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  1. added 2017-01-18
    Melissa DeWolf, Ji Y. Son, Miriam Bassok & Keith J. Holyoak (2017). Relational Priming Based on a Multiplicative Schema for Whole Numbers and Fractions. Cognitive Science 40 (8).
    Why might it be beneficial for adults to process fractions componentially? Recent research has shown that college-educated adults can capitalize on the bipartite structure of the fraction notation, performing more successfully with fractions than with decimals in relational tasks, notably analogical reasoning. This study examined patterns of relational priming for problems with fractions in a task that required arithmetic computations. College students were asked to judge whether or not multiplication equations involving fractions were correct. Some equations served as structurally inverse (...)
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  2. added 2017-01-17
    Miguel Acosta (2006). Las potencias operativas. Estructura y dinámica desde la metafísica realista. Madrid, España: Publicep.
    La aproximación filosófica con respecto al hombre tiene diversas metodologías, las más actuales son de índole existencial y hacen especial hincapié en el análisis fenomenológico y hermenéutico en sus distintas modalidades. Principalmente a partir del siglo XX la crítica y la minusvaloración de la metafísica como vía adecuada de conocimiento de la realidad han sido reiteradas. Sin embargo, al estudiar y conocer al hombre desde las citadas aproximaciones, hay quienes no quedan satisfechos y desean profundizar todavía más. Para ello, vuelven (...)
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  3. added 2017-01-16
    Lin Ma & A. M. Yamaletdinova (2016). Semantic analysis of idioms characterizing negative psycho-emotional state of person in Russian and Chinese languages. Liberal Arts in Russia 5 (6):601-610.
    Phraseology is a treasury of language. It is the fruit, which was born in the result of a long process of the practical use of the language. Phraseologisms give the speech power, persuasiveness, brilliance and imagery. They enliven the language and make it more emotional. In this article, we focus on the negative psycho-emotional state of a person. The negative psycho-emotional state of a person is emotion and feelings that are formed in the result of the negative mood of a (...)
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  4. added 2017-01-16
    G. Kh Bukharova (2016). The reconstruction of the cult of the deity ‘Irgiz‘ among the Bashkirs based on toponymy and mythology. Liberal Arts in Russia 5 (6):622-634.
    Due to the rapid development in the modern linguistics of anthropocentric and interdisciplinary studies, the idea is gaining ground that languages of the world are examples of various division of the world. The article is devoted to the semantic reconstruction of the cult of the androgynous deity of the Bashkirs on the basis of toponymy and mythology. The study is based on the hypothesis that the collective linguistic consciousness or ‘collective unconsciousness‘ of different cultures and peoples is based on common (...)
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  5. added 2017-01-16
    N. Varfolomeeva Yu & S. N. Khantaev (2016). The semantics of image text in media discourse. Liberal Arts in Russia 5 (6):580-589.
    In the article, the semantics of image text in media discourse is reviewed. The authors describe the growing influence of media on society as well as its means in formation of the certain opinion on events or stereotyping in one single social group. They draw attention to the process of globalization typical for modern society and emphasize that the potential of media is turned to unification of society, presentation of common standards, values and all humankind’s fashion. The authors of the (...)
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  6. added 2017-01-16
    Aleshina E. Yu (2016). The problem of effectiveness of public political discourse of a conflict situation. Liberal Arts in Russia 5 (6):590-600.
    In the article is the problem of discourse effectiveness is considered, in particular of political discourse of a conflict situation. Conflict political discourse is regarded as a text determined by the theme of stating the interests of political subjects in the process of their interaction in a situation of political conflict. Goal-settings of conflict political discourse expressed in its subject type of content are connected with information, persuasion, invocation, and penance that served as the basis for distinguishing the genres of (...)
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  7. added 2017-01-16
    Y. A. Nesterova & E. A. Burova (2016). On the Issue of the Peculiarities of Using Metaphors in Migration Discourse of Germany, Austria, England, and America. Liberal Arts in Russia 5 (6):565-572.
    The authors of the article review such complex objects of the language and thinking activity as metaphors representing the numerous migration processes in Europe from 2013 to 2016. Nowadays this topic is very popular among modern Russian and foreign linguists, because the process of migration of the population is widely spread throughout the world and it is a very complicated social, political, economic, and cultural process. The aim of this article is to analyze and compare the usage of metaphors in (...)
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  8. added 2017-01-16
    Miguel Acosta (2006). Los afectos inferiores. Un estudio a partir de Tomás de Aquino. Madrid, Spain: Publicep.
    La afectividad humana es compleja y muchas veces se ha cometido el error de considerarla como desligada de otras facultades, especialmente de la inteligencia, como si fueran actos completamente separados e independientes. Las manifestaciones afectivas son de diverso grado, ya en mi tesis doctoral mostré la conveniencia de hablar al menos de tres dimensiones afectivas, cada una de ellas según su relación más o menos directa con las facultades superiores y con la persistencia de su presencia a lo largo de (...)
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  9. added 2017-01-16
    Siewert Charles (2004). Phenomenality and Intentionality---Which Explains Which?: Reply to Gertler. Journal of Experimental Psychology 10 (2).
    In Chapter 7 I argue that we are assessable for accuracy in virtue of having phenomenal features. According to Gertler, my claim needs, but does not receive from me, a defence against the allegedly rival thesis that phenomenal features are explained by intentional ones. I maintain that this criticism involves a misunderstanding of my view’s implications. In my book I oppose the “rival” thesis only to this extent: where my conception of consciousness conflicts with broad ways of trying to explain (...)
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  10. added 2017-01-14
    David Reitter & Frank E. Ritter (2017). Introduction to the Issue on Computational Models of Memory: Selected Papers From the International Conference on Cognitive Modeling. Topics in Cognitive Science 8 (4).
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  11. added 2017-01-14
    William R. Woodward (1980). Toward a Critical Historiography of Psychology. Historiography of Modern Psychology, Eds. J. Brozek and L. Pongratz, Göttingen: Hofgrefe:29-70.
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  12. added 2017-01-13
    Michael Starks (ed.) (2017). Philosophy, Human Nature and the Collapse of Civilization -- Articles and Reviews 2006-2016 by Michael Starks 2nd Ed. 674p (2017). Henderson: michael starks.
    This collection of articles was written over the last 10 years and the most important and longest within the last year. Also I have edited them to bring them up to date (2017). The copyright page has the date of this first edition and new editions will be noted there as I edit old articles or add new ones. All the articles are about human behavior (as are all articles by anyone about anything), and so about the limitations of having (...)
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  13. added 2017-01-13
    William Van Gordon, Edo Shonin, Thomas Dunn, Javier Garcia-Campayo & Mark Griffiths (2017). Van Gordon, W., Shonin, E., Dunn, T., Garcia-Campayo, J., & Griffiths, M. D. (2017). Meditation Awareness Training for the Treatment of Fibromyalgia: A Randomised Controlled Trial. British Journal of Health Psychology, 22, 186-206. British Journal of Health Psychology 22:186-206.
    Objectives. The purpose of this study was to conduct the first randomized controlled trial (RCT) to evaluate the effectiveness of a second-generation mindfulness-based intervention (SG-MBI) for treating fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). Compared to first generation mindfulness-based interventions, SG-MBIs are more acknowledging of the spiritual aspect of mindfulness. Design. A RCT employing intent-to-treat analysis. Methods. Adults with FMS received an 8-week SG-MBI known as meditation awareness training (MAT; n = 74) or an active control intervention known as cognitive behaviour theory for groups (...)
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  14. added 2017-01-13
    Laurence D. Smith & William R. Woodward (eds.) (1996). B. F. Skinner and Behaviorism in American Culture. Bethlehem, PA: Associated Universities Press/Lehigh.
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  15. added 2017-01-12
    Gillian V. Pepper & Daniel Nettle (forthcoming). The Behavioural Constellation of Deprivation: Causes and Consequences. Behavioral and Brain Sciences:1-72.
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  16. added 2017-01-12
    Broemer Philip & Grabowski Adam (2015). I Am so Glad That We Parted! Am I? On Attitude Representation, Counterfactual Thinking, and Experienced Regret. Polish Psychological Bulletin 46 (1):137-143.
    Two studies examined how different linguistic forms affect the way in which people access memories of former close relationships that are irrevocably over. Remembering former relationships can activate either positive or negative attitudes. Whether people feel sorrow that bygones are in fact bygones depends on attitudinal valence, but also on the linguistic form in which people express their attitudes. More abstract linguistic forms prevent people from retrieving specific and detailed memories, and thus prompt them to generating more counterfactual thoughts and (...)
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  17. added 2017-01-10
    Bella Z. Veksler, Rachel Boyd, Christopher W. Myers, Glenn Gunzelmann, Hansjörg Neth & Wayne D. Gray (2017). Visual Working Memory Resources Are Best Characterized as Dynamic, Quantifiable Mnemonic Traces. Topics in Cognitive Science 8 (4).
    Visual working memory is a construct hypothesized to store a small amount of accurate perceptual information that can be brought to bear on a task. Much research concerns the construct's capacity and the precision of the information stored. Two prominent theories of VWM representation have emerged: slot-based and continuous-resource mechanisms. Prior modeling work suggests that a continuous resource that varies over trials with variable capacity and a potential to make localization errors best accounts for the empirical data. Questions remain regarding (...)
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  18. added 2017-01-07
    Michael Starks (2017). Philosophy, Human Nature and the Collapse of Civilization -- Articles and Reviews 2006-2017 by Michael Starks 2nd Ed. 667p (2017). Henderson: Michael Starks.
    This collection of articles was written over the last 10 years and the most important and longest within the last year. Also I have edited them to bring them up to date (2017). The copyright page has the date of this first edition and new editions will be noted there as I edit old articles or add new ones. All the articles are about human behavior (as are all articles by anyone about anything), and so about the limitations of having (...)
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  19. added 2017-01-06
    Mathis Richter, Jonas Lins & Gregor Schöner (2017). A Neural Dynamic Model Generates Descriptions of Object‐Oriented Actions. Topics in Cognitive Science 8 (4).
    Describing actions entails that relations between objects are discovered. A pervasively neural account of this process requires that fundamental problems are solved: the neural pointer problem, the binding problem, and the problem of generating discrete processing steps from time-continuous neural processes. We present a prototypical solution to these problems in a neural dynamic model that comprises dynamic neural fields holding representations close to sensorimotor surfaces as well as dynamic neural nodes holding discrete, language-like representations. Making the connection between these two (...)
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  20. added 2017-01-06
    Robert Thomson, Anthony M. Harrison, J. Gregory Trafton & Laura M. Hiatt (2017). An Account of Interference in Associative Memory: Learning the Fan Effect. Topics in Cognitive Science 8 (4).
    Associative learning is an essential feature of human cognition, accounting for the influence of priming and interference effects on memory recall. Here, we extend our account of associative learning that learns asymmetric item-to-item associations over time via experience by including link maturation to balance associations between longer-term stability while still accounting for short-term variability. This account, combined with an existing account of activation strengthening and decay, predicts both human response times and error rates for the fan effect for both target (...)
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  21. added 2017-01-05
    Steven James Bartlett (2017). Epistemological Intelligence. Willamette University Faculty Research Website.
    The monograph’s twofold purpose is to recognize epistemological intelligence as a distinguishable variety of human intelligence, one that is especially important to philosophers, and to understand the challenges posed by the psychological profile of philosophers that can impede the development and cultivation of the skills associated with epistemological intelligence.
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  22. added 2017-01-05
    Süssenbach Philipp, Gollwitzer Mario, Mieth Laura, Buchner Axel & Bell Raoul (2016). Trustworthy Tricksters: Violating a Negative Social Expectation Affects Source Memory and Person Perception When Fear of Exploitation Is High. Frontiers in Psychology 7.
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  23. added 2017-01-04
    Jerath Ravinder, Shannon M. Cearley, Vernon A. Barnes & Mike Jensen (2016). Meditation Experiences, Self, and Boundaries of Consciousness. International Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medicine 4 (1):1-11.
    Our experiences with the external world are possible mainly through vision, hearing, taste, touch, and smell providing us a sense of reality. How the brain is able to seamlessly integrate stimuli from our external and internal world into our sense of reality has yet to be adequately explained in the literature. We have previously proposed a three-dimensional unified model of consciousness that partly explains the dynamic mechanism. Here we further expand our model and include illustrations to provide a better conception (...)
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  24. added 2017-01-04
    Jerath Ravinder, Shannon M. Cearley, Vernon A. Barnes & Mike Jensen (2016). Functional and Neural Mechanisms of Out-of-Body Experiences: Importance of Retinogeniculo-Cortical Oscillations. World Journal of Neuroscience 6:287-302.
    Current research on the various forms of autoscopic phenomena addresses the clinical and neurological correlates of out-of-body experiences, autoscopic hallucinations,and heautoscopy. Yet most of this research is based on functional magnetic resonance imaging results and focuses predominantly on abnormal cortical activity. Previously we proposed that visual consciousness resulted from the dynamic retinogeniculo-cortical oscillations, such that the photoreceptors dynamically integrated with visual and other vision-associated cortices, and was theorized to be mapped out by photoreceptor discs and rich retinal networks which synchronized (...)
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  25. added 2017-01-04
    Jerath Ravinder, Shannon M. Cearley, Vernon A. Barnes & Elizabeth Nixon-Shapiro (2016). How Lateral Inhibition and Fast Retinogeniculo-Cortical Oscillations Create Vision: A New Hypothesis. Medical Hypotheses 96:20-29.
    The role of the physiological processes involved in human vision escapes clarification in current literature. Many unanswered questions about vision include: 1) whether there is more to lateral inhibition than previously proposed, 2) the role of the discs in rods and cones, 3) how inverted images on the retina are converted to erect images for visual perception, 4) what portion of the image formed on the retina is actually processed in the brain, 5) the reason we have an after-image with (...)
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  26. added 2017-01-04
    Jerath Ravinder, Molly W. Crawford, Vernon A. Barnes & Kyler Harden (2015). Self-Regulation of Breathing as a Primary Treatment for Anxiety. Applied Pscyophysiology and Biofeedback 40:107-115.
    Understanding the autonomic nervous system and homeostatic changes associated with emotions remains a major challenge for neuroscientists and a fundamental prerequisite to treat anxiety, stress, and emotional disorders. Based on recent publications, the inter-relationship between respiration and emotions and the influence of respiration on autonomic changes, and subsequent widespread membrane potential changes resulting from changes in homeostasis are discussed. We hypothesize that reversing homeostatic alterations with meditation and breathing techniques rather than targeting neurotransmitters with medication may be a superior method (...)
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  27. added 2017-01-04
    Jerath Ravinder, Molly W. Crawford & Mike Jensen (2015). Etiology of Phantom Limb Syndrome: Insights From a 3D Default Space Consciousness Model. Medical Hypotheses 85 (2):153-259.
    In this article, we examine phantom limb syndrome to gain insights into how the brain functions as the mind and how consciousness arises. We further explore our previously proposed consciousness model in which consciousness and body schema arise when information from throughout the body is processed by corticothalamic feedback loops and integrated by the thalamus. The parietal lobe spatially maps visual and non-visual information and the thalamus integrates and recreates this processed sensory information within a three-dimensional space termed the ‘‘3D (...)
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  28. added 2017-01-04
    Jerath Ravinder & Molly W. Crawford (2015). How Does the Body Affect the Mind? Role of Cardiorespiratory Coherence in the Spectrum of Emotions. Advances in Mind-Body Medicine 29 (4):1-13.
    The brain is considered to be the primary generator and regulator of emotions; however, afferent signals originating throughout the body are detected by the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and brainstem, and, in turn, can modulate emotional processes. During stress and negative emotional states, levels of cardiorespiratory coherence (CRC) decrease, and a shift occurs toward sympathetic dominance. In contrast, CRC levels increase during more positive emotional states, and a shift occurs toward parasympathetic dominance. Te dynamic changes in CRC that accompany different (...)
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  29. added 2017-01-04
    Jerath Ravinder, Molly W. Crawford, Vernon A. Barnes & Kyler Harden (2014). Widespread Depolarization During Expiration: A Source of Respiratory Drive? Medical Hypotheses 84 (1):31-37.
    Respiration influences various pacemakers and rhythms of the body during inspiration and expiration but the underlying mechanisms are relatively unknown. Understanding this phenomenon is important, as breathing disorders, breath holding, and hyperventilation can lead to significant medical conditions. We discuss the physiological modulation of heart rhythm, blood pressure, sympathetic nerve activity, EEG, and other changes observed during inspiration and expiration. We also correlate the intracellular mitochondrial respiratory metabolic processes with real-time breathing and correlate membrane potential changes with inspiration and expiration. (...)
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  30. added 2017-01-04
    Jerath Ravinder, Vernon A. Barnes & Molly W. Crawford (2014). MIND-BODY RESPONSE AND NEUROPHYSIOLOGICAL CHANGES DURING STRESS AND MEDITATION: CENTRAL ROLE OF HOMEOSTASIS. Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents 28 (4):545-554.
    Stress profoundly impacts quality of life and may lead to various diseases and conditions. Understanding the underlying physiological and neurological processes that take place during stress and meditation techniques may be critical for effectively treating stress-related diseases. The article examines a hypothetical physiological homeostatic response that compares and contrasts changes in central and peripheral oscillations during stress and meditation, and relates these to changes in the autonomic system and neurological activity. The authors discuss how cardiorespiratory synchronization, which occurs during the (...)
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  31. added 2017-01-04
    Jerath Ravinder, Vernon A. Barnes, David Dillard-Wright, Shivani Jerath & Brittany Hamilton (2012). Dynamic Change of Awareness During Meditation Techniques: Neural and Physiological Correlates. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 6 (131):1-5.
    Recent fndings illustrate how changes in consciousness accommodated by neural correlates and plasticity of the brain advance a model of perceptual change as a function of meditative practice. During the mindbody response neural correlates of changing awareness illustrate how the autonomic nervous system shifts from a sympathetic dominant to a parasympathetic dominant state. Expansion of awareness during the practice of meditation techniques can be linked to the Default Mode Network (DMN), a network of brain regions that is active when the (...)
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  32. added 2017-01-04
    Jerath Ravinder, Vernon A. Barnes & Hossam E. Fadel (2009). Mechanism of Development of Pre-Eclampsia Linking Breathing Disorders to Endothelial Dysfunction. Medical Hypotheses 73:163-166.
    High blood pressure is an important component of pre-eclampsia. The underlying mechanism of development of hypertension in pre-eclampsia is complicated and still remains obscure. Several theories have been advanced including endothelial dysfunction, uteroplacental insufficiency leading to generalized vasoconstriction, increased cardiac output, and sympathetic hyperactivity. Increased blood flow and pressure are thought to lead to capillary dilatation, which damages end-organ sites, leading to hypertension, proteinuria and edema. Additional theories have been put forward based on epidemiological research, implicating immunological and genetic factors. (...)
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  33. added 2017-01-04
    Jerath Ravinder & Vernon A. Barnes (2009). Augmentation of Mind-Body Therapy and Role of Deep Slow Breathing. Journal of Complementary and Integrative Medicine 1:1-7.
    Mind-body therapies have been shown to be effective in clinical treatment of disorders such as high blood pressure and stress. Significant differences in the effectiveness of mind–body therapies have been shown and a common link among the therapies has yet to be defined. This article overviews the role of slow rhythmic breathing in physiological as well as therapeutic effects of mind-body therapies. Slow deep breathing practice has important implications as it may underlie the basic mechanism that synchronizes the brain with (...)
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  34. added 2017-01-04
    Jerath Ravinder, James W. Edry, Vernon A. Barnes & Vandna Jerath (2006). Physiology of Long Pranayamic Breathing: Neural Respiratory Elements May Provide a Mechanism That Explains How Slow Deep Breathing Shifts the Autonomic Nervous System. Medical Hypotheses 67 (3):566-571.
    Pranayamic breathing, defined as a manipulation of breath movement, has been shown to contribute to a physiologic response characterized by the presence of decreased oxygen consumption, decreased heart rate, and decreased blood pressure, as well as increased theta wave amplitude in EEG recordings, increased parasympathetic activity accompanied by the experience of alertness and reinvigoration. The mechanism of how pranayamic breathing interacts with the nervous system affecting metabolism and autonomic functions remains to be clearly understood. It is our hypothesis that voluntary (...)
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  35. added 2017-01-01
    Dan Parker & Daniel Lantz (2016). Encoding and Accessing Linguistic Representations in a Dynamically Structured Holographic Memory System. Topics in Cognitive Science 8 (4).
    This paper presents a computational model that integrates a dynamically structured holographic memory system into the ACT-R cognitive architecture to explain how linguistic representations are encoded and accessed in memory. ACT-R currently serves as the most precise expression of the moment-by-moment working memory retrievals that support sentence comprehension. The ACT-R model of sentence comprehension is able to capture a range of linguistic phenomena, but there are cases where the model makes the wrong predictions, such as the over-prediction of retrieval interference (...)
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  36. added 2016-12-30
    Martin A. M. Gansinger, Unwired Words From the Hidden Web of Wisdom. Extemporaneous Intuitive Speech as an Instructional Method in Traditional Knowledge Recognition Systems and its Potential for Modern Educational Purposes (A Case Study of Constitutional Spontaneous Lectures in the Naqshbandi Sufi Order).
    This study is aiming at analyzing extemporaneous methods of instructional speech in the context of the Naqshbandi Sufi Order and its potential for modern educational purposes. Focusing on a processual analysis covering the flow of events in the communication and its environment, the work is using approaches applied in performance studies as well as improvised music, as well as cognitive science and psychological perspectives concerned with the mechanisms of the subconsciousness. Field research data collected at the Naqshbandi lodge in Lefke/Cyprus (...)
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  37. added 2016-12-30
    Niels Skovgaard‐Olsen, Henrik Singmann & Karl Christoph Klauer (2016). Relevance and Reason Relations. Cognitive Science 40 (8).
    This paper examines precursors and consequents of perceived relevance of a proposition A for a proposition C. In Experiment 1, we test Spohn's assumption that ∆P = P − P is a good predictor of ratings of perceived relevance and reason relations, and we examine whether it is a better predictor than the difference measure − P). In Experiment 2, we examine the effects of relevance on probabilistic coherence in Cruz, Baratgin, Oaksford, and Over's uncertain “and-to-if” inferences. The results suggest (...)
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  38. added 2016-12-30
    Sarah E. Koopman, Bradford Z. Mahon & Jessica F. Cantlon (2016). Evolutionary Constraints on Human Object Perception. Cognitive Science 40 (8).
    Language and culture endow humans with access to conceptual information that far exceeds any which could be accessed by a non-human animal. Yet, it is possible that, even without language or specific experiences, non-human animals represent and infer some aspects of similarity relations between objects in the same way as humans. Here, we show that monkeys’ discrimination sensitivity when identifying images of animals is predicted by established measures of semantic similarity derived from human conceptual judgments. We used metrics from computer (...)
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  39. added 2016-12-30
    Christina Y. Tzeng, Lynne C. Nygaard & Laura L. Namy (2016). The Specificity of Sound Symbolic Correspondences in Spoken Language. Cognitive Science 40 (8).
    Although language has long been regarded as a primarily arbitrary system, sound symbolism, or non-arbitrary correspondences between the sound of a word and its meaning, also exists in natural language. Previous research suggests that listeners are sensitive to sound symbolism. However, little is known about the specificity of these mappings. This study investigated whether sound symbolic properties correspond to specific meanings, or whether these properties generalize across semantic dimensions. In three experiments, native English-speaking adults heard sound symbolic foreign words for (...)
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  40. added 2016-12-29
    Kersten Luke (2016). Commentary: The Alleged Coupling-Constitution Fallacy and the Mature Sciences. Frontiers in Psychology 7 (2033).
    A commentary on: The Alleged Coupling-Constitution Fallacy and the Mature Sciences by Ross, D., and Ladyman, J. (2010). The Extended Mind, ed R. Menary (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press), 155–166.
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  41. added 2016-12-29
    Steven James Bartlett (1990). The Problem of Psychotherapeutic Effectiveness. Methodology and Science: Interdisciplinary Journal for the Empirical Study of the Foundations of Science and Their Methodology 23 (2):75-86.
    Hundreds of evaluative studies of psychotherapy still leave the issue of its effectiveness unsettled. The author argues that such studies have ignored the major determinant of therapeutic effectiveness, the role of a patient’s belief in the successful outcome in therapy. Psychiatrist Thomas Szasz, one of the foremost critics of psychiatry, wrote of this paper: "It is one of the best, if not the best, that I have read on this subject.” It makes little sense to claim that a certain therapy (...)
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  42. added 2016-12-28
    Marc-Kevin Daoust (2016). Andler, Daniel. La silhouette de l’humain. Quelle place pour le naturalisme dans le monde d’aujourd’hui? Paris, Gallimard, coll. « NRF Essais », 2016, 555 p. [REVIEW] Philosophiques 43 (2):540-544.
  43. added 2016-12-27
    Sean Aubin, Aaron R. Voelker & Chris Eliasmith (2016). Improving With Practice: A Neural Model of Mathematical Development. Topics in Cognitive Science 8 (4).
    The ability to improve in speed and accuracy as a result of repeating some task is an important hallmark of intelligent biological systems. Although gradual behavioral improvements from practice have been modeled in spiking neural networks, few such models have attempted to explain cognitive development of a task as complex as addition. In this work, we model the progression from a counting-based strategy for addition to a recall-based strategy. The model consists of two networks working in parallel: a slower basal (...)
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  44. added 2016-12-27
    Steven James Bartlett (1986). Narcissism and Philosophy. Methodology and Science: Interdisciplinary Journal for the Empirical Study of the Foundations of Science and Their Methodology 19 (1):16-26.
    This is one of several papers by the author that seek to throw light on the psychology of philosophers. In this paper, certain of the defining properties of clinical narcissism are discussed in their application to the ideological position-taking character of many philosophers and the philosophies they propound.
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  45. added 2016-12-26
    Steven James Bartlett (2006). Ecological Pathology. Mentalities/Mentalités: An Interdisciplinary Journal 20 (2):1-18.
    When taken as a serious and dispassionate object of study from the standpoint of the science of pathology, the human species is easily recognized as a global pathogen. Incontrovertible evidence on all sides tells us this, and yet we have steadfastly avoided an honest look in the mirror. We so often choose—willfully and with strong convictions sustained by homocentric prejudice—to hide the facts from ourselves, and to proceed with untroubled ignorance to overlook the worldwide human and natural devastation for which (...)
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  46. added 2016-12-22
    Pete Mandik (2016). The Myth of Color Sensations, or How Not to See a Yellow Banana. Topics in Cognitive Science 8 (4).
    I argue against a class of philosophical views of color perception, especially insofar as such views posit the existence of color sensations. I argue against the need to posit such nonconceptual mental intermediaries between the stimulus and the eventual conceptualized perceptual judgment. Central to my arguments are considerations of certain color illusions. Such illusions are best explained by reference to high-level, conceptualized knowledge concerning, for example, object identity, likely lighting conditions, and material composition of the distal stimulus. Such explanations obviate (...)
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  47. added 2016-12-22
    Jennifer S. Trueblood & Pernille Hemmer (2016). The Generalized Quantum Episodic Memory Model. Cognitive Science 40 (8).
    Recent evidence suggests that experienced events are often mapped to too many episodic states, including those that are logically or experimentally incompatible with one another. For example, episodic over-distribution patterns show that the probability of accepting an item under different mutually exclusive conditions violates the disjunction rule. A related example, called subadditivity, occurs when the probability of accepting an item under mutually exclusive and exhaustive instruction conditions sums to a number >1. Both the over-distribution effect and subadditivity have been widely (...)
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  48. added 2016-12-22
    Gregory L. Murphy, David A. Bosch & ShinWoo Kim (2016). Do Americans Have a Preference for Rule‐Based Classification? Cognitive Science 40 (8).
    Six experiments investigated variables predicted to influence subjects’ tendency to classify items by a single property instead of overall similarity, following the paradigm of Norenzayan et al., who found that European Americans tended to give more “logical” rule-based responses. However, in five experiments with Mechanical Turk subjects and undergraduates at an American university, we found a consistent preference for similarity-based responding. A sixth experiment with Korean undergraduates revealed an effect of instructions, also reported by Norenzayan et al., in which classification (...)
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  49. added 2016-12-22
    Joseph L. Austerweil, Thomas L. Griffiths & Stephen E. Palmer (2016). Learning to Be Variant: Combining Prior Knowledge and Experience to Infer Orientation Invariance in Object Recognition. Cognitive Science 40 (8).
    How does the visual system recognize images of a novel object after a single observation despite possible variations in the viewpoint of that object relative to the observer? One possibility is comparing the image with a prototype for invariance over a relevant transformation set. However, invariance over rotations has proven difficult to analyze, because it applies to some objects but not others. We propose that the invariant transformations of an object are learned by incorporating prior expectations with real-world evidence. We (...)
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  50. added 2016-12-22
    Harm Brouwer, Matthew W. Crocker, Noortje J. Venhuizen & John C. J. Hoeks (2016). A Neurocomputational Model of the N400 and the P600 in Language Processing. Cognitive Science 40 (8).
    Ten years ago, researchers using event-related brain potentials to study language comprehension were puzzled by what looked like a Semantic Illusion: Semantically anomalous, but structurally well-formed sentences did not affect the N400 component—traditionally taken to reflect semantic integration—but instead produced a P600 effect, which is generally linked to syntactic processing. This finding led to a considerable amount of debate, and a number of complex processing models have been proposed as an explanation. What these models have in common is that they (...)
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