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  1. The Distance Between Classical and Quantum Systems.Deanna Abernethy & John R. Klauder - 2005 - Foundations of Physics 35 (5):881-895.
    In a recent paper, a “distance” function, $\cal D$ , was defined which measures the distance between pure classical and quantum systems. In this work, we present a new definition of a “distance”, D, which measures the distance between either pure or impure classical and quantum states. We also compare the new distance formula with the previous formula, when the latter is applicable. To illustrate these distances, we have used 2 × 2 matrix examples and two-dimensional vectors for simplicity and (...)
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  2. Action at a Distance: A Key to Homopolar Induction.Ricardo Achilles & Jorge A. Guala-Valverde - 2007 - Apeiron 14 (3):169-183.
  3. Why is Mechanics Based on Acceleration?Carl G. Adler - 1980 - Philosophy of Science 47 (1):146-152.
    The unique role of the second derivative of position with respect to time in classical mechanics is investigated. It is indicated that mechanics might have been developed around other order derivatives. Examples based on $\overset \ldots \to{x}$ and $\overset....\to{x}$ are presented. Kirchhoff's argument for using ẍ is given and generalized.
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  4. Relativity Theory: What is Reality? [REVIEW]Diederik Aerts - 1996 - Foundations of Physics 26 (12):1627-1644.
    In classical Newtonian physics there was a clear understanding of “what reality is.≓ Indeed in this classical view, reality at a certain time is the collection of all what is actual at this time, and this is contained in “the present.≓ Often it is stated that three-dimensional space and one-dimensional time hare been substituted by four-dimensional space-time in relativity theory, and as a consequence the classical concept of reality, as that which is “present,≓ cannot be retained. Is reality then the (...)
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  5. Cartesian and Lagrangian Momentum.Alexander Afriat - unknown
    I compare the momenta of Descartes and Lagrange geometrically, and consider cases in which the full generality of Lagrangian momentum is necessary.
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  6. Aristotelian Force as Newtonian Power.John Aidun - 1982 - Philosophy of Science 49 (2):228-235.
    Aristotle's rule of proportions of the factors of motion, presented in VII 5 of the Physics, characterizes Aristotelian force. Observing that the locomotion to which Aristotle applied the Rule is the motion produced by manual labor, I develop an interpretation of the factors of motion that reveals that Aristotelian force is Newtonian power. An alternate interpretation of the Rule by Toulmin and Goodfield implicitly identifies Aristotelian force with Newtonian force. In order to account for the absence of an acceleration in (...)
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  7. Essays in the History of Mechanics.E. J. Aiton - 1970 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 1 (3):265-273.
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  8. On the Classical Limit of Quantum Mechanics.Valia Allori & Nino Zanghì - 2009 - Foundations of Physics 39 (1):20-32.
  9. On the Classical Limit of Quantum Mechanics.Valia Allori & Nino Zanghi - 2008 - Foundations of Physics 10.1007/S10701-008-9259-4 39 (1):20-32.
    Contrary to the widespread belief, the problem of the emergence of classical mechanics from quantum mechanics is still open. In spite of many results on the ¯h → 0 asymptotics, it is not yet clear how to explain within standard quantum mechanics the classical motion of macroscopic bodies. In this paper we shall analyze special cases of classical behavior in the framework of a precise formulation of quantum mechanics, Bohmian mechanics, which contains in its own structure the possibility of describing (...)
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  10. What is a Newtonian System? The Failure of Energy Conservation and Determinism in Supertasks.J. S. Alper, M. Bridger, J. Earman & J. D. Norton - 2000 - Synthese 124 (2):281-293.
    Supertasks recently discussed in the literature purport to display a failure ofenergy conservation and determinism in Newtonian mechanics. We debatewhether these supertasks are admissible as Newtonian systems, with Earmanand Norton defending the affirmative and Alper and Bridger the negative.
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  11. Newtonian Supertasks: A Critical Analysis.Joseph S. Alper & Mark Bridger - 1998 - Synthese 114 (2):355-369.
    In two recent papers Perez Laraudogoitia has described a variety of supertasks involving elastic collisions in Newtonian systems containing a denumerably infinite set of particles. He maintains that these various supertasks give examples of systems in which energy is not conserved, particles at rest begin to move spontaneously, particles disappear from a system, and particles are created ex nihilo. An analysis of these supertasks suggests that they involve systems that do not satisfy the mathematical conditions required of Newtonian systems at (...)
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  12. Coordinate Transformations and the Theory of Measurement.Martin S. Altschul - 1978 - Foundations of Physics 8 (1-2):69-92.
    We discuss the criteria for deriving new information from coordinate transformations, focusing on the property of implementability, or measurability in practice. We contrast the role of coordinate transformations in classical and quantum physics, and demonstrate that many well-known applications fail to meet the criteria for new information. Finally, we discuss some mathematical properties of the coordinate transformations, and then relate these properties to a practical measurement scheme.
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  13. On the Hypotheses Underlying Physical Geometry.J. Anandan - 1980 - Foundations of Physics 10 (7-8):601-629.
    The relationship between physics and geometry is examined in classical and quantum physics based on the view that the symmetry group of physics and the automorphism group of the geometry are the same. Examination of quantum phenomena reveals that the space-time manifold is not appropriate for quantum theory. A different conception of geometry for quantum theory on the group manifold, which may be an arbitrary Lie group, is proposed. This provides a unified description of gravity and gauge fields as well (...)
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  14. Newton's First Two Laws Are Not Definitions.James L. Anderson - 1990 - American Journal of Physics 58 (12):1192--5.
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  15. Alkanet and Borage in the Classical Period.D. C. Andrews - 1950 - Classical World: A Quarterly Journal on Antiquity 44:165.
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  16. Evens and Odds in Newtonian Collision Mechanics.Leonard Angel - 2005 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 56 (1):179-188.
    can prevent non-contact interactions in Newtonian collision mechanics. The proposal is weakened by the apparent arbitrariness of what will be shown as the requirement of only an odd number of sets of some ex nihilo-created self-exciting particles. There is, however, an initial condition such that, without the ex nihilo self-exciting particles, either there is a contradictory outcome, or there is a non-contact configuration law, or there are odds versus evens indeterminacies. With the various odds versus evens arbitrarinesses and other such (...)
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  17. Book Review: Quantum Chaos-An Introduction. [REVIEW]S. M. Anlage - 2000 - Foundations of Physics 30 (7):1135-1138.
  18. Gravity as Archimedes' Thrust and a Bifurcation in That Theory.Mayeul Arminjon - 2004 - Foundations of Physics 34 (11):1703-1724.
    Euler’s interpretation of Newton’s gravity (NG) as Archimedes’ thrust in a fluid ether is presented in some detail. Then a semi-heuristic mechanism for gravity, close to Euler’s, is recalled and compared with the latter. None of these two ‘‘gravitational ethers’’ can obey classical mechanics. This is logical since the ether defines the very reference frame, in which mechanics is defined. This concept is used to build a scalar theory of gravity: NG corresponds to an incompressible ether, a compressible ether leads (...)
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  19. Mass in Relational Mechanics.Andre Koch Torres Assis & J. Guala-Valverde - 2000 - Apeiron 7:131-132.
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  20. Nonconservation of Energy and Loss of Determinism.David Atkinson & Porter Johnson - unknown
    An infinite number of elastically colliding balls is considered in a classical, and then in a relativistic setting. Energy and momentum are not necessarily conserved globally, even though each collision does separately conserve them. This result holds in particular when the total mass of all the balls is finite, and even when the spatial extent and temporal duration of the process are also finite. Further, the process is shown to be indeterministic: there is an arbitrary parameter in the general solution (...)
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  21. Complementarity in Classical Dynamical Systems.Harald Atmanspacher - 2006 - Foundations of Physics 36 (2):291-306.
    The concept of complementarity, originally defined for non-commuting observables of quantum systems with states of non-vanishing dispersion, is extended to classical dynamical systems with a partitioned phase space. Interpreting partitions in terms of ensembles of epistemic states (symbols) with corresponding classical observables, it is shown that such observables are complementary to each other with respect to particular partitions unless those partitions are generating. This explains why symbolic descriptions based on an ad hoc partition of an underlying phase space description should (...)
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  22. Critical Examination of the Conceptual Foundations of Classical Mechanics in the Light of Quantum Physics.G. Auletta - 2004 - Epistemologia 27 (1):55-82.
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  23. Causal Independence.Y. Avishai & H. Ekstein - 1972 - Foundations of Physics 2 (4):257-270.
    Causal independence of the simultaneous positions and momenta of two distinguishable particles in nonrelativistic physics and causal independence of events in two relatively spacelike regions of space-time in relativity are analyzed and discussed. This review paper formulates causal independence in a general and operational way and summarizes the inferences drawn from it in non-relativistic quantum mechanics, classical relativistic point mechanics, quantum field theory, and classical field theory. Special attention is given to the open question of the relationship between local independence (...)
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  24. The Concept of Indistinguishable Particles in Classical and Quantum Physics.Alexander Bach - 1988 - Foundations of Physics 18 (6):639-649.
    The consequences of the following definition of indistinguishability are analyzed. Indistinguishable classical or quantum particles are identical classical or quantum particles in a state characterized by a probability measure, a statistical operator respectively, which is invariant under any permutation of the particles. According to this definition the particles of classical Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics are indistinguishable.
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  25. A Complete Graphical Calculus for Spekkens’ Toy Bit Theory.Miriam Backens & Ali Nabi Duman - 2016 - Foundations of Physics 46 (1):70-103.
    While quantum theory cannot be described by a local hidden variable model, it is nevertheless possible to construct such models that exhibit features commonly associated with quantum mechanics. These models are also used to explore the question of \-ontic versus \-epistemic theories for quantum mechanics. Spekkens’ toy theory is one such model. It arises from classical probabilistic mechanics via a limit on the knowledge an observer may have about the state of a system. The toy theory for the simplest possible (...)
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  26. Bridging Conceptual Gaps: The Kolmogorov-Sinai Entropy.Massimiliano Badino - forthcoming - Isonomía. Revista de Teoría y Filosofía Del Derecho.
    The Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy is a fairly exotic mathematical concept which has recently aroused some interest on the philosophers’ part. The most salient trait of this concept is its working as a junction between such diverse ambits as statistical mechanics, information theory and algorithm theory. In this paper I argue that, in order to understand this very special feature of the Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy, is essential to reconstruct its genealogy. Somewhat surprisingly, this story takes us as far back as the beginning of (...)
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  27. The Unifying Laws of Classical Mechanics.C. D. Bailey - 2002 - Foundations of Physics 32 (1):159-176.
    It is shown that, at the time of Euler and Lagrange, a belief led to an assumption. The assumption is applied to derive the principle of least action from the vis viva. The assumption is also applied to derive Hamilton's principles from the vis viva. It is shown that Hamilton, in his 1834 paper, countered the assumption of the earlier mathematicians. Finally, Hamilton's law, completely independent of the principle of least action and Hamilton's principles, is obtained to verify the foregoing (...)
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  28. Hamilton's Law or Hamilton's Principle: A Response to Ulvi Yurtsever. [REVIEW]Cecil D. Bailey - 1983 - Foundations of Physics 13 (5):539-544.
    The law of varying action and Hamilton's principle of classical mechanics are discussed. It is now clear that the law of varying action, introduced by Hamilton in his papers of 1834 and 1935, was never recognized by either the mathematicians or other scientists who followed him. Why this occurred is discussed in this paper.
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  29. On a More Precise Statement of Hamilton's Principle.Cecil D. Bailey - 1981 - Foundations of Physics 11 (3-4):279-296.
    It has been recognized in the literature of the calculus of variations that the classical statement of the principle of least action (Hamilton's principle for conservative systems) is not strictly correct. Recently, mathematical proofs have been offered for what is claimed to be a more precise statement of Hamilton's principle for conservative systems. According to a widely publicized version of this more precise statement, the action integral for conservative systems is a minimum for discrete systems for small time intervals only (...)
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  30. Sind Die Klassische Mechanik Und Die Spezielle Relativitätstheorie Kommensurabel?Franz Balsiger & Alex Burri - 1990 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 21 (1):157-162.
    In its first part, this paper shows why a recently made attempt to reduce the special theory of relativity to Newtonian kinematics is bound to fail. In the second part, we propose a differentiated notion of incommensurability which enables us to amend the contention that the special theory of relatively and Newtonian kinematics are “incommensurable”.
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  31. Kantian Architectonics and Newtonian Gravitation.Eduardo Salles de Oliveira Barra - 2004 - Scientiae Studia 2 (3):327-353.
  32. On the Structure of Classical Mechanics.Thomas William Barrett - 2015 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 66 (4):801-828.
    The standard view is that the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formulations of classical mechanics are theoretically equivalent. Jill North, however, argues that they are not. In particular, she argues that the state-space of Hamiltonian mechanics has less structure than the state-space of Lagrangian mechanics. I will isolate two arguments that North puts forward for this conclusion and argue that neither yet succeeds. 1 Introduction2 Hamiltonian State-space Has less Structure than Lagrangian State-space2.1 Lagrangian state-space is metrical2.2 Hamiltonian state-space is symplectic2.3 Metric > (...)
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  33. On Poisson Brackets and Symplectic Structures for the Classical and Quantum Zitterbewegung.A. O. Barut & N. Ünal - 1993 - Foundations of Physics 23 (11):1423-1429.
    The symplectic structures (brackets, Hamilton's equations, and Lagrange's equations) for the Dirac electron and its classical model have exactly the same form. We give explicitly the Poisson brackets in the dynamical variables (x μ,p μ,v μ,S μv). The only difference is in the normalization of the Dirac velocities γμγμ=4 which has significant consequences.
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  34. The Washington Classical Club.S. E. Bassett - 1908 - Classical World: A Quarterly Journal on Antiquity 2:110.
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  35. Erratum: “Semiclassical Models for Virtual Antiparticle Pairs, the Unit of Charge E, and the QCD Couplings Αs”. [REVIEW]David Batchelor - 2002 - Foundations of Physics 32 (2):333-333.
    New semiclassical models of virtual antiparticle pairs are used to compute the pair lifetimes, and good agreement with the Heisenberg lifetimes from quantum field theory (QFT) is found. The modeling method applies to both the electromagnetic and color forces. Evaluation of the action integral of potential field fluctuation for each interaction potential yields ≈ℏ/2 for both electromagnetic and color fluctuations, in agreement with QFT. Thus each model is a quantized semiclassical representation for such virtual antiparticle pairs, to good approximation. When (...)
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  36. Thousandth Classical Weekly.H. Bates - 1943 - Classical World: A Quarterly Journal on Antiquity 37:233-234.
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  37. Chaos, Quantization, and the Correspondence Principle.Robert W. Batterman - 1991 - Synthese 89 (2):189 - 227.
  38. Philosophical Periodicals.David Baumgardt (ed.) - 1952 - Washington.
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  39. Classical Articles in Non-Classical Periodicals.D. A. Baur - 1914 - Classical World: A Quarterly Journal on Antiquity 8:120.
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  40. On Two Mathematical Definitions of Observational Equivalence: Manifest Isomorphism and Epsilon-Congruence Reconsidered.Christopher Belanger - 2013 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 44 (2):69-76.
    In this article I examine two mathematical definitions of observational equivalence, one proposed by Charlotte Werndl and based on manifest isomorphism, and the other based on Ornstein and Weiss’s ε-congruence. I argue, for two related reasons, that neither can function as a purely mathematical definition of observational equivalence. First, each definition permits of counterexamples; second, overcoming these counterexamples will introduce non-mathematical premises about the systems in question. Accordingly, the prospects for a broadly applicable and purely mathematical definition of observational equivalence (...)
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  41. Newton's Conceptual Argument for Absolute Space.Ori Belkind - 2007 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 21 (3):271 – 293.
    While many take Newton's argument for absolute space to be an inference to the best explanation, some argue that Newton is primarily concerned with the proper definition of true motion, rather than with independent existence of spatial points. To an extent the latter interpretation is correct. However, all prior interpretations are mistaken in thinking that 'absolute motion' is defined as motion with respect to absolute space. Newton is also using this notion to refer to the quantity of motion (momentum). This (...)
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  42. Carlo Borghero.Les Cartésiens Face À Newton. Turnhout: Brepols, 2011. Pp. 156. $64.88. [REVIEW]Delphine Bellis - 2013 - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science 3 (2):364-367.
  43. The Representation of Time and Change in Mechanics.Gordon Belot - 2007 - In John Earman & Jeremy Butterfield (eds.), Philosophy of Physics. Elsevier. pp. 133--227.
    This chapter is concerned with the representation of time and change in classical (i.e., non-quantum) physical theories. One of the main goals of the chapter is to attempt to clarify the nature and scope of the so-called problem of time: a knot of technical and interpretative problems that appear to stand in the way of attempts to quantize general relativity, and which have their roots in the general covariance of that theory. The most natural approach to these questions is via (...)
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  44. Chaos Out of Order: Quantum Mechanics, the Correspondence Principle and Chaos.Gordon Belot & John Earman - 1997 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 28 (2):147-182.
    A vast amount of ink has been spilled in both the physics and the philosophy literature on the measurement problem in quantum mechanics. Important as it is, this problem is but one aspect of the more general issue of how, if at all, classical properties can emerge from the quantum descriptions of physical systems. In this paper we will study another aspect of the more general issue-the emergence of classical chaos-which has been receiving increasing attention from physicists but which has (...)
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  45. Alisa Bokulich, Reexamining the Quantum-Classical Relation: Beyond Reductionism and Pluralism , Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (2008) ISBN 978-0-521-85720-8 Pp. X+195. [REVIEW]Gordon Belot & Lina Jansson - 2010 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 41 (1):81-83.
  46. Quantum Phenomena in a Classical Model.Vieri Benci - 1999 - Foundations of Physics 29 (1):1-28.
    This work is part of a program which has the aim to investigate which phenomena can be explained by nonlinear effects in classical mechanics and which ones require the new axioms of quantum mechanics. In this paper, we construct a nonlinear field equation which admits soliton solutions. These solitons exibit a dynamics which is similar to that of quantum particles.
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  47. A New Variational Principle for the Fundamental Equations of Classical Physics.Vieri Benci & Donato Fortunato - 1998 - Foundations of Physics 28 (2):333-352.
    In this paper we introduce a variational principle from which the fundamental equations of classical physics can be deduced. This principle permits a sort of unification of the gravitational and the electromagnetic fields. The basic point of this variational principle is that the world-line of a material point is parametrized by a parameter a which carries some physical information, namely it is related to the rest mass and to the charge. In particular, the (inertial) rest mass will not be a (...)
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  48. Classical Articles in Non-Classical Periodicals.G. W. Bennett - 1917 - Classical World: A Quarterly Journal on Antiquity 11:167.
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  49. Superposition in Quantum and Classical Mechanics.M. K. Bennett & D. J. Foulis - 1990 - Foundations of Physics 20 (6):733-744.
    Using the mathematical notion of an entity to represent states in quantum and classical mechanics, we show that, in a strict sense, proper superpositions are possible in classical mechanics.
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  50. The Extension of Man: A History of Physics Before the Quantum.J. D. Bernal - 1972 - Cambridge: M.I.T. Press.
1 — 50 / 501