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  1. Nationalism and the original position.Terence Rajivan Edward - manuscript
    This is a one-page handout presenting some objections nationalists might or do make to John Rawls's original position method.
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  2. Liberalism, nationalism, and pandemics: a philosophy.Terence Rajivan Edward - manuscript
    The most well-known kinds of liberalism are based on the doctrine of the atomism of the individual, sometimes called "the separateness of persons." But these doctrines do not seem to allow a country to restrict immigration for the purpose of protecting a national way of life, except for protecting liberalism itself. This can lead to considerable discontent. In this paper, I present a kind of liberalism that addresses this concern.
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  3. Daniel Bell, Communitarianism and its Critics.A. MacIntyre - forthcoming - Radical Philosophy.
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  4. Henry Tam, Communitarianism.T. Skillen - forthcoming - Radical Philosophy.
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  5. Community in African Moral-Political Philosophy.Thaddeus Metz - 2024 - In Niall Bond (ed.), The Concept of Community from a Global Perspective. Brill. pp. 313-332.
    I critically discuss respects in which conceptions of community have featured in African moral-political philosophy over the past 40 years or so. Some of the discussion is in the vein of intellectual history, recounting key theoretical moves for those unfamiliar with the field. However, my discussion is also opinionated, noting prima facie weaknesses with certain positions and presenting others as more promising, particularly relative to prominent Western competitors. There are a variety of forms that African communitarianism has taken and could (...)
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  6. Limited Communitarianism and the Merit of Afro-communitarian Rejectionism.Tosin Adeate - 2023 - Filosofia Theoretica: Journal of African Philosophy, Culture and Religions 12 (1):49-64.
    Limited communitarianism is presented as an alternative to classical communitarianism in African philosophy. Bernard Matolino, the proponent of this view, argues that personhood can be attained with the constitutive features of the self leading the process, as against the historical, classical communitarian view that prioritises the sociality of the self. He posits that it is a personhood conceived through such view as limited communitarianism that can guarantee individual rights and prioritises the claims of the individual in African philosophy. Matolino’s claim (...)
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  7. Karl Popper in Africa: Liberal-Communitarianism as Ideology for Democratic Social Reconstruction.Oseni Taiwo Afisi - 2023 - Journal of Philosophical Investigations 17 (42):1-12.
    This paper examines the liberal society that Popper lauds, that aims to be truly open, and discusses why another, more communitarian kind of society, particularly societies in Africa, may also reflect the quest for intellectual openness that is Popper’s ideal. Moreover, this paper avers reasons why Popper should be comfortable with such a liberal-communitarian mix. The inter-subjectivity in his critical rationalism is a balance of an explicit individualism, and an implicit social element (Afisi, 2016a). Popper is indeed an author of (...)
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  8. Transgenerational Communitarianism in a Global Interconnected World: A Critique.Luigi Bonatti & Lorenza Alexandra Lorenzetti - 2023 - The Monist 106 (2):119-131.
    We discuss how transgenerational communitarianism deals with public decisions involving tradeoffs between different generations’ wellbeing and having global consequences. Policies for tackling climate change are an example. Although there is a natural, evolutionary, basis for intergenerational altruism, most people lack the competencies for constituting a transgenerational community. Moreover, greater attention to future generations’ wellbeing need not substitute for collective action: a lower discount rate reflecting a stronger concern for future generations may even worsen their wellbeing. Finally, in a world of (...)
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  9. Afro-communitarianism and Transhumanism.Amara Esther Chimakonam - 2023 - In Björn Freter, Elvis Imafidon & Mpho Tshivhase (eds.), Handbook of African Philosophy. Dordrecht, New York: Springer Verlag. pp. 49-68.
    This chapter examines the status of the transhumanist future that seeks to use the means of science and technology to radically enhance human moral capacities. I investigate the claim about the possible transformation of the human social conditions that could enable them to transcend the limitations imposed on them by biology and nature to become posthumans. I suppose that such a transhumanist future would be possible and then pose the question: How would the transhumanization of our world change our Afro-communitarian (...)
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  10. En el mundo de la vida con los otros en comunidad.Nathalie de la Cadena - 2023 - Conjectura: Filosofia E Educação 28:e023019.
    Resumen: Husserl propone una teoría sobre la intersubjetividad que parte de la conciencia trascendental como inserta en el mundo de la vida donde están los otros y donde la comunidad se construye bajo una estructura de esencias que garantiza la comunalidad. El mundo de la vida es dado y compartido por todas las conciencias intencionales y trascendentales, es condición para intuiciones empíricas y eidéticas, la epoché y las reducciones eidética y trascendental. Cada momento del método fenomenológico se basa en la (...)
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  11. The African Novel and the Question of Communalism in African Philosophy (Roundtable on Jeanne-Marie Jackson's "The African Novel of Ideas").Zeyad El Nabolsy - 2023 - Safundi 24.
    Jeanne-Marie Jackson’s The African Novel of Ideas: Philosophy and Individualism in the Age of Global Writing provides an analytic framework for understanding the novel as a form of philosophical expression in African intellectual history. More specifically, she uses individualism as a tool for tracking the expression of abstract “philosophical thinking” in a selection of African novels. For Jackson, it is the fictional individual in the novel who is the primary bearer of philosophical thought. Jackson situates this interpretative heuristic vis-à-vis the (...)
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  12. The Cultural Argument and the Same-Sex Marriage Debate: The Perspective of Moderate African Communitarianism.Husein Inusah & Abdussalam Alhaji Adam - 2023 - Philosophia: International Journal of Philosophy (Philippine e-journal) 24 (2).
  13. This Thing Called Communitarianism or Why We Should Not Be afraid of the community.Nimrod Kahn - 2023 - In Bolaji Bateye, Mahmoud Masaeli, Louise F. Müller & Angela C. M. Roothaan (eds.), Wellbeing in African Philosophy: Insights for a Global Ethics of Development. Lanham, USA: Rowman and Littlefield.
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  14. Climate Change and Communitarianism.Volker Kaul - 2023 - In Pellegrino Gianfranco & Marcello Di Paola (eds.), Handbook of Philosophy of Climate Change. Springer Nature. pp. 1213-1227.
    It is widely held that, as a matter of justice, rich countries should compensate poor countries for the transition towards net zero emission through some global redistributive scheme. Yet, communitarianism is a political theory of ethical partiality and explicitly rejects any conception of global redistributive justice. This chapter analyzes the conceptual problems that communitarian theory has with climate change and seeks a way from within communitarianism to engage with it specifically in terms of global justice. It argues that, while cultural (...)
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  15. How to Do African Ethics: Reply to Six Critics.Thaddeus Metz - 2023 - African Philosophical Inquiry 11:123-150.
    This essay is a lengthy response to six contributors to a special issue edited by Adeshina Afolayan and devoted to critical discussions of _A Relational Moral Theory: African Ethics in and Beyond the Continent_. Key topics include: the proper role of metaphysics when doing moral philosophy; the appropriate aims of moral philosophy in the light of relational values and properties; the ir/relevance of imperceptible agents for an African ethic; the un/attractiveness of the principle that one morally should promote the common (...)
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  16. Moderate Communitarianism and Human Dignity.Ndivhoniswani Elphus Muade - 2023 - In Motsamai Molefe & Christopher Allsobrook (eds.), Human Dignity in an African Context. Springer Verlag. pp. 107-124.
    This chapter explores the concept of human dignity in African philosophy. Specifically, it uses moderate communitarianism heuristically as a resource in African axiological thought to contribute to discourses on human dignity. It does so because much of the literature focuses on moderate communitarianism to reflect on human rights, and it tends to neglect to theorize the concept of human dignity in spite of the supposed intrinsic relationship between the two concepts of human dignity and human rights. This chapter focuses on (...)
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  17. Karl Popper in Africa: Liberal-Communitarianism as Ideology for Democratic Social Reconstruction.Taiwo Afisi Oseni - 2023 - Journal of Philosophical Investigations 17 (42):1-12.
    This paper examines the liberal society that Popper lauds, that aims to be truly open, and discusses why another, more communitarian kind of society, particularly societies in Africa, may also reflect the quest for intellectual openness that is Popper’s ideal. Moreover, this paper avers reasons why Popper should be comfortable with such a liberal-communitarian mix. The inter-subjectivity in his critical rationalism is a balance of an explicit individualism, and an implicit social element (Afisi, 2016a). Popper is indeed an author of (...)
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  18. Integralism and Justice for All.James Dominic Rooney - 2023 - Nova et Vetera 21 (3):1059-1088.
    Catholic integralism is a tradition of thought which insists upon the ideal nature of political arrangements on which the Church can mandate the State to advance the supernatural good of the baptized. Thomas Pink, one of the foremost defenders, has proposed controversially that these arrangements are ideal because the Church possesses rights to civil coercive authority. But I argue this fact would not entail – by itself – the ideal nature of those arrangements. To the contrary, I argue that integralism (...)
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  19. Justicia y transmisión de enfermedades contagiosas. El argumento del bien común como fundamento de las restricciones a la autonomía individual.Noelia Martínez Doallo - 2022 - In María Luisa Arcos Vieira & Leyre Elizari Urtasun (eds.), La protección de la salud frente al riesgo de contagio. BOSCH. pp. 427-463.
    Diversas fuentes culturales explican los orígenes del marcado individualismo imperante en nuestras sociedades actuales. Posiblemente, una de las manifestaciones más aclamadas de este individualismo sea la primacía de la autonomía individual, elemento clave en la articulación y fundamentación de las posiciones jurídicas subjetivas presentes en la práctica totalidad de los ordenamientos jurídicos contemporáneos, y como resultado de la expansión de la cultura occidental. Sin embargo, en ocasiones, el peso otorgado a la autonomía se antoja desproporcionado, especialmente cuando conduce a la (...)
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  20. Atomism, Communitarianism, and Confucian Familism.Andrew T. W. Hung - 2022 - Fudan Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences 15.
    Charles Taylor criticizes many liberal theories based on a kind of atomism that assumes the individual self-sufficiency outside the polity. This not only causes soft-relativism and political fragmentation but also undermines the solidarity of the community, that is, the very condition of the formation of autonomous citizens. Taylor thus argues for communitarian politics which protects certain cultural common goods for sustaining the solidarity of the community. However, Brenda Lyshaug criticizes Taylor’s communitarianism as suppressing plurality and enhancing hostility among cultural groups. (...)
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  21. On regular life, freedom, modernity, and Augustinian communitarianism.Guillermo Morales Jodra - 2022 - New York: Bloomsbury Academic.
    The Reading Augustine series presents short, engaging books offering personal readings of St. Augustine of Hippo's contributions to western philosophical, literary, and religious life. This two-volume work provides a new understanding of Western subjectivity as theorized in the Augustinian Rule. A theopolitical synthesis of Antiquity, the Rule is a humble, yet extremely influential example of subjectivity production. In these volumes, Jodra argues that the Classical and Late-Ancient communitarian practices along the Mediterranean provide historical proof of a worldview in which the (...)
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  22. Energy Communities and the Tensions Between Neoliberalism and Communitarianism.Erik Laes & Gunter Bombaerts - 2022 - Science and Engineering Ethics 28 (1):1-21.
    The convergent development of distributed electricity sources, storage technologies, ‘big data’ devices, and novel ICT infrastructure matching energy supply and demand enables new local and collective forms of energy consumption and production. This socio-technical evolution has been accompanied by the development of citizen energy communities that have been supported by EU energy governance and directives, adopting a political narrative of placing the citizen central in the ongoing energy transition. But to what extent are the ideals that motivate the energy community (...)
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  23. Security as care: communitarianism, social reproduction and gender in southern Israel.Alisa C. Lewin, Amalia Sa’ar & Sarai B. Aharoni - 2022 - Feminist Theory 23 (4):444-466.
    The article engages with feminist care theories and practices of community building in the context of armed conflict. Based on an ethnographic study of the security concerns of Israeli citizens living in the Gaza Envelope and their positions regarding the siege on Gaza, we find that in this region, vernacular security is closely linked with care, social reproduction and communitarianism. Communitarian ethics is intertwined with separatist, state-centred discourses on national ‘trauma and resilience’. In this context, Jewish-Israeli women care for their (...)
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  24. Virtue in African Ethics as Living Harmoniously.Thaddeus Metz - 2022 - In Chenyang Li & Dascha Düring (eds.), The Virtue of Harmony. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. pp. 207-229.
    A large swathe of the indigenous African ethical tradition is frequently encapsulated in the maxim, “A person is a person through other persons.” This phrasing is an overly literal translation of some sayings that are prominent in the southern and central regions of Africa, but that resonate with most indigenous sub-Saharan cultures. This chapter articulates and motivates a philosophical interpretation of the maxim for an international readership interested in virtue. According to the initial formulation, one should strive to become a (...)
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  25. The Virtues of African Ethics (Repr.).Thaddeus Metz - 2022 - In Luís Rodrigues (ed.), African Ethics: A Guide to Key Ideas. Bloomsbury. pp. 185-196.
    Mildly modified reprint of a chapter originally appearing in The Handbook of Virtue Ethics (2012).
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  26. Afro-Communitarianism and the Duties of Animal Advocates within Racialized Societies: The Case of Racial Politics in South Africa.Luís Cordeiro-Rodrigues - 2021 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 18 (3):511-523.
    Animal advocates world-wide have been accused of campaigns immured in racism. Some authors have argued that for animal advocates to avoid this accusation they should simultaneously engage with racial discrimination issues when advocating for animal welfare/rights. This prescription has been mostly explored in the context of the Global North and by looking at Western normative theory. In this article I address this issue but by looking at the context of South Africa and analysing the prescriptions from an Afro-communitarian ethic. I (...)
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  27. Deontological Communitarianism. Laudation for Thomas M. Scanlon.Rainer Forst - 2021 - In Markus Stepanians & Michael Frauchiger (eds.), Reason, Justification, and Contractualism: Themes from Scanlon. De Gruyter. pp. 11-16.
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  28. Scelta o scoperta? Il problema dell’identità personale in Amartya Sen.Armando Manchisi - 2021 - In Giulia Angelini & Alessandro Esposito (eds.), Dieci anni di Universa, dieci anni di ricerca. pp. 233-254.
    In the following paper I explore the consistency and efficacy of Amartya Sen’s position in the light of the philosophical debate on personal identity. To this end, I examine the key concepts of the capability approach as well as the writings that Sen explicitly devotes to the topic of personal identity. Given some difficulties that will emerge as result of the analysis, I finally propose possible improvements.
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  29. Vitality, Community, and Human Dignity in Africa (rev. edn).Thaddeus Metz - 2021 - In Filomena Maggino (ed.), Encyclopedia of Quality of Life and Well-Being Research, 2nd edn. Springer.
    Mildly revised reprint of material extracted from an article appearing in Human Rights Review (2012).
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  30. What Does an African Ethic of Social Cohesion Entail for Social Distancing?Thaddeus Metz - 2021 - Developing World Bioethics 21 (1):7-16.
    The most prominent strand of moral thought in the African philosophical tradition is relational and cohesive, roughly demanding that we enter into community with each other. Familiar is the view that being a real person means sharing a way of life with others, perhaps even in their fate. What does such a communal ethic prescribe for the coronavirus pandemic? Might it forbid one from social distancing, at least away from intimates? Or would it entail that social distancing is wrong to (...)
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  31. African Ethics and Online Communities: An Argument for a Virtual Communitarianism.Stephen Nkansah Morgan & Beatrice Okyere-Manu - 2021 - Filosofia Theoretica: Journal of African Philosophy, Culture and Religions 10 (3):103-118.
    A virtual community is generally described as a group of people with shared interests, ideas, and goals in a particular digital group or virtual platform. Virtual communities have become ubiquitous in recent times, and almost everyone belongs to one or multiple virtual communities. The onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, with its associated national lockdowns, has made virtual communities more essential and a necessary part of our daily lives, whether for work and business, educational purposes or keeping in touch with friends (...)
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  32. The Importance of a Neo-African Communitarianism in Virtual Space: An Ethical Inquiry for the African Teenager.Thando Nkohla-Ramunenyiwa - 2021 - In Beatrice Dedaa Okyere-Manu (ed.), African Values, Ethics, and Technology: Questions, Issues, and Approaches. Palgrave-Macmillan. pp. 139-153.
    South Africa is a rapidly developing technological environment, where youth of all backgrounds have access to a smartphone. The South African community is, therefore, exposed to and also influenced by the world outside its borders and continent. This exposure and influence are premised on globalization and technology. This external influence has invited itself into the internal value system upon which African households have been historically and systematically built over many generations. These values find rest on the pillars of respecting elders (...)
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  33. Left Wittgensteinianism.Matthieu Queloz & Damian Cueni - 2021 - European Journal of Philosophy 29 (4):758-777.
    Social and political concepts are indispensable yet historically and culturally variable in a way that poses a challenge: how can we reconcile confident commitment to them with awareness of their contingency? In this article, we argue that available responses to this problem—Foundationalism, Ironism, and Right Wittgensteinianism—are unsatisfactory. Instead, we draw on the work of Bernard Williams to tease out and develop a Left Wittgensteinian response. In present-day pluralistic and historically self-conscious societies, mere confidence in our concepts is not enough. For (...)
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  34. Security, Local Community, and the Democratic Political Culture in Africa.Krzysztof Trzcinski - 2021 - In Olajumoke Yacob-Haliso Adeshina Afolayan (ed.), Pathways to Alternative Epistemologies in Africa. Springer Verlag. pp. 111-122.
    In this study, the idea of the local African community as a social structure ensuring the security of its members is presented. An understanding of the concept of security is first briefly discussed, followed by the meaning of the concept of the local African community. The chapter also makes an a priori distinction between what one can call “moderate” and “radical” types of communal life and two case studies exemplifying them are presented. The chapter aims to analyze the trade off, (...)
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  35. Building Inclusive Environments for All Ages with Citizens.Willeke van Staalduinen, Carina Dantas, Joost Van Hoof & Andrzej Klimczuk - 2021 - In Francisco Melero & Mike Burnard (eds.), Sheldon 3rd Online Conference Meeting: Solutions for ageing well at home, in the community and at work - Proceedings Book. Technical Research Centre of Furniture and Wood of the Region of Murcia. pp. 143–153.
    The paper provides an introduction to the public discourse around the notion of smart healthy inclusive environments. First, the basic ideas are explained and related to citizen participation in the context of implementation of a "society for all ages" concept disseminated by the United Nations. Next, the text discusses selected initiatives of the European Commission in the field of intergenerational programming and policies as well as features of the COST Action NET4Age-Friendly: Smart Healthy Age-Friendly Environments (SHAFE). The following sections are (...)
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  36. The Individual and Social Self in a New Communitarianism.Dean Chapman - 2020 - Philosophia Africana 19 (1):1-26.
    Some communitarians about personhood hold that human communities are metaphysically antecedent to individual persons, and that personhood comes in degrees, and that one becomes a person through ethical maturation within a community. I offer a new communitarianism that also endorses those claims. It is based partly on certain African accounts of the person—primarily Menkiti’s account—and partly on Mark Johnston’s extraordinary argument that extremely good persons are literally at one with the human community itself. The theory’s concept of the person is (...)
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  37. Afro-Communitarianism and the Question of Individual Freedom.Jonathan Chimakonam & Chukwuemeka Awugosi - 2020 - Philosophia: International Journal of Philosophy (Philippine e-journal) 21 (1):34-49.
    In this essay, we explore the possibility and the extent of individual freedom within the Afro-communitarian set up. We contend that every community is made up of individuals whose association constitutes the community and as such, that the idea of individual freedom is not only possible but could be necessary. Granted that the idea of communitarianism presupposes the domination of communal values over individual endowments, we contend, nonetheless that when the idea of primordiality of private liberty is taken into account, (...)
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  38. Pitting People Against Each Other.Waheed Hussain - 2020 - Philosophy and Public Affairs 48 (1):79-113.
    Philosophy &Public Affairs, Volume 48, Issue 1, Page 79-113, Winter 2020.
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  39. Must Land Reform Benefit the Victims of Colonialism? (repr.).Thaddeus Metz - 2020 - In Erasmus Masitera (ed.), Philosophical Approaches to Land Reform in Africa. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 145-160.
  40. An African Theory of Just Causes for War.Thaddeus Metz - 2020 - In Luís Cordeiro-Rodrigues & Danny Singh (eds.), Comparative Just War Theory. New York: Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 131-155.
    In this chapter, I add to the new body of philosophical literature that addresses African approaches to just war by reflecting on some topics that have yet to be considered and by advancing different perspectives. My approach is two-fold. First, I spell out a foundational African ethic, according to which one must treat people’s capacity to relate communally with respect. Second, I derive principles from it to govern the use of force and violence, and compare and contrast their implications for (...)
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  41. Popper’s Politics and Law in the Light of African Values.Thaddeus Metz - 2020 - Jus Cogens 2:185-204.
    Karl Popper is famous for favoring an open society, one in which the individual is treated as an end in himself and social arrangements are subjected to critical evaluation, which he defends largely by appeal to a Kantian ethic of respecting the dignity of rational beings. In this essay, I consider for the first time what the implications of a characteristically African ethic, instead prescribing respect for our capacity to relate communally, are for how the state should operate in an (...)
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  42. Community, Individuality, and Reciprocity in Menkiti.Thaddeus Metz - 2020 - In Polycarp A. Ikuenobe & Edwin Etieyibo (eds.), Menkiti on Community and Becoming a Person. Lexington Books. pp. 131-145.
    For four decades Ifeanyi Menkiti has addressed the question of which sort of community constitutes personhood from a characteristically African perspective. In this chapter, I critically discuss the conceptions of how one acquires personhood through community that Menkiti has advanced, in search of the one that would most enable him to avoid prominent moral objections made to his views over the years. In particular, his account of personhood has been criticized for insufficiently accommodating individual difference, most recently in respect of (...)
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  43. Replacing Development: An Afro-Communal Approach to Global Justice (repr.).Thaddeus Metz - 2020 - In Mahmoud Masaeli & Rico Sneller (eds.), The Return of Ethics and Spirituality in Global Development. Gompel & Svacina. pp. 187-210.
  44. African Theories of Meaning in Life: A Critical Assessment.Thaddeus Metz - 2020 - South African Journal of Philosophy 39 (2):113-126.
    In this article, I expound and assess two theories of meaning in life informed by the indigenous sub-Saharan African philosophical tradition. According to one principle, a life is more meaningful, the more it promotes community with other human persons. According to the other principle, a life is more meaningful, the more it promotes vitality in oneself and others. I argue that, at least upon some refinement, both of these African conceptions of meaning merit global consideration from philosophers, but that the (...)
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  45. Relationality and Commitment: Ethics and Ontology in Heidegger's Aristotle.Nicolai Krejberg Knudsen - 2019 - Journal of the British Society for Phenomenology 50 (4):337-357.
    This article discusses the tension between social relationality and self-relationality central to Heidegger’s ontology of Dasein and the possible ways of reconciling this tension. Arguing that this is a tension between communicability and existential commitments, the article poses the question: How are existential commitments responsive to communication? After problematizing the quasi-Kantian and communitarian ways of settling the tension, the article uses Heidegger’s early reading of Aristotle to develop a third hermeneutic model of ethical relationality according to which existential commitments are (...)
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  46. An Ubuntu-Based Evaluation of the South African State's Responses to Marikana: Where's the Reconciliation? (repr.).Thaddeus Metz - 2019 - In Mia Swart & Ylva Rodny-Gumede (eds.), Marikana Unresolved: The Massacre, Culpability and Consequences. University of Cape Town Press.
    Reprint of an article first appearing in the journal _Politikon_ in 2017.
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  47. The African Ethic of Ubuntu.Thaddeus Metz - 2019 - 1000-Word Philosophy: An Introductory Anthology.
    Online reprint of part of an encyclopedia entry (from the Encyclopaedia of Quality of Life and Well-being Research 2014).
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  48. The Ideological Matrix of Science: Natural Selection and Immunity as Case Studies.Agustin Ostachuk - 2019 - Cosmos and History: The Journal of Natural and Social Philosophy 15 (1):182-213.
    The modern concept of ideology was established by the liberal politician and philosopher Destutt de Tracy, with the objective of creating an all-embracing and general science of ideas, which followed the sensualist and empiricist trend initiated by Locke that culminated in the positivism of Comte. Natural selection and immunity are two key concepts in the history of biology that were strongly based on the Malthusian concept of struggle for existence. This concept wrongly assumed that population grew faster than the means (...)
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  49. Consciencism, Ubuntu, and Justice.Martin Ajei & Richmond Kwesi - 2018 - Nigerian Journal of Philosophy 26:61-90.
    Mkhwanazi (2017) has argued that Consciencism is an “expression of ubuntu” and that it “represents the essential elements of ubuntu”. Both Consciencism and ubuntu, according to him, are engaged with the re-humanization of African society for they both advocate for the restitution of humanist and egalitarian principles found in traditional African societies. In this paper, we argue that while Consciencism and ubuntu share common principles, the one cannot be understood as an expression or representation of the other. Rather, the principles (...)
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  50. Interdependency: The fourth existential insult to humanity.Tom Malleson - 2018 - Contemporary Political Theory 17 (2):160-186.
    Sigmund Freud famously described three existential insults to humanity stemming from heliocentrism, evolution, and psychoanalysis. In recent years we are, perhaps, beginning to see the emergence of a fourth: interdependency. Over the last several centuries, Anglo-American culture has modelled itself on a vision of the independent individual – strong, autonomous, and self-sufficient. Yet from feminist theory, communitarianism, disability theory, institutionalist economics, and elsewhere, the evidence mounts that independence is, in most contexts, a myth. We are, in fact, fundamentally social beings: (...)
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