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  1. Contextual Vocabulary Acquisition: from Algorithm to Curriculum.Michael W. Kibby & William J. Rapaport - 2014 - In Adriano Palma (ed.), Castañeda and His Guises: Essays on the Work of Hector-Neri Castañeda. De Gruyter. pp. 107-150.
    Deliberate contextual vocabulary acquisition (CVA) is a reader’s ability to figure out a (not the) meaning for an unknown word from its “context”, without external sources of help such as dictionaries or people. The appropriate context for such CVA is the “belief-revised integration” of the reader’s prior knowledge with the reader’s “internalization” of the text. We discuss unwarranted assumptions behind some classic objections to CVA, and present and defend a computational theory of CVA that we have adapted to a new (...)
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  2. Artificial general intelligence through visual pattern recognition: an analysis of the Phaeaco cognitive architecture.Safal Aryal - manuscript
    In the mid-1960s, Soviet computer scientist Mikhail Moiseevich Bongard created sets of visual puzzles where the objective was to spot an easily justifiable difference between two sides of a single image (for instance, white shapes vs black shapes, etc...). The idea was that these puzzles could be used to teach computers the general faculty of abstraction: perhaps by learning to spot the differences between these sorts of images, a computational agent could learn about inference in general. Considered a global expert (...)
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  3. Ship of Fools.Victor Adelino Ausina Mota - manuscript
    Portuguese Discoveries and Erasure's theme "Ship of Fouls", navigating in an age of loneliness and excelera<ting public cerimonies of hapyness, seeking for social recognition and professional realizations for question os status or just simply competition , on the realm of danger and street violence, between normality and pathology, what is norm?, could be mental ilness just a process of individual salvation to ta better way of being?
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  4. Quantification, negation, and focus: Challenges at the Conceptual-Intentional semantic interface.Tista Bagchi - manuscript
    Quantification, Negation, and Focus: Challenges at the Conceptual-Intentional Semantic Interface Tista Bagchi National Institute of Science, Technology, and Development Studies (NISTADS) and the University of Delhi Since the proposal of Logical Form (LF) was put forward by Robert May in his 1977 MIT doctoral dissertation and was subsequently adopted into the overall architecture of language as conceived under Government-Binding Theory (Chomsky 1981), there has been a steady research effort to determine the nature of LF in language in light of structurally (...)
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  5. Homo deceptus: How language creates its own reality.Bruce Bokor - manuscript
    Homo deceptus is a book that brings together new ideas on language, consciousness and physics into a comprehensive theory that unifies science and philosophy in a different kind of Theory of Everything. The subject of how we are to make sense of the world is addressed in a structured and ordered manner, which starts with a recognition that scientific truths are constructed within a linguistic framework. The author argues that an epistemic foundation of natural language must be understood before laying (...)
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  6. Model of Intelligence.Miro Brada - manuscript
    Model of intelligence and new methods to assess IQ. MA thesis in 1998 (Comenius University). Art exhibitions "From Animation" London 2013, "Fading Memory" Weißenohe 2015, TAIF Tokyo 2017. Conferences in Santorini, Daejon 2016, Geneva 2017.
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  7. Letter to a friend on Creative Thinking and Intuiiton (art, writing, philosophy, science).Ulrich de Balbian - manuscript
    -/- Letter to a friend : Creative Thinking and Intuition Letter to a friend about creative thinking and intuition (art, writing, philosophy, science, etc ) .
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  8. "How Humor Works" Introduction - The "Holy Grail" Humor Theory in One Page.E. Garrett Ennis - manuscript
    This paper introduces the "Status Loss Theory of Humor," as detailed in "How Humor Works" and "How Humor Works, Part II" , in a single page. This theory has the potential to fully, clearly, and naturally explain the human humor instinct, and has made predictions that are being confirmed by other studies.
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  9. Language Sophistication in the New Testament.Lascelles G. B. James - manuscript
    Language sophistication indicates the development of language that incorporates differentiation or diversity that is constrained by integration that facilitates organization or unity. This prelude provides the backdrop for discussing language sophistication. Of necessity, any language that was a part of the continuum of salvation history (Heilsgeschichte ) should: 1) possess the sophistication necessary to re-define OT terminology, 2) have the hegemony to launch the NT church, 3) enjoy the universality that allowed for translation into contemporary languages, and 4) retain the (...)
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  10. A Live Wire : Machismo of a Distant Surface.Marvin E. Kirsh - manuscript
    The scientific study of socio-cultural phenomenon requires a translocation of topics elaborated from the social perspective of the individual to a rationally ordered rendition of processes suitable for comprehension from a scientific perspective. Scholarly curiosity seeded from exposure in the natural setting to economic, political, socio-cultural, evolutionary, processes dictates that study of the self, should be a science with a necessary place in the body of world literatures; yet it has proven difficult to find a perspective to contain discussions of (...)
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  11. God: Shifting Arguments and the Codexation Dilemma.Joey Lawsin - manuscript
    The Phrenological Argument, also known as God's Parapraxis, is a new provocative philosophical argument that showcases God's Mental State of Inadequacy in his creation of the Human Mind. Lawsin* argues that if God has a perfect mind flawlessly capable of knowing things in advance, then he should have anticipated ahead of time the repercussions of creating a human mind that cannot fathom Truth and Reality. But since he created a mind incapable of knowing what is real and what is true, (...)
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  12. Indiscretions of a Contemporary Artist: Reflections on Trevor Paglen's (ab)use of the JAFFE dataset.Michael Lyons - manuscript
    Reflections on Trevor Paglen's (ab)use of the JAFFE dataset.
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  13. Introduction to a Systemic Theory of Meaning (Jan 2010 update).Christophe Menant - manuscript
    Information and Meaning are present everywhere around us and within ourselves. Specific studies have been implemented in order to link information and meaning: - Semiotics - Phenomenology - Analytic Philosophy - Psychology No general coverage is available for the notion of meaning. We propose to complement this lack by a systemic approach to meaning generation.
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  14. Sensorimotor process with constraint satisfaction. Grounding of meaning (EUCogII 2009).Christophe Menant - manuscript
    There is an increasing agreement in the cognitive sciences community that our sensations are closely related to our actions. Our actions impact our sensations from the environment and the knowledge we have of it. Cognition is grounded in sensori-motor coordination. In the perspective of implementing such a performance in artificial systems, there is a need for a model of sensori-motor coordination. We propose here such a model as based on the generation of meaningful information by a system submitted to a (...)
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  15. Rails (Trilhos).Victor Mota - manuscript
    rails to total abstraction, to conjure a perfect social system, between fulfilment of individual and colective will.
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  16. Long Range.Victor Mota - manuscript
    Long Range and short range, guns and violence, everyday life in cities and streets, between social and group identity and faith and religious belief, the vision to the "things of the world that cannot be seen" (Heróis do Mar).
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  17. Universal Yearning for Understanding.Venkata Rayudu Posina & Shankar - manuscript
    Math literacy is miniscule compared to the near universal language literacy of mother tongues. Our search for the root cause of this undesirable human condition led us to: Grammar (or the abstract essence) of a language. Language learning begins with grammar, unless the language happens to be mathematics, which is unique in not even considering including the grammar (abstract general/theory) of mathematics in the mathematical pedagogy. Here we make a case for introducing the abstract essence of mathematics--Conceptual Mathematics--in high school (...)
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  18. The Physics and Electronics meaning of vivartanam.Varanasi Ramabrahmam - manuscript
    A modern scientific awareness of the famous advaitic expression Brahma sat, jagat mithya, jivo brahmaiva na aparah is presented. The one ness of jiva and Brahman are explained from modern science point of view. The terms dristi, adhyasa, vivartanam, aham and idam are understood in modern scientific terms and a scientific analysis is given. -/- Further, the forward (purodhana) and reverse (tirodhana) transformation of maya as jiva, prapancham, jagat and viswam, undergoing vivartanam is understood and explained using concepts from physics (...)
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  19. Cognitive and Computer Systems for Understanding Narrative Text.William J. Rapaport, Erwin M. Segal, Stuart C. Shapiro, David A. Zubin, Gail A. Bruder, Judith Felson Duchan & David M. Mark - manuscript
    This project continues our interdisciplinary research into computational and cognitive aspects of narrative comprehension. Our ultimate goal is the development of a computational theory of how humans understand narrative texts. The theory will be informed by joint research from the viewpoints of linguistics, cognitive psychology, the study of language acquisition, literary theory, geography, philosophy, and artificial intelligence. The linguists, literary theorists, and geographers in our group are developing theories of narrative language and spatial understanding that are being tested by the (...)
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  20. Discovering the Harmony of Reason and Faith in the Symphony of Eternal Creation.Gennady Shkliarevsky - manuscript
    Tensions between the domain of reason and the domain of faith have been one of the most controversial issues in the history of our civilization for over three hundred years. They have contributed to many divisions, conflicts, and even wars. Contributions that have sought to reconcile the two domains have largely used the cultural approach in trying to solve this problem. The approach used in this essay views faith and reason from the perspective of cognitive operations. It shows that viewed (...)
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  21. The Logical Structure of Consciousness (behavior, personality, rationality, higher order thought, intentionality).Michael Starks - manuscript
    After half a century in oblivion, the nature of consciousness is now the hottest topic in the behavioral sciences and philosophy. Beginning with the pioneering work of Ludwig Wittgenstein in the 1930’s (the Blue and Brown Books) and from the 50’s to the present by his logical successor John Searle, I have created the following table as an heuristic for furthering this study. The rows show various aspects or ways of studying and the columns show the involuntary processes and voluntary (...)
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  22. Counterfactual Support: Why Care?Michael Strevens - manuscript
    It seems very important to us whether or not a generalization offers counter-factual support—but why? Surely what happens in other possible worlds can neither help nor hurt us? This paper explores the question whether counter-factual support does, nevertheless, have some practical value. (The question of theoretical value will be addressed but then put aside.) The following thesis is proposed: the counterfactual-supporting generalizations are those for which there exists a compact and under normal circumstances knowable basis determining the fine-grained pattern of (...)
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  23. Essentialism in Biology.John S. Wilkins - manuscript
    Essentialism in philosophy is the position that things, especially kinds of things, have essences, or sets of properties, that all members of the kind must have, and the combination of which only members of the kind do, in fact, have. It is usually thought to derive from classical Greek philosophy and in particular from Aristotle’s notion of “what it is to be” something. In biology, it has been claimed that pre-evolutionary views of living kinds, or as they are sometimes called, (...)
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  24. Music and the Evolution of Embodied Cognition.Stephen Asma - forthcoming - In M. Clasen J. Carroll (ed.), Evolutionary Perspectives on Imaginative Culture. pp. pp 163-181.
    Music is a universal human activity. Its evolution and its value as a cognitive resource are starting to come into focus. This chapter endeavors to give readers a clearer sense of the adaptive aspects of music, as well as the underlying cognitive and neural structures. Special attention is given to the important emotional dimensions of music, and an evolutionary argument is made for thinking of music as a prelinguistic embodied form of cognition—a form that is still available to us as (...)
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  25. Starting from the Muses: Engaging Moral Imagination through Memory’s Many Gifts.Guy Axtell - forthcoming - In Brian Robinson (ed.), The Moral Psychology of Amusements. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.
    In Greek mythology the Muses –patron goddesses of fine arts, history, humanities, and sciences– are tellingly portrayed as the daughters of Zeus and Mnemosyne, the goddess Memory, who is of the race of Titans, older still than Zeus and other Olympian deities. The relationship between memory and such fields as epic poetry, history, music and dance is easily recognizable to moderns. But bards/poets like Homer and Hesiod, who began oral storytelling by “invoking the Muses” with their audience, knew well that (...)
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  26. The Psychology of Decision Making.David Cycleback - forthcoming - London (UK): Bookboon.
    This short text is a concise look at the psychology of how human beings make decisions, including how they form their world views and make arguments.
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  27. The rationality of vagueness.Igor Douven - forthcoming - In Richard Dietz (ed.), Vagueness and rationality. Springer.
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  28. Explaining Experience In Nature: The Foundations Of Logic And Apprehension.Steven Ericsson-Zenith - forthcoming - Institute for Advanced Science & Engineering.
    At its core this book is concerned with logic and computation with respect to the mathematical characterization of sentient biophysical structure and its behavior. -/- Three related theories are presented: The first of these provides an explanation of how sentient individuals come to be in the world. The second describes how these individuals operate. And the third proposes a method for reasoning about the behavior of individuals in groups. -/- These theories are based upon a new explanation of experience in (...)
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  29. A replication and re-analysis of a classic texture segmentation study.Gregory Francis & Maria Kon - forthcoming - Attention, Perception, and Psychophysics.
    A classic finding reported in Beck (1966a) is that observers tend to indicate a more natural texture break between a set of T’s and tilted T’s than between a set of T’s and backward L’s. This finding has played a prominent role in discussions about the properties of texture segmentation and in the development of computational theories of texture segmentation. Due to the small sample size of the original study, we replicated the original experiment with a larger sample. Regrettably, we (...)
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  30. Visual Self-Misperception in Eating Disorders.Stephen Gadsby - forthcoming - Perception.
    Many who suffer from eating disorders claim that they see themselves as “fat”. Despite decades of research into the phenomenon, behavioural evidence has failed to confirm that eating disorders involve visual misperception of own-body size. I illustrate the importance of this phenomenon for our understanding of perceptual processing, outline the challenges involved in experimentally confirming it, and provide solutions to those challenges.
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  31. How do people use and appraise concepts?James A. Hampton (ed.) - forthcoming - Switzerland: Springer Nature.
    To approach the many challenges involved in the notion of engineering concepts, it is important to have a clear idea of the starting point – the concepts that people use in their everyday lives, in conversations and in expressing beliefs, desires, intentions and so forth. The first Section of this chapter introduces evidence that I have accumulated over the last many years concerning the flexibility, context-dependence, and vagueness of such common concepts. The concept engineer needs to understand the structure of (...)
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  32. Robots as Powerful Allies for the Study of Embodied Cognition from the Bottom Up.Matej Hoffmann & Rolf Pfeifer - forthcoming - In Albert Newen, Leon De Bruin & Shaun Gallagher (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of 4E Cognition. Oxford University Press.
    A large body of compelling evidence has been accumulated demonstrating that embodiment – the agent’s physical setup, including its shape, materials, sensors and actuators – is constitutive for any form of cognition and as a consequence, models of cognition need to be embodied. In contrast to methods from empirical sciences to study cognition, robots can be freely manipulated and virtually all key variables of their embodiment and control programs can be systematically varied. As such, they provide an extremely powerful tool (...)
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  33. Neither backward masking of T2 nor task switching is necessary for the attentional blink.Ali Jannati, Thomas M. Spalek & Vincent di Lollo - forthcoming - Psychonomic Bulletin and Review.
    Identification of the second of two targets (T1, T2, inserted in a stream of distractors) is impaired when presented within 500 ms after the first (attentional blink, AB). Barring a T1-T2 task-switch, it is thought that T2 must be backward-masked to obtain an AB (Giesbrecht & Di Lollo, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 24, 1454- 1466, 1998). We tested the hypothesis that Giesbrecht & Di Lollo's findings were vitiated by ceiling constraints arising from either response scale (experiment (...)
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  34. The common effect of value on prioritized memory and category representation.Joshua Knobe & Fiery Cushman - forthcoming - Trends in Cognitive Sciences.
    The way we represent categories depends on both the frequency and value of the category’s members. Thus, for instance, prototype representations can be impacted both by information about what is statistically frequent and by judgments about what is valuable. Notably, recent research on memory suggests that prioritized memory is also influenced by both statistical frequency and value judgments. Although work on conceptual representation and work on prioritized memory have thus far proceeded almost entirely independently, the patterns of existing findings provide (...)
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  35. Notational Variants and Cognition: The Case of Dependency Grammar.Ryan M. Nefdt & Giosué Baggio - forthcoming - Erkenntnis:1-31.
    In recent years, dependency grammars have established themselves as valuable tools in theoretical and computational linguistics. To many linguists, dependency grammars and the more standard constituency-based formalisms are notational variants. We argue that, beyond considerations of formal equivalence, cognition may also serve as a background for a genuine comparison between these different views of syntax. In this paper, we review and evaluate some of the most common arguments and evidence employed to advocate for the cognitive or neural reality of dependency (...)
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  36. On the uniqueness of human normative attitudes.Marco F. H. Schmidt & Hannes Rakoczy - forthcoming - In Kurt Bayertz & Neil Roughley (eds.), The normative animal? On the anthropological significance of social, moral and linguistic norms. Oxford University Press.
    Humans are normative beings through and through. This capacity for normativity lies at the core of uniquely human forms of understanding and regulating socio-cultural group life. Plausibly, therefore, the hominin lineage evolved specialized social-cognitive, motivational, and affective abilities that helped create, transmit, preserve, and amend shared social practices. In turn, these shared normative attitudes and practices shaped subsequent human phylogeny, constituted new forms of group life, and hence structured human ontogeny, too. An essential aspect of human ontogeny is therefore its (...)
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  37. Egocentric Bias and Doubt in Cognitive Agents.Nanda Kishore Sreenivas & Shrisha Rao - forthcoming - 18th International Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems (AAMAS 2019), Montreal, Canada, May 2019.
    Modeling social interactions based on individual behavior has always been an area of interest, but prior literature generally presumes rational behavior. Thus, such models may miss out on capturing the effects of biases humans are susceptible to. This work presents a method to model egocentric bias, the real-life tendency to emphasize one's own opinion heavily when presented with multiple opinions. We use a symmetric distribution, centered at an agent's own opinion, as opposed to the Bounded Confidence (BC) model used in (...)
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  38. General-Purpose Institutional Decision-Making Heuristics: The Case of Decision-Making under Deep Uncertainty.David Thorstad - forthcoming - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science.
    Recent work in judgment and decisionmaking has stressed that institutions, like individuals, often rely on decisionmaking heuristics. But most of the institutional decisionmaking heuristics studied to date are highly firm- and industry-specific. This contrasts to the individual case, in which many heuristics are general-purpose rules suitable for a wide range of decision problems. Are there also general-purpose heuristics for institutional decisionmaking? In this paper, I argue that a number of methods recently developed for decisionmaking under deep uncertainty have a good (...)
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  39. The accuracy-coherence tradeoff in cognition.David Thorstad - forthcoming - British Journal for Philosophy of Science.
    I argue that bounded agents face a systematic accuracy-coherence tradeoff in cognition. Agents must choose whether to structure their cognition in ways likely to promote coherence or accuracy. I illustrate the accuracy-coherence tradeoff by showing how it arises out of at least two component tradeoffs: a coherence-complexity tradeoff between coherence and cognitive complexity, and a coherence-variety tradeoff between coherence and strategic variety. These tradeoffs give rise to an accuracy-coherence tradeoff because privileging coherence over complexity or strategic variety often leads to (...)
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  40. Van Gordon, W., Shonin, E., Skelton, K., & Griffiths, M. D. (2014). Working mindfully: Can mindfulness improve work-related wellbeing and work effectiveness? Counselling at Work, In Press.William Van Gordon, Edo Shonin, Katie Skelton & Mark Griffiths - forthcoming - Counselling at Work.
    There is currently growing interest amongst occupational stakeholders into the applications of mindfulness in the workplace. In addition to discussing the potential role that mindfulness may have in improving psychological wellbeing inside and outside of work, previous Counselling at Work articles on mindfulness have explored the change management implications associated with rolling out mindfulness interventions at the organisational level.1,2 Following a brief explanation of what we mean by the term ‘mindfulness’, this article complements these earlier perspectives by providing: (i) an (...)
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  41. 4E cognition in the Lower Palaeolithic: An introduction.Thomas Wynn, Karenleigh Anne Overmann & Lambros Malafouris - forthcoming - Adaptive Behavior:99-106.
    This essay introduces a special issue focused on 4E cognition (cognition as embodied, embedded, enactive, and extended) in the Lower Palaeolithic. In it, we review the typological and representational cognitive approaches that have dominated the past fifty years of paleoanthropology. These have assumed that all representations and computations take place only inside the head, which implies that the archaeological record can only be an “external” product or the behavioral trace of “internal” representational and computational processes. In comparison, the 4E approach (...)
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  42. What could come before time? Intertwining affectivity and temporality at the basis of intentionality.Juan Diego Bogotá - 2024 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 2024:1-21.
    The enactive approach to cognition and the phenomenological tradition have in common a wide conception of ‘intentionality’. Within these frameworks, intentionality is understood as a general openness to the world. For classical phenomenologists, the most basic subjective structure that allows for such openness is time-consciousness. Some enactivists, while inspired by the phenomenological tradition, have nevertheless argued that affectivity is more basic, being that which gives rise to the temporal flow of consciousness. In this paper, I assess the relationship between temporality (...)
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  43. ChatGPT and the Technology-Education Tension: Applying Contextual Virtue Epistemology to a Cognitive Artifact.Guido Cassinadri - 2024 - Philosophy and Technology 37 (14):1-28.
    According to virtue epistemology, the main aim of education is the development of the cognitive character of students (Pritchard, 2014, 2016). Given the proliferation of technological tools such as ChatGPT and other LLMs for solving cognitive tasks, how should educational practices incorporate the use of such tools without undermining the cognitive character of students? Pritchard (2014, 2016) argues that it is possible to properly solve this ‘technology-education tension’ (TET) by combining the virtue epistemology framework with the theory of extended cognition (...)
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  44. Social psychology.Lee Lana - 2024 - Psychw.
    Social psychologists typically explain human behavior as a result of the relationship between mental states and social situations, studying the social conditions under which thoughts, feelings, and behaviors occur, and how these variables influence social interactions.
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  45. The Ecological Brain: Unifying the Sciences of Brain, Body, and Environment.Favela Luis H. - 2024 - Routledge.
    The Ecological Brain is the first book of its kind, using complexity science to integrate the seemingly disparate fields of ecological psychology and neuroscience. The book develops a unique framework for unifying investigations and explanations of mind that span brain, body, and environment: the NeuroEcological Nexus Theory (NExT). Beginning with an introduction to the history of the fields, the author provides an assessment of why ecological psychology and neuroscience are commonly viewed as irreconcilable methods for investigating and explaining cognition, intelligent (...)
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  46. Khi nào thì chúng ta tin người lạ?Trao Đổi Nghiên Cứu - 2024 - Tạp Chí Kinh Tế Và Dự Báo (13-2-2024).
    Khi chúng ta còn trẻ, lời khuyên phổ biến từ cha mẹ thường là "Đừng tin người lạ". Và ở những tình huống khác, họ cũng hay động viên sự tự tin của chúng ta bằng cách nhắc nhở: "Hãy tin vào bản thân mình". Tuy nhiên, khi đối diện với người nào đó có vẻ ngoài giống chúng ta ngay từ cái nhìn đầu tiên, liệu chúng ta có tin tưởng họ không?
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  47. Immersing oneself into one’s past: subjective presence can be part of the experience of episodic remembering.Denis Perrin & Michael Barkasi - 2024 - Philosophy and the Mind Sciences 5.
    A common view about the phenomenology of episodic remembering has it that when we remember a perceptual experience, we can relive or re-experience many of its features, but not its characteristic presence. In this paper, we challenge this common view. We first say that presence in perception divides into temporal and locative presence, with locative having two sides, an objective and a subjective one. While we agree with the common view that temporal and objective locative presence cannot be relived in (...)
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  48. Mind (Updated).M. Sukhoi - 2024 - Humanmind.
    The mind is also associated with experiencing perception, pleasure and pain, belief, desire, intention, and emotion. The mind can include conscious and non-conscious states as well as sensory and non-sensory experiences.
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  49. The problem is not runaway climate change. The problem is us.Chris Abel - 2023 - Architectural Research Quarterly 27 (1):79-84.
    Given the irrationality and failures of human behaviour in the face of ecocide, the majority of humankind appears either unable or unwilling to change self-destructive ways of life. Rejecting common accounts, the author suggests that the reasons for our stubborn resistance to change go well beyond cognitive dissonance or any standard political and economic explanations. Nor is the answer to be found in human history alone. The driving forces underlying that resistance, the author argues, originate far back in evolutionary time (...)
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  50. Cosmovisões e Realidades: a filosofia de cada um. (3rd edition).Roberto Arruda (ed.) - 2023 - São Paulo: Terra à Vista.
    Não é pensando que criamos mundos. É compreendendo o mundo que aprendemos a pensar. Cosmovisão é um termo que deve significar um conjunto de fundamentos dos quais emerge uma compreensão sistêmica do Universo, seus componentes como a vida, o mundo em que vivemos, a natureza, o fenômeno humano e suas relações. Trata-se, portanto, de um campo da filosofia analítica alimentado pelas ciências, cujo objetivo é esse conhecimento agregado e epistemologicamente sustentável sobre tudo o que somos e contemos, que nos cerca (...)
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1 — 50 / 677