The principle of energy conservation is widely taken to be a se- rious difficulty for interactionist dualism (whether property or sub- stance). Interactionists often have therefore tried to make it satisfy energy conservation. This paper examines several such attempts, especially including E. J. Lowe’s varying constants proposal, show- ing how they all miss their goal due to lack of engagement with the physico-mathematical roots of energy conservation physics: the first Noether theorem (that symmetries imply conservation laws), its converse (that conservation (...)
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  11. added 2019-07-01
    Lumina - Optica fenomenologică.Nicolae Sfetcu - 2018 - Drobeta Turnu Severin, Romania: MultiMedia Publishing.
    Previzualizare carte -/- O introducere în fenomenologia opticii geometrice (reflexia, refracția, principiul lui Fermat, oglinzi, miraje, dispersia, lentile), opticii fizice (undele luminoase, principiul Huygens–Fresnel, difracția, interferența, polarizarea, vederea tridimensională, holografia), opticii cuantice (fotoni, efectul fotoelectric, dualitatea undă-particulă, principiul incertitudinii, complementaritatea) și culorilor (transparența, translucența, amestecul culorilor, culori complementare, pigmenți), în conexiune cu teoriile fundamentale ale luminii. Despre proprietățile luminii (unde electromagnetice, spectrul electromagnetic, materiale transparente și opace, umbra, sistemul vizual uman, lumina Soarelui) și emisia luminii (stări excitate, spectrele de emisie (...)
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  12. added 2019-06-28
    Mecanica fenomenologică.Nicolae Sfetcu - 2018 - Drobeta Turnu Severin, Romania: MultiMedia Publishing.
    Previzualizare carte -/- O privire de ansamblu asupra mecanicii clasice, care intenționează să ofere o acoperire a principiilor și tehnicilor fundamentale, un domeniu vechi dar care se află la baza întregii fizicii, și care în ultimii ani a cunoscut o dezvoltare rapidă. Se subliniază principiile de bază fenomenologice, fără a insista pe un formalism excesiv. Cartea începe cu o introducere în mecanică cu conceptele de bază, urmată de cele trei legi de mișcare ale lui Newton (inerția, forța, și acțiunea și (...)
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  13. added 2019-06-06
    On the Status of the Geodesic Principle in Newtonian and Relativistic Physics.James Owen Weatherall - 2011 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 42 (4):276-281.
    A theorem due to Bob Geroch and Pong Soo Jang ["Motion of a Body in General Relativity." Journal of Mathematical Physics 16, ] provides a sense in which the geodesic principle has the status of a theorem in General Relativity. I have recently shown that a similar theorem holds in the context of geometrized Newtonian gravitation [Weatherall, J. O. "The Motion of a Body in Newtonian Theories." Journal of Mathematical Physics 52, ]. Here I compare the interpretations of these two (...)
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  14. added 2019-06-06
    The “Structure” of Physics: A Case Study.Jill North - 2009 - Journal of Philosophy 106 (2):57-88.
    We are used to talking about the “structure” posited by a given theory of physics, such as the spacetime structure of relativity. What is “structure”? What does the mathematical structure used to formulate a theory tell us about the physical world according to the theory? What if there are different mathematical formulations of a given theory? Do different formulations posit different structures, or are they merely notational variants? I consider the case of Lagrangian and Hamiltonian classical mechanics. I argue that, (...)
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  15. added 2019-06-06
    Worldviews and Physicists’ Experience of Disciplinary Change: On the Uses of ‘Classical’ Physics.Richard Staley - 2008 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 39 (3):298-311.
    Among the many tensions and oppositions in play in the early twentieth century, one—the divide between classical and modern physics—has retrospectively overshadowed our understandings of the period. This paper investigates when and why physicists first started using the term ‘classical’ to describe their discipline. Beginning with Boltzmann and ending with the 1911 Solvay Congress, on a broad scale this story constitutes a powerful instance of the circulation of a rich cultural image. First deployed in understandings of literature, music, art and (...)
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  16. added 2019-06-06
    An Interesting Fallacy Concerning Dynamical Supertasks.Jon Pérez Laraudogoitia - 2005 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 56 (2):321-334.
    Recently, Alper, Bridger, Earman and Norton have all proposed examples of dynamic systems that, in their view, are incompatible with classical (Newtonian) mechanics. In the first section of the present paper I shall show that their arguments are all undermined by the same fallacy. The second section proves that their conclusions of incompatibility are indeed false, and that what we are really looking at are new forms of indeterminist evolution of the same kind as that found recently in the literature (...)
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  17. added 2019-06-06
    The Foundation of Newtonian Scholarship.Domenico Bertoloni Meli - 2004 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 35 (3):667-669.
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  18. added 2019-06-06
    On Separating Predictability and Determinism.Robert C. Bishop - 2003 - Erkenntnis 58 (2):169-188.
    There has been a long-standing debate about the relationship of predictability and determinism. Some have maintained that determinism implies predictability while others have maintained that predictability implies determinism. Many have maintained that there are no implication relations between determinism and predictability. This summary is, of course, somewhat oversimplified and quick at least in the sense that there are various notions of determinism and predictability at work in the philosophical literature. In this essay I will focus on what I take to (...)
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  19. added 2019-06-06
    The Emergence of the Macroworld: A Study of Intertheory Relations in Classical and Quantum Mechanics.Malcolm R. Forster & Alexey Kryukov - 2003 - Philosophy of Science 70 (5):1039-1051.
    Classical mechanics is empirically successful because the probabilistic mean values of quantum mechanical observables follow the classical equations of motion to a good approximation (Messiah 1970, 215). We examine this claim for the one-dimensional motion of a particle in a box, and extend the idea by deriving a special case of the ideal gas law in terms of the mean value of a generalized force used to define "pressure." The examples illustrate the importance of probabilistic averaging as a method of (...)
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  20. added 2019-06-06
    Discussion. Comments on Laraudogoitia's 'Classical Particle Dynamics, Indeterminism and a Supertask'.J. Earman - 1998 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 49 (1):123-133.
    We discuss two supertasks invented recently by Laraudogoitia [1996, 1997], Both involve an infinite number of particle collisions within a finite amount of time and both compromise determinism. We point out that the sources of the indeterminism are rather different in the two cases - one involves unbounded particle velocities, the other involves particles with no lower bound to their sizes - and consequently that the implications for determinism are rather different - one form of indeterminism affects Newtonian but not (...)
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  21. added 2019-06-06
    Seventeenth Century Zev Bechler , Contemporary Newtonian Research. Dordrecht and Boston: D. Reidel, 1982. Pp. Vi + 241. DF1. 95.00. ISBN 90-277-1303-0. [REVIEW]John Hendry - 1984 - British Journal for the History of Science 17 (1):113-114.
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  22. added 2019-06-06
    Madame Du Ch'telet's Metaphysics and Mechanics.Carolyn Iltis - 1977 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 8 (1):29.
  23. added 2019-06-06
    A New Classical Society. De Grace - 1939 - Classical Weekly 32 (14):166.
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  24. added 2019-06-06
    Summaries of Periodicals.W. W. - 1895 - The Classical Review 9 (1):93-96.
  25. added 2019-06-05
    Essay Review: Topics in the Foundations of General Relativity and Newtonian Gravitation TheoryDavid Malament, Topics in the Foundations of General Relativity and Newtonian Gravitation Theory. Chicago: University of Chicago Press , Xii+349 Pp., $55.00. [REVIEW]John Byron Manchak - 2012 - Philosophy of Science 79 (4):575-583.
  26. added 2019-06-05
    The Parallelogram Law in the Works of D’Alembert and Kant.Carmen Martinez-Adame - 2012 - Theoria : An International Journal for Theory, History and Fundations of Science 27 (3):365-388.
    We compare two approaches given to the parallelogram law as a fundamental notion in eighteenth century mechanics. The authors we study are Kant and d’Alembert and we use the context created by Newton’s Principia as our point of departure.
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  27. added 2019-06-05
    Evolution Nodes in Newtonian Supertasks.Luis Carlos Medina - 2009 - Theoria : An International Journal for Theory, History and Fundations of Science 24 (2):229-247.
    The present article provides an analysis of the instants of a system that performs a Newtonian supertask. For each instant it studied the possibility of the system having, from the instant in question, more than one possible course of evolution. This analysis shows that some supertasks presented as deterministic by Pérez Laraudogoitia are in fact indeterministic and specifies the difficulties ahead in showing the radical indeterminism suggested by Atkinson and Johnson.
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  28. added 2019-06-05
    Conceptual Change Through the Lens of Newtonian Mechanics.Stuart Rowlands, Ted Graham, John Berry & Peter Mcwilliam - 2007 - Science & Education 16 (1):21-42.
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  29. added 2019-06-05
    The Use of History of Mechanics in Teaching Motion and Force Units.Hayati Seker & Laura C. Welsh - 2006 - Science & Education 15 (1):55-89.
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  30. added 2019-06-05
    Quantum Mechanics and Macroscopic Quantum Phenomena: The Case of Superconductivity and Superfluidity.Kostas Gavroglu & Yorgos Goudaroulis - 1989 - Zeitschrift Für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 20 (2):249-275.
    Supraleitfähigkeit und Superfluidität sind die einzigen bekannten makroskopischen Quantenphänomene. Ihre Untersuchung liefert interessante Hinweise, um einige der Fragen zu verstehen, die mit den Grenzen der Gültigkeit der Quantenmechanik verbunden sind. In diesem Aufsatz wollen wir den Prozeß entzifferen, durch den ein beobachtetes unerwartetes Phänomen in ein physikalisches Problem übergeführt wird, und wir zeigen die kontinuierliche Reinterpretation der Begriffe, um eine zufriedenstellende Erklärung der Supraleitfähigkeit und Superfluidität zu erreichen.
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  31. added 2019-06-05
    The Philosophy of Quantum Mechanics. D. I. Blokhintsev.Jeffrey Bub - 1970 - Philosophy of Science 37 (1):153-156.
  32. added 2019-05-12
    On the Gibbs-Liouville Theorem in Classical Mechanics.Andreas Henriksson - manuscript
    In this article, it is argued that the Gibbs-Liouville theorem is a mathematical representation of the statement that closed classical systems evolve deterministically. From the perspective of an observer of the system, whose knowledge about the degrees of freedom of the system is complete, the statement of deterministic evolution is equivalent to the notion that the physical distinctions between the possible states of the system, or, in other words, the information possessed by the observer about the system, is never lost. (...)
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  33. added 2019-02-11
    Cause and Effect in Leibniz’s Brevis Demonstratio.Laurynas Adomaitis - 2019 - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science 9 (1):120-134.
    Leibniz’s argument against Descartes’s conservation principle in the Brevis demonstratio (1686) has traditionally been read as passing from the premise that motive force must be conserved to the conclusion that motive force is not identical to quantity of motion and, finally, that quantity of motion is not conserved. In a lesser-known draft of the same year, Christiaan Huygens claimed that Descartes had in fact never held the view that Leibniz was attacking. Huygens is right as far as the traditional reading (...)
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  34. added 2019-01-28
    Ведрото на Нютон срещу дървото на Декарт. Въвеждане.Vassil Vidinsky - 2011 - Sofia, Bulgaria: Sofia University Press.
    Книгата проследява зараждането на един от най-важните и продължителни исторически конфликти във философията на природата: борбата между релативисти и абсолютисти по отношение на пространството, времето и движението. Катализатор на този конфликт е Рене Декарт - първият, опитващ се да създаде последователна релационистична система във физиката, която обаче започва да ерозира още с възраженията на Нютон. Изследването разкрива и разгръща фундаменталните светогледни позиции на двамата учени през персонална, понятийна и контекстуална рамка. Ако използваме клишета, то в крайна сметка бащата на модерната (...)
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  35. added 2019-01-11
    Celestial Chaos: The New Logics of Theory-Testing in Orbital Dynamics.Isaac Wilhelm - 2019 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 65:97-102.
    I explore how the nature, scope, and limits of the knowledge obtained in orbital dynamics has changed in recent years. Innovations in the design of spacecraft trajectories, as well as in astronomy, have led to new logics of theory-testing—that is, new research methodologies—in orbital dynamics. These methodologies—which combine resonance overlap theories, numerical experiments, and the implementation of space missions—were developed in response to the discovery of chaotic dynamical systems in our solar system. In the past few decades, they have replaced (...)
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  36. added 2018-09-19
    The Principle of Equivalence as a Criterion of Identity.Ryan Samaroo - forthcoming - Synthese:1-25.
    In 1907 Einstein had the insight that bodies in free fall do not “feel” their own weight. This has been formalized in what is called “the principle of equivalence.” The principle motivated a critical analysis of the Newtonian and special-relativistic concepts of inertia, and it was indispensable to Einstein’s development of his theory of gravitation. A great deal has been written about the principle. Nearly all of this work has focused on the content of the principle and whether it has (...)
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  37. added 2018-09-09
    Minimal Approximations and Norton’s Dome.Samuel Fletcher - 2019 - Synthese 196 (5):1749-1760.
    In this note, I apply Norton’s (Philos Sci 79(2):207–232, 2012) distinction between idealizations and approximations to argue that the epistemic and inferential advantages often taken to accrue to minimal models (Batterman in Br J Philos Sci 53:21–38, 2002) could apply equally to approximations, including “infinite” ones for which there is no consistent model. This shows that the strategy of capturing essential features through minimality extends beyond models, even though the techniques for justifying this extended strategy remain similar. As an application (...)
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  38. added 2018-08-15
    Some Disputed Aspects of Inertia, with Particular Reference to the Equivalence Principle.Ryan Samaroo - 2013 - Dissertation, The University of Western Ontario
    This thesis is a contribution to the foundations of space-time theories. It examines the proper understanding of the Newtonian and 1905 inertial frame concepts and the critical analysis of these concepts that was motivated by the equivalence principle. This is the hypothesis that it is impossible to distinguish locally between a homogeneous gravitational field and a uniformly accelerated frame. The three essays that comprise this thesis address, in one way or another, the criteria through which the inertial frame concepts are (...)
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  39. added 2018-06-25
    Quantum Theory is Not Only About Information.Laura Felline - 2018 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics.
    In his recent book Bananaworld. Quantum mechanics for primates, Jeff Bub revives and provides a mature version of his influential information-theoretic interpretation of Quantum Theory (QT). In this paper, I test Bub’s conjecture that QT should be interpreted as a theory about information, by examining whether his information-theoretic interpretation has the resources to explain (or explain away) quantum conundrums. The discussion of Bub’s theses will also serve to investigate, more in general, whether other approaches succeed in defending the claim that (...)
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  40. added 2018-06-05
    Metaphysics of the Principle of Least Action.Vladislav Terekhovich - 2018 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 62:189-201.
    Despite the importance of the variational principles of physics, there have been relatively few attempts to consider them for a realistic framework. In addition to the old teleological question, this paper continues the recent discussion regarding the modal involvement of the principle of least action and its relations with the Humean view of the laws of nature. The reality of possible paths in the principle of least action is examined from the perspectives of the contemporary metaphysics of modality and Leibniz's (...)
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  41. added 2018-05-30
    A Study of Time in Modern Physics.Peter W. Evans - 2011 - Dissertation,
    This thesis is a study of the notion of time in modern physics, consisting of two parts. Part I takes seriously the doctrine that modern physics should be treated as the primary guide to the nature of time. To this end, it offers an analysis of the various conceptions of time that emerge in the context of various physical theories and, furthermore, an analysis of the relation between these conceptions of time and the more orthodox philosophical views on the nature (...)
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  42. added 2018-05-29
    Newton's Regulae Philosophandi.Zvi Biener - 2018 - In Chris Smeenk & Eric Schliesser (eds.), Oxford Handbook of Isaac Newton. Oxford University Press.
    Newton’s Regulae philosophandi—the rules for reasoning in natural philosophy—are maxims of causal reasoning and induction. This essay reviews their significance for Newton’s method of inquiry, as well as their application to particular propositions within the Principia. Two main claims emerge. First, the rules are not only interrelated, they defend various facets of the same core idea: that nature is simple and orderly by divine decree, and that, consequently, human beings can be justified in inferring universal causes from limited phenomena, if (...)
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  43. added 2018-04-24
    The Metaphysics of Invariance.David Schroeren - manuscript
    Fundamental physics contains an important link between properties of elementary particles and continuous symmetries of particle systems. For example, properties such as mass and spin are said to be 'associated' with specific continuous symmetries. -/- These 'associations' have played a key role in the discovery of various new particle kinds, but more importantly: they are thought to provide a deep insight into the nature of physical reality. The link between properties and symmetries has been said to call for a radical (...)
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  44. added 2018-04-04
    Mechanistic Causation and Constraints: Perspectival Parts and Powers, Non-Perspectival Modal Patterns.Jason Winning - forthcoming - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science.
    Any successful account of the metaphysics of mechanistic causation must satisfy at least five key desiderata. In this paper, I lay out these five desiderata and explain why existing accounts of the metaphysics of mechanistic causation fail to satisfy them. I then present an alternative account which does satisfy the five desiderata. According to this alternative account, we must resort to a type of ontological entity that is new to metaphysics, but not to science: constraints. In this paper, I explain (...)
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  45. added 2018-03-02
    On Spacetime Functionalism.David John Baker - manuscript
    Eleanor Knox has argued that our concept of spacetime applies to whichever structure plays a certain functional role in the laws (the role of determining local inertial structure). I raise two complications for this approach. First, our spacetime concept seems to have the structure of a cluster concept, which means that Knox's inertial criteria for spacetime cannot succeed with complete generality. Second, the notion of metaphysical fundamentality may feature in the spacetime concept, in which case spacetime functionalism may be uninformative (...)
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  46. added 2018-03-01
    On Classical Motion.C. D. McCoy - 2018 - Philosophers' Imprint 18.
    The impetus theory of motion states that to be in motion is to have a non-zero velocity. The at-at theory of motion states that to be in motion is to be at different places at different times, which in classical physics is naturally understood as the reduction of velocities to position developments. I first defend the at-at theory against the criticism raised by Arntzenius that it renders determinism impossible. I then develop a novel impetus theory of motion that reduces positions (...)
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  47. added 2018-02-18
    Are Quantum Particles Objects?Simon Saunders - 2006 - Analysis 66 (1):52-63.
    Particle indistinguishability has always been considered a purely quantum mechanical concept. In parallel, indistinguishable particles have been thought to be entities that are not properly speaking objects at all. I argue, to the contrary, that the concept can equally be applied to classical particles, and that in either case particles may (with certain exceptions) be counted as objects even though they are indistinguishable. The exceptions are elementary bosons (for example photons).
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  48. added 2018-02-17
    Heidegger and Galileo’s Slippery Slope.Shannon Dea - 2009 - Dialogue 48 (1):59-76.
    ABSTRACT: In Die Frage nach dem Ding, Martin Heidegger characterizes Galileo as an important transitional figure in the struggle to replace the Aristotelian conception of nature with that of Newton. However, Heidegger only attends to Galileo’s modernity and not to those Aristotelian elements still discernible in Galileo’s work. This article fleshes out both aspects in Galileo in light of Heidegger’s discussion. It concludes by arguing that the lacuna in Heidegger’s account of Galileo is the consequence of Heidegger’s own self-conscious modernity (...)
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  49. added 2018-02-17
    Do Newton’s Rules of Reasoning Guarantee Truth … Must They?Quayshawn Spencer - 2004 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 35 (4):759-782.
    Newton’s Principia introduces four rules of reasoning for natural philosophy. Although useful, there is a concern about whether Newton’s rules guarantee truth. After redirecting the discussion from truth to validity, I show that these rules are valid insofar as they fulfill Goodman’s criteria for inductive rules and Newton’s own methodological program of experimental philosophy; provided that cross-checks are used prior to applications of rule 4 and immediately after applications of rule 2 the following activities are pursued: (1) research addressing observations (...)
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  50. added 2018-02-17
    Unification, Explanation, and the Composition of Causes in Newtonian Mechanics.Malcolm R. Forster - 1988 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 19 (1):55-101.
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