About this topic
Summary The theory of computation is a mathematical theory about the properties of abstract computational objects, such as algorithms and Turing machines. They are abstract in the sense that they ignore or leave out considerations about by features of physical implementations, such as finite memory.  In contrast, computations are done by physical systems: concrete machines made of silicon and metal, or brains made of biological materials, can run algorithms or implement Turing machines. This area is concerned with questions about how the abstract objects that are in the purview of the theory of computation relate to physical systems.
Key works The relationship between abstract computation and physical systems such as brains is a central issue in philosophy of mind, particularly given the rise of computational functionalism as a foundation for the study of the mind.  Here the work of Chalmers 1996 provides a good starting point for bridging the theory of computation with theories of physical systems by means of an implementation relation. 
Introductions A good introduction is Piccinini 2010
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  1. Ingenious Genes: How Gene Regulation Networks Evolve to Control Development.Roger Sansom - 2011 - MIT Press.
  2. Wide computationalism revisited: distributed mechanisms, parismony and testability.Luke Kersten - 2024 - Philosophical Explorations 27 (2):1-18.
    Recent years have seen a surge of interest in applying mechanistic thinking to computational accounts of implementation and individuation. One recent extension of this work involves so-called ‘wide’ approaches to computation, the view that computational processes spread out beyond the boundaries of the individual. These ‘mechanistic accounts of wide computation’ maintain that computational processes are wide in virtue of being part of mechanisms that extend beyond the boundary of the individual. This paper aims to further develop the mechanistic account of (...)
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  3. Serendipity and inherent non-linear thinking can help address the climate and environmental conundrums.Quan-Hoang Vuong, Viet-Phuong La & Minh-Hoang Nguyen - 2024 - Ms Thoughts.
    Humankind is currently confronted with a critical challenge that determines its very existence, not only on an individual, racial, or national level but as a whole species: the fight against climate change and environmental degradation. To win this battle, humanity needs innovations and non-linear thinking. Nature has long been a substantial information source for unthinkable discoveries that save human lives. The paper suggests that by understanding the nature, emergence, and mechanism of serendipity, the survival skill of humans, humanity can capitalize (...)
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  4. 对数字全球化时代未来智慧城市的思考 [Reflections on the Future of Smart Cities in the Era of Digital Globalization] (2nd edition).David Bartosch - 2022 - Xinhua Wenzhai (Ban Yue Kan) 新华文摘 (半月刊) 738:138-140. Translated by Peng Bei 彭蓓.
  5. 对数字全球化时代未来智慧城市的思考 [Reflections on the Future of Smart Cities in the Era of Digital Globalization].David Bartosch - 2021 - Guowai Shehui Kexue 国外社会科学 Social Sciences Abroad 347 (5):74-79. Translated by Peng Bei 彭蓓.
  6. Electrical analysis of logical complexity: Brain Informatics Open Access an exploratory eeg study of logically valid/ invalid deducive inference.Salto Francisco, Requena Carmen, Rodríguez Víctor, Poza Jesús & Hornero Roberto - 2023 - Brain Informatics 10 (13):1-15.
    Abstract Introduction Logically valid deductive arguments are clear examples of abstract recursive computational proce‐ dures on propositions or on probabilities. However, it is not known if the cortical time‐consuming inferential pro‐ cesses in which logical arguments are eventually realized in the brain are in fact physically different from other kinds of inferential processes. Methods In order to determine whether an electrical EEG discernible pattern of logical deduction exists or not, a new experimental paradigm is proposed contrasting logically valid and invalid (...)
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  7. Electrophysiological connectivity of logical deduction: Early cortical MEG study.Anton Toro Luis F., Salto Francisco, Requena Carmen & Maestu Fernando - 2023 - Cortex 166:365-376.
    Complex human reasoning involves minimal abilities to extract conclusions implied in the available information. These abilities are considered “deductive” because they exemplify certain abstract relations among propositions or probabilities called deductive arguments. However, the electrophysiological dynamics which supports such complex cognitive pro- cesses has not been addressed yet. In this work we consider typically deductive logico- probabilistically valid inferences and aim to verify or refute their electrophysiological functional connectivity differences from invalid inferences with the same content (same relational variables, same (...)
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  8. Implementing a Computing System: A Pluralistic Approach.Syed AbuMusab - 2023 - Global Philosophy 33 (1):1-19.
    In chapter eleven of "On The Foundation of Computing," Primiero takes on the implementation debate in computer science. He contrasts his theory with two other views—the Semantic and the specification—artifact. In this paper, I argue that there is a way to fine-tune the implementation concept further. Firstly, contrary to Primiero, I claim it is problematic to separate the implementation relationship from the conditions which make it correct. Secondly, by taking a pluralistic approach to implementation, I claim it is a mistake (...)
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  9. TC*.Didehvar Farzad - manuscript
    One of the possible hypotheses about time is to consider any instant of time as fuzzy number, so that two instants of time could be overlapped. Historically, some Mathematicians and Philosophers have had similar ideas like Brouwer and Husserl [5]. Throughout this article, the impact of this change on Theory of Computation and Complexity Theory are studied. In order to rebuild Theory of Computation in a more successful and productive approach to solve some major problems in Complexity Theory, the present (...)
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  10. Bruce D'Ambrosio, Qualitative Process Theory Using Linguistic Variables[REVIEW]Varol Akman - 1991 - ACM SIGART Bulletin 2 (2):25-27.
    Ken Forbus's Qualitative Process Theory (QPT) is a popular theory for reasoning about the physical aspects of the daily world. Qualitative Process Theory Using Linguistic Variables by Bruce D'Ambrosio (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1989) is an attempt to fill some gaps in QPT.
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  11. Strengthening Weak Emergence.Nora Berenstain - 2020 - Erkenntnis 87 (5):2457-2474.
    Bedau's influential (1997) account analyzes weak emergence in terms of the non-derivability of a system’s macrostates from its microstates except by simulation. I offer an improved version of Bedau’s account of weak emergence in light of insights from information theory. Non-derivability alone does not guarantee that a system’s macrostates are weakly emergent. Rather, it is non-derivability plus the algorithmic compressibility of the system’s macrostates that makes them weakly emergent. I argue that the resulting information-theoretic picture provides a metaphysical account of (...)
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  12. A Dilemma for Solomonoff Prediction.Sven Neth - 2023 - Philosophy of Science 90 (2):288-306.
    The framework of Solomonoff prediction assigns prior probability to hypotheses inversely proportional to their Kolmogorov complexity. There are two well-known problems. First, the Solomonoff prior is relative to a choice of Universal Turing machine. Second, the Solomonoff prior is not computable. However, there are responses to both problems. Different Solomonoff priors converge with more and more data. Further, there are computable approximations to the Solomonoff prior. I argue that there is a tension between these two responses. This is because computable (...)
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  13. Originemology: Science behind the Beginning of Everything.Joey Lawsin - 2022 - Morrisville, NC, USA: Lulu Press Inc.
    How did information emerge into the early minds of our very first humans? Who supplied our primitive ancestors with information? Where did it originate? Where did it come from? Was the source of information a who or a what? Was it god, space aliens, or something else? How was information stored and retrieved by an aneural organism? -/- These basic questions were the keys that opened the conceptualization of a new school of thought known as Originemology, a pioneering discipline that (...)
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  14. Natural morphological computation as foundation of learning to learn in humans, other living organisms, and intelligent machines.Gordana Dodig-Crnkovic - 2020 - Philosophies 5 (3):17-32.
    The emerging contemporary natural philosophy provides a common ground for the integrative view of the natural, the artificial, and the human-social knowledge and practices. Learning process is central for acquiring, maintaining, and managing knowledge, both theoretical and practical. This paper explores the relationships between the present advances in understanding of learning in the sciences of the artificial, natural sciences, and philosophy. The question is, what at this stage of the development the inspiration from nature, specifically its computational models such as (...)
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  15. Why Simpler Computer Simulation Models Can Be Epistemically Better for Informing Decisions.Casey Helgeson, Vivek Srikrishnan, Klaus Keller & Nancy Tuana - 2021 - Philosophy of Science 88 (2):213-233.
    For computer simulation models to usefully inform climate risk management, uncertainties in model projections must be explored and characterized. Because doing so requires running the model many ti...
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  16. How to be concrete: mechanistic computation and the abstraction problem.Luke Kersten - 2020 - Philosophical Explorations 23 (3):251-266.
    This paper takes up a recent challenge to mechanistic approaches to computational implementation, the view that computational implementation is best explicated within a mechanistic framework. The challenge, what has been labelled “the abstraction problem”, claims that one of MAC’s central pillars – medium independence – is deeply confused when applied to the question of computational implementation. The concern is that while it makes sense to say that computational processes are abstract (i.e. medium-independent), it makes considerably less sense to say that (...)
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  17. Integrating computation into the mechanistic hierarchy in the cognitive and neural sciences.Lotem Elber-Dorozko & Oron Shagrir - 2019 - Synthese 199 (Suppl 1):43-66.
    It is generally accepted that, in the cognitive and neural sciences, there are both computational and mechanistic explanations. We ask how computational explanations can integrate into the mechanistic hierarchy. The problem stems from the fact that implementation and mechanistic relations have different forms. The implementation relation, from the states of an abstract computational system to the physical, implementing states is a homomorphism mapping relation. The mechanistic relation, however, is that of part/whole; the explaining features in a mechanistic explanation are the (...)
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  18. Punched Card Methods in Scientific Computation by Wallace J. Eckert; Calculating Machines: Recent and Prospective Developments and Their Impact on Mathematical Physics and Calculating Instruments and Machines by Douglas R. Hartree. [REVIEW]Paul Ceruzzi - 1986 - Isis 77:154-156.
  19. Qu’est-ce que l’informatique.Franck Varenne - 2009 - Paris: Librairie Philosophique Vrin.
    Que peut bien etre l'informatique pour nous envahir a ce point? Se fondant sur des travaux recents de philosophie de l'informatique, ce livre revient sur la notion de Machine de Turing et sur la These de Church: l'ordinateur peut-il tout simuler? (le vivant, l'esprit). Eclairant les notions de computation et d'abstraction a la lumiere de celles de simulation et d'ontologie, il montre en quoi l'informatique n'est ni simplement une branche des mathematiques, ni une technologie de l'information, mais une technologie des (...)
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  20. Extruding Intentionality from the Metaphysical Flux.Josefa Toribio - 1999 - Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Ai 11:501-518.
    On the Origin of Objects is, at heart, an extended search for a non-circular and nonreductive characterization of two key notions: intentionality and computation. Only a non-circular and non-reductive account of these key notions can, Smith believes, provide a secure platform for a proper understanding of the mind. The project has both a negative and a positive aspect. Negatively, Smith rejects views that attempt to identify the key notions with lower-level physical properties, arguing instead for a more abstract and systemic (...)
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  21. Social learning by observation is analogue, instruction is digital.Marion Blute - 2001 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (2):327-327.
    Social learning in the strict sense is learning by observation or instruction. Learning by observation appears to be an analogue process while learning by instruction is digital. In evolutionary biology this distinction is currently thought to have implications for the extent to which mechanisms can function successfully as an inheritance system in an evolutionary process.
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  22. Turing-, human- and physical computability: An unasked question. [REVIEW]Eli Dresner - 2008 - Minds and Machines 18 (3):349-355.
    In recent years it has been convincingly argued that the Church-Turing thesis concerns the bounds of human computability: The thesis was presented and justified as formally delineating the class of functions that can be computed by a human carrying out an algorithm. Thus the Thesis needs to be distinguished from the so-called Physical Church-Turing thesis, according to which all physically computable functions are Turing computable. The latter is often claimed to be false, or, if true, contingently so. On all accounts, (...)
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  23. Representation of sequential circuits in combinatory logic.Frederic B. Fitch - 1958 - Philosophy of Science 25 (4):263-279.
    We will be dealing with “sequential circuits” in the sense of E. F. Moore and G. H. Mealy. Each such circuit is assumed to have a finite number of input wires and a finite number of output wires. Each element of such a circuit will be assumed to be an and-circuit, an or-circuit, a not-circuit, or a delay circuit, for some specified temporal delay. Each element has one output wire which, however, may branch in order to serve several purposes simultaneously. (...)
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  24. The interactive nature of computing: Refuting the strong church–turing thesis. [REVIEW]Dina Goldin & Peter Wegner - 2008 - Minds and Machines 18 (1):17-38.
    The classical view of computing positions computation as a closed-box transformation of inputs (rational numbers or finite strings) to outputs. According to the interactive view of computing, computation is an ongoing interactive process rather than a function-based transformation of an input to an output. Specifically, communication with the outside world happens during the computation, not before or after it. This approach radically changes our understanding of what is computation and how it is modeled. The acceptance of interaction as a new (...)
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  25. Infinite time Turing machines.Joel David Hamkins - 2002 - Minds and Machines 12 (4):567-604.
    Infinite time Turing machines extend the operation of ordinary Turing machines into transfinite ordinal time. By doing so, they provide a natural model of infinitary computability, a theoretical setting for the analysis of the power and limitations of supertask algorithms.
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  26. Computational empiricism.Paul Humphreys - 1995 - Foundations of Science 1 (1):119-130.
    I argue here for a number of ways that modern computational science requires a change in the way we represent the relationship between theory and applications. It requires a switch away from logical reconstruction of theories in order to take surface mathematical syntax seriously. In addition, syntactically different versions of the same theory have important differences for applications, and this shows that the semantic account of theories is inappropriate for some purposes. I also argue against formalist approaches in the philosophy (...)
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  27. Synchronic and diachronic emergence.Paul Humphreys - 2008 - Minds and Machines 18 (4):431-442.
    I discuss here a number of different kinds of diachronic emergence, noting that they differ in important ways from synchronic conceptions. I argue that Bedau’s weak emergence has an essentially historical aspect, in that there can be two indistinguishable states, one of which is weakly emergent, the other of which is not. As a consequence, weak emergence is about tokens, not types, of states. I conclude by examining the question of whether the concept of weak emergence is too weak and (...)
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  28. Reflections on gödel's and Gandy's reflections on Turing's thesis.David Israel - 2002 - Minds and Machines 12 (2):181-201.
    We sketch the historical and conceptual context of Turing's analysis of algorithmic or mechanical computation. We then discuss two responses to that analysis, by Gödel and by Gandy, both of which raise, though in very different ways. The possibility of computation procedures that cannot be reduced to the basic procedures into which Turing decomposed computation. Along the way, we touch on some of Cleland's views.
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  29. The elementary units of meaning.Paul J. M. Jorion - 2000 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (4):483-484.
    Examining the implications of a localist model for linguistic performance, I show the strengths of the P-graph, a network of elementary units of meaning where utterance results from relaxation through the operation of a dynamics of affect values. A unit of meaning is stored in a synaptic connection that brings together two words. Such a model, consistent with the anatomy and physiology of the neural tissue, eschews a number of traditional pitfalls of “semantic networks”: (1) ambiguity ceases to be an (...)
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  30. Programs, grammars and arguments: A personal view of some connections between computation, language and logic.J. Lambek - 1997 - Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 3 (3):312-328.
    As an undergraduate I was taught to multiply two numbers with the help of log tables, using the formulaHaving graduated to teach calculus to Engineers, I learned that log tables were to be replaced by slide rules. It was then that Imade the fateful decision that there was no need for me to learn how to use this tedious device, as I could always rely on the students to perform the necessary computations. In the course of time, slide rules were (...)
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  31. Theories of structure versus theories of change.Melanie Mitchell - 1998 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (5):645-646.
    The dynamics/computation debate recalls a similar debate in the evolutionary biology community concerning the relative primacy of theories of structure versus theories of change. A full account of cognition will require a rapprochement between such theories and will include both computational and dynamical notions. The key to making computation relevant to cognition is not making it analog, but rather understanding how functional information-processing structures can emerge in complex dynamical systems.
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  32. The problem of the many minds.Bradley Monton & Sanford Goldberg - 2006 - Minds and Machines 16 (4):463-470.
    It is argued that, given certain reasonable premises, an infinite number of qualitatively identical but numerically distinct minds exist per functioning brain. The three main premises are (1) mental properties supervene on brain properties; (2) the universe is composed of particles with nonzero extension; and (3) each particle is composed of continuum-many point-sized bits of particle-stuff, and these points of particle-stuff persist through time.
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  33. Comments on `two undecidable problems of analysis'.Bruno Scarpellini - 2003 - Minds and Machines 13 (1):79-85.
    We first discuss some technical questions which arise in connection with the construction of undecidable propositions in analysis, in particular in connection with the notion of the normal form of a function representing a predicate. Then it is stressed that while a function f(x) may be computable in the sense of recursive function theory, it may nevertheless have undecidable properties in the realm of Fourier analysis. This has an implication for a conjecture of Penrose's which states that classical physics is (...)
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  34. Physical hypercomputation and the church–turing thesis.Oron Shagrir & Itamar Pitowsky - 2003 - Minds and Machines 13 (1):87-101.
    We describe a possible physical device that computes a function that cannot be computed by a Turing machine. The device is physical in the sense that it is compatible with General Relativity. We discuss some objections, focusing on those which deny that the device is either a computer or computes a function that is not Turing computable. Finally, we argue that the existence of the device does not refute the Church–Turing thesis, but nevertheless may be a counterexample to Gandy's thesis.
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  35. Logically possible machines.Eric Steinhart - 2002 - Minds and Machines 12 (2):259-280.
    I use modal logic and transfinite set-theory to define metaphysical foundations for a general theory of computation. A possible universe is a certain kind of situation; a situation is a set of facts. An algorithm is a certain kind of inductively defined property. A machine is a series of situations that instantiates an algorithm in a certain way. There are finite as well as transfinite algorithms and machines of any degree of complexity (e.g., Turing and super-Turing machines and more). There (...)
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  36. On physicalism and algorithmism: Can machines think?Hao Wang - 1993 - Philosophia Mathematica 1 (2):97-138.
    This essay discusses a number of questions which arise from attempts to reduce the mental to the physical or the mental and the physical to the computational. It makes, in an organized way, several basic distinctions between different kinds of accounts of the mind. It reconstructs and elaborates many discussions between Gödel and the author on the nature of the human mind, with special emphasis on its mathematical capabilities.
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  37. Is there a nonrecursive decidable equational theory?Benjamin Wells - 2002 - Minds and Machines 12 (2):301-324.
    The Church-Turing Thesis (CTT) is often paraphrased as ``every computable function is computable by means of a Turing machine.'' The author has constructed a family of equational theories that are not Turing-decidable, that is, given one of the theories, no Turing machine can recognize whether an arbitrary equation is in the theory or not. But the theory is called pseudorecursive because it has the additional property that when attention is limited to equations with a bounded number of variables, one obtains, (...)
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Analog and Digital Computation
  1. How Imagination Informs.Joshua Myers - forthcoming - Philosophical Quarterly.
    An influential objection to the epistemic power of the imagination holds that it is uninformative. You cannot get more out of the imagination than you put into it, and therefore learning from the imagination is impossible. This paper argues, against this view, that the imagination is robustly informative. Moreover, it defends a novel account of how the imagination informs, according to which the imagination is informative in virtue of its analog representational format. The core idea is that analog representations represent (...)
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  2. Between Perception and Thought.Jacob Beck - forthcoming - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research.
    In The Border between Seeing and Thinking, Ned Block argues that the distinction between perception and cognition should be grounded in representational format. I object that cognition is multifaceted, and includes representations with the same format as some perceptual representations. We can save Block’s view by interpreting it as concerning the border between one elite species of cognition—namely, propositional thought—and everything below it, including perception. But that leaves the border between perception and cognition in general unexplained. To fill this gap, (...)
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  3. On the impossibility of using analogue machines to calculate non-computable functions.Robin O. Gandy - manuscript - Translated by Aran Nayebi.
    A number of examples have been given of physical systems (both classical and quantum mechanical) which when provided with a (continuously variable) computable input will give a non-computable output. It has been suggested that these systems might allow one to design analogue machines which would calculate the values of some number-theoretic non-computable function. Analysis of the examples show that the suggestion is wrong. In Section 4 I claim that given a reasonable definition of analogue machine it will always be wrong. (...)
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  4. The Formats of Cognitive Representation: A Computational Account.Dimitri Coelho Mollo & Alfredo Vernazzani - 2023 - Philosophy of Science.
    Cognitive representations are typically analysed in terms of content, vehicle and format. While current work on formats appeals to intuitions about external representations, such as words and maps, in this paper we develop a computational view of formats that does not rely on intuitions. In our view, formats are individuated by the computational profiles of vehicles, i.e., the set of constraints that fix the computational transformations vehicles can undergo. The resulting picture is strongly pluralistic, it makes space for a variety (...)
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  5. Analog Computation and Church’s Thesis.Jerzy Mycka - 2006 - In Adam Olszewski, Jan Wolenski & Robert Janusz (eds.), Church's Thesis After 70 Years. Ontos Verlag. pp. 331-352.
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  6. Contents and Vehicles in Analog Perception.Jacob Beck - 2023 - Crítica. Revista Hispanoamericana de Filosofía 55 (163):109–127.
    Building on Christopher Peacocke’s account of analog perceptual contentand my own account of analog perceptual vehicles, I defend three claims: that theperception of magnitudes often has analog contents; that the perception of magni-tudes often has analog vehicles; and that the first claim is true in virtue of the second—that is, the analog vehicles help to ground the analog contents.
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  7. Being and the screen: How the digital changes perception. [REVIEW]Anthony Longo - 2022 - Information, Communication and Society 26 (14):2881-2884.
  8. Digital Praxis: Notes on a Phenomenological Synthesis.Íñigo García-Moncó - 2022 - Argumentos de Razón Técnica 15:255-274.
    This paper aims to provide a general phenomenological framework for the study of digital experiences as technological praxis. This approach is built through a synthesis of the categories proper to different currents of thought such as Merleau-Ponty's bodily phenomenology, the postphenomenology of Don Ihde and his school, hermeneutics and information theories. These notes develop a progressive analysis of the phenomenal dimensions that take place in the user-device interaction, from the stimulus base to virtual recreations. Through the intersubjective relationship with the (...)
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  9. Mind as Machine: The Influence of Mechanism on the Conceptual Foundations of the Computer Metaphor.Pavel Baryshnikov - 2022 - RUDN Journal of Philosophy 26 (4):755-769.
    his article will focus on the mechanistic origins of the computer metaphor, which forms the conceptual framework for the methodology of the cognitive sciences, some areas of artificial intelligence and the philosophy of mind. The connection between the history of computing technology, epistemology and the philosophy of mind is expressed through the metaphorical dictionaries of the philosophical discourse of a particular era. The conceptual clarification of this connection and the substantiation of the mechanistic components of the computer metaphor is the (...)
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  10. Position paper on ethical, legal and social challenges linked to audio- and video-based AAL solutions.Alin Ake-Kob, Slavisa Aleksic, Zoltán Alexin, Aurelija Blaževičiene, Anto Čartolovni, Liane Colonna, Carina Dantas, Anton Fedosov, Eduard Fosch-Villaronga, Francisco Florez-Revuelta, Zhicheng He, Aleksandar Jevremović, Andrzej Klimczuk, Maksymilian Kuźmicz, Lambros Lambrinos, Christoph Lutz, Anamaria Malešević, Renata Mekovec, Cristina Miguel, Tamar Mujirishvili, Zada Pajalic, Rodrigo Perez Vega, Barbara Pierscionek, Siddharth Ravi, Pika Sarf, Agusti Solanas & Aurelia Tamo-Larrieux - 2022 - Https://Goodbrother.Eu/.
    In this position paper, we have used Alan Cooper’s persona technique to illustrate the utility of audio- and video-based AAL technologies. Therefore, two primary examples of potential audio- and video-based AAL users, Anna and Irakli, serve as reference points for describing salient ethical, legal and social challenges related to use of AAL. These challenges are presented on three levels: individual, societal, and regulatory. For each challenge, a set of policy recommendations is suggested.
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  11. Counting with Cilia: The Role of Morphological Computation in Basal Cognition Research.Wiktor Rorot - 2022 - Entropy 24 (11):1581.
    “Morphological computation” is an increasingly important concept in robotics, artificial intelligence, and philosophy of the mind. It is used to understand how the body contributes to cognition and control of behavior. Its understanding in terms of "offloading" computation from the brain to the body has been criticized as misleading, and it has been suggested that the use of the concept conflates three classes of distinct processes. In fact, these criticisms implicitly hang on accepting a semantic definition of what constitutes computation. (...)
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  12. Urban scale digital twins in data-driven society: Challenging digital universalism in urban planning decision-making.Marianna Charitonidou - 2022 - International Journal of Architectural Computing 19:1-16.
    The article examines the impact of the virtual public sphere on how urban spaces are experienced and conceived in our data-driven society. It places particular emphasis on urban scale digital twins, which are virtual replicas of cities that are used to simulate environments and develop scenarios in response to policy problems. The article also investigates the shift from the technical to the socio-technical perspective within the field of smart cities. Despite the aspirations of urban scale digital twins to enhance the (...)
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  13. The Structure of Analog Representation.Andrew Y. Lee, Joshua Myers & Gabriel Oak Rabin - 2023 - Noûs 57 (1):209-237.
    This paper develops a theory of analog representation. We first argue that the mark of the analog is to be found in the nature of a representational system’s interpretation function, rather than in its vehicles or contents alone. We then develop the rulebound structure theory of analog representation, according to which analog systems are those that use interpretive rules to map syntactic structural features onto semantic structural features. The theory involves three degree-theoretic measures that capture three independent ways in which (...)
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