Computer Ethics

Edited by Lavinia Marin (Delft University of Technology)
About this topic
Summary Computer ethics is a relatively new field of ethical inquiry, although some of its foundational texts range from 1960s. It can be seen as either a field of applied ethics (ethics applied to computers) or as form of professional ethics, but, more widely, as an attempt to re-think the human condition in light of digital technology developments. Fundamental ethical topics in this area include: responsibility, privacy, surveillance, automation and autonomy, the good life online, evil online, etc.
Key works Weckert, John (ed.). Computer ethics. Routledge, 2017 is an edited collection containing a selection of fundamental texts in computer ethics ranging from the 1960's until 2004.  Another comprehensive book is van den Hoven & Weckert 2008Information Technology and Moral Philosophy (2008)
Introductions Moor 1985  Floridi 2010 Müller 2020
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  1. The Artificial View: Toward a Non-Anthropocentric Account of Moral Patiency.Fabio Tollon - forthcoming - Ethics and Information Technology.
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  2. On the Person-Based Predictive Policing of AI.Tzu-Wei Hung & Chun-Ping Yen - forthcoming - Ethics and Information Technology.
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  3. Cybervetting Job Applicants on Social Media: The New Normal?Jenna Jacobson & Anatoliy Gruzd - 2020 - Ethics and Information Technology 22 (2):175-195.
    With the introduction of new information communication technologies, employers are increasingly engaging in social media screening, also known as cybervetting, as part of their hiring process. Our research, using an online survey with 482 participants, investigates young people’s concerns with their publicly available social media data being used in the context of job hiring. Grounded in stakeholder theory, we analyze the relationship between young people’s concerns with social media screening and their gender, job seeking status, privacy concerns, and social media (...)
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  4. E-Portfolio: Value Tensions Encountered in Documenting Design Case Studies.Qinyu Li, Peter Tolmie, Anne Weibert, Marén Schorch, Claudia Müller & Volker Wulf - forthcoming - Ethics and Information Technology.
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  5. Robots Responding to Care Needs? A Multitasking Care Robot Pursued for 25 Years, Available Products Offer Simple Entertainment and Instrumental Assistance.Lina Van Aerschot & Jaana Parviainen - forthcoming - Ethics and Information Technology.
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  6. Social Media, Interpersonal Relations and the Objective Attitude.Michael-John Turp - forthcoming - Ethics and Information Technology.
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  7. The Possibility of Deliberate Norm-Adherence in AI.Danielle Swanepoel - forthcoming - Ethics and Information Technology.
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  8. Privacy, Transparency, and the Prisoner’s Dilemma.Adam D. Moore & Sean Martin - forthcoming - Ethics and Information Technology.
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  9. Exploring Solutions to the Privacy Paradox in the Context of E-Assessment: Informed Consent Revisited.Ekaterina Muravyeva, José Janssen, Marcus Specht & Bart Custers - forthcoming - Ethics and Information Technology.
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  10. "I Don't Trust You, You Faker!" On Trust, Reliance, and Artificial Agency.Fabio Fossa - 2019 - Teoria 39 (1):63-80.
    The aim of this paper is to clarify the extent to which relationships between Human Agents (HAs) and Artificial Agents (AAs) can be adequately defined in terms of trust. Since such relationships consist mostly in the allocation of tasks to technological products, particular attention is paid to the notion of delegation. In short, I argue that it would be more accurate to describe direct relationships between HAs and AAs in terms of reliance, rather than in terms of trust. However, as (...)
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  11. The Interpersonal is Political: Unfriending to Promote Civic Discourse on Social Media.Alexis Elder - 2020 - Ethics and Information Technology 22 (1):15-24.
    Despite the initial promise of social media platforms as a means of facilitating discourse on matters of civic discourse, in practice it has turned out to impair fruitful conversation on civic issues by a number of means. From self-isolation into echo chambers, to algorithmically supported filter bubbles, to widespread failure to engage politically owing to psychological phenomena like the ‘spiral of silence’, a variety of factors have been blamed. I argue that extant accounts overlook the importance of interpersonal relationships to (...)
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  12. Virtual Competitions and the Gamer's Dilemma.Karim Nader - forthcoming - Ethics and Information Technology 1.
    This paper expands Rami Ali’s dissolution of the gamer’s dilemma (Ethics Inf Technol 17:267-274, 2015). Morgan Luck’s gamer’s dilemma (Ethics Inf Technol 11(1):31-36, 2009) rests on our having diverging intuition when considering virtual murder and virtual child molestation in video games. Virtual murder is seemingly permissible, when virtual child molestation is not and there is no obvious morally relevant difference between the two. Ali argues that virtual murder and virtual child molestation are equally permissible/impermissible when considered under different modes of (...)
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  13. Social Norms in Virtual Worlds of Computer Games.Daria Bylieva & Tatiana Nam - 2018 - In Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research. Proceedings of the International Conference Communicative Strategies of Information Society (CSIS 2018). pp. 369-373.
    Immersing in the virtual world of the Internet, information and communication technologies are changing the human being. In spite of the apparent similarity of on-line and off-line, social laws of their existence are different. According to the analysis of games, based on the violation of the accepted laws of the world off-line, their censoring, as well as the cheating, features of formation and violations of social norms in virtual worlds were formulated. Although the creators of the games have priority in (...)
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  14. Thinking About ‘Ethics’ in the Ethics of AI.Pak-Hang Wong & Judith Simon - 2020 - IDEES 48.
    A major international consultancy firm identified ‘AI ethicist’ as an essential position for companies to successfully implement artificial intelligence (AI) at the start of 2019. It declares that AI ethicists are needed to help companies navigate the ethical and social issues raised by the use of AI. Top 5 AI hires companies need to succeed in 2019. The view that AI is beneficial but nonetheless potentially harmful to individuals and society is widely shared by the industry, academia, governments, and civil (...)
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  15. Digital Technologies and Reforging the Iron Men.Alex V. Halapsis - 2016 - ScienceRise 24 (7):55-61.
    Digital technologies not only to transform the social and cultural reality; they are making changes in the human nature. Therefore, it makes sense to speak about Silicon Race (SiRace). Iron men descends from the world history scene. This process is irreversible, but realizing in emerging with the prospects and the risks that accompany them, we can direct the efforts to ensure that reforging the iron men will be successful.
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  16. Using Value Sensitive Design to Understand Transportation Choices and Envision a Future Transportation System.Kari Edison Watkins - forthcoming - Ethics and Information Technology.
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  17. Computer--Assisted Medical Decision-Making.Homer R. Warner - 1979
  18. Bernard Gert's Morality and its Application to Computer Ethics.Triplett Timm - 2002 - Ethics and Information Technology 4 (1):79-92.
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  19. Editorial: ICT and the Capability Approach.Ilse Oosterlaken & Jeroen van den Hoven - 2011 - Ethics and Information Technology 13 (2):65-67.
    In discussions about justice, development, well-being and equality, the capability approach (CA)Footnote1 founded by economist Amartya Sen and philosopher Martha Nussbaum attaches central importance to individual human capabilities. These are the effective freedoms or real opportunities of people to achieve valuable ‘beings and doings’ (also called ‘functionings’ by capability theorists). Resources—including technical artifacts—may contribute to the expansion of one’s capabilities, but there may also be all sorts of ‘conversion factors’ in place that prevent this. The approach highlights the ‘multidimensionality’ of (...)
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  20. Computer Output as Evidence.Colin Tapper - 1982 - Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 2 (1):128-130.
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  21. The Cubicle Warrior: The Marionette of Digitalized Warfare. [REVIEW]Rinie van Est - 2010 - Ethics and Information Technology 12 (3):289-296.
    In the last decade we have entered the era of remote controlled military technology. The excitement about this new technology should not mask the ethical questions that it raises. A fundamental ethical question is who may be held responsible for civilian deaths. In this paper we will discuss the role of the human operator or so-called ‘cubicle warrior’, who remotely controls the military robots behind visual interfaces. We will argue that the socio-technical system conditions the cubicle warrior to dehumanize the (...)
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  22. Rocci Luppicini: Ethical Impact of Technological Advancements and Applications in Society: IGI Global, Hershey, PA, 2012, 357 Pp, ISBN: 978-1-46-661773-5. [REVIEW]Alireza Isfandyari-Moghaddam - 2013 - Ethics and Information Technology 15 (1):69-71.
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  23. Internet En Service Pack.Máximo Lameiro - 2004 - Aposta 7:3.
    Because the full development of Internet this paper is old today. But in his time was an expression of disappointing about the cyber trends.
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  24. E-Trust and Reputation.Thomas W. Simpson - 2011 - Ethics and Information Technology 13 (1):29-38.
    Trust online can be a hazardous affair; many are trustworthy, but some people use the anonymity of the web to behave very badly indeed. So how can we improve the quality of evidence for trustworthiness provided online? I focus on one of the devices we use to secure others’ trustworthiness: tracking past conduct through online reputation systems. Yet existing reputation systems face problems. I analyse these, and in the light of this develop some principles for system design, towards overcoming these (...)
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  25. A Philosophical and Evolutionary Approach to Cyber-Bullying: Social Networks and the Disruption of Sub-Moralities.Tommaso Bertolotti & Lorenzo Magnani - 2013 - Ethics and Information Technology 15 (4):285-299.
    Cyber-bullying, and other issues related to violence being committed online in prosocial environments, are beginning to constitute an emergency worldwide. Institutions are particularly sensitive to the problem especially as far as teenagers are concerned inasmuch as, in cases of inter-teen episodes, the deterrent power of ordinary justice is not as effective as it is between adults. In order to develop the most suitable policies, institution should not be satisfied with statistics and sociological perspectives on the phenomenon, but rather seek a (...)
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  26. Has Bartel Resolved the Gamer’s Dilemma?Morgan Luck & Nathan Ellerby - 2013 - Ethics and Information Technology 15 (3):229-233.
    In this paper we consider whether Christopher Bartel has resolved the gamer’s dilemma. The gamer’s dilemma highlights a discrepancy in our moral judgements about the permissibility of performing certain actions in computer games. Many gamers have the intuition that virtual murder is permissible in computer games, whereas virtual paedophilia is not. Yet finding a relevant moral distinction to ground such intuitions can be difficult. Bartel suggests a relevant moral distinction may turn on the notion that virtual paedophilia harms women in (...)
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  27. Mark Coeckelbergh: Growing Moral Relations: Critique of Moral Status Ascription: Palgrave Macmillan, New York, 2012, 239 Pp, ISBN: 978-1-137-02595-1. [REVIEW]David J. Gunkel - 2013 - Ethics and Information Technology 15 (3):239-241.
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  28. Militainment and Mechatronics: Occultatio and the Veil of Science Fiction Cool in United States Air Force Advertisements. [REVIEW]Nicholas R. Maradin Iii - 2013 - Ethics and Information Technology 15 (2):77-86.
    In 2009, the United States Air Force aired a series of science fiction-themed recruitment commercials on network television and their official YouTube channel. In these advertisements, the superimposition of science fiction imagery over depictions of Air Force operations frames these missions as near-future sci-fi adventure, ironically summarized by the tagline: “It’s not science fiction. It’s what we do every day.” Focusing on an early advertisement for the Air Force’s Reaper unmanned aerial vehicle, this essay explores how themes essential to the (...)
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  29. ICT Ethics Bibliography 2012–2014: A Select List of Recent Books. [REVIEW]Herman T. Tavani - 2013 - Ethics and Information Technology 15 (3):243-247.
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  30. The Importance of Capabilities in the Sustainability of Information and Communications Technology Programs: The Case of Remote Indigenous Australian Communities. [REVIEW]Donna Vaughan - 2011 - Ethics and Information Technology 13 (2):131-150.
    The use of the capability approach as an evaluative tool for Information and Communication Technology (ICT) policy and programs in developing countries, in particular at a grass-roots community level, is an emerging field of application. However, one of the difficulties with ICT for development (ICT4D) evaluations is in linking what is often no more than a resource, for example basic access, to actual outcomes, or means to end. This article argues that the capability approach provides a framework for evaluating the (...)
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  31. Understanding Benefits Realisation of iREACH From a Capability Approach Perspective.Helena Grunfeld, Sokleap Hak & Tara Pin - 2011 - Ethics and Information Technology 13 (2):151-172.
    The research presented in this paper is the first wave of a longitudinal study of a Cambodian information and communication for development (ICT4D) project, iREACH, aimed at testing a framework for evaluating whether and how such initiatives can contribute to capabilities, empowerment and sustainability. The framework is informed by Amartya Sen’s capability approach (CA), uses a participatory methodology, considers the micro-, meso-, and macro- levels in understanding the role ICT can play in the development process, and adopts a forward-looking longitudinal (...)
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  32. The Capability Approach and the `Medium of Choice': Steps Towards Conceptualising Information and Communication Technologies for Development. [REVIEW]Dorothea Kleine - 2011 - Ethics and Information Technology 13 (2):119-130.
    Amartya Sen’s capability approach has become increasingly popular in development studies. This paper identifies controllability and operationalisability as two key stumbling blocks which prevent the capability approach from being used even more widely in development practice. It discusses the origins and application of the Choice Framework, a conceptual tool designed to help operationalise the approach. The framework can be used to deconstruct embedded ideologies and analyse the appropriateness of development goals, to map development as a systemic process, and to plan (...)
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  33. Technology, Capabilities and Critical Perspectives: What Can Critical Theory Contribute to Sen’s Capability Approach? [REVIEW]Yingqin Zheng & Bernd Carsten Stahl - 2011 - Ethics and Information Technology 13 (2):69-80.
    This paper explores what insights can be drawn from critical theory to enrich and strengthen Sen’s capability approach in relation to technology and human development. The two theories share some important commonalities: both are concerned with the pursuit of “a good life”; both are normative theories rooted in ethics and meant to make a difference, and both are interested in democracy. The paper provides a brief overview of both schools of thought and their applications to technology and human development. Three (...)
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  34. Editorial: ICT and the Capability Approach. [REVIEW]Ilse Oosterlaken & Jeroen Den Hoven - 2011 - Ethics and Information Technology 13 (2):65-67.
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  35. Human Capabilities and Information and Communication Technology: The Communicative Connection. [REVIEW]William F. Birdsall - 2011 - Ethics and Information Technology 13 (2):93-106.
    The potential contributions information and communication technology (ICT) can make to advancing human capabilities are acknowledged by both the capability approach (CA) and ICT communities. However, there is a lack of genuine engagement between the two communities. This paper addresses the question: How can a collaborative dialogue between the CA and ICT communities be advanced? A prerequisite to exploring collaboratively the potential use of particular technologies with specific capabilities is a conceptual framework within which a dialogue can be undertaken to (...)
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  36. Editorial: Moral Luck, Social Networking Sites, and Trust on the Web. [REVIEW]Maria C. Bottis, Frances S. Grodzinsky & Herman T. Tavani - 2010 - Ethics and Information Technology 12 (4):297-298.
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  37. ICT Ethics Bibliography 2009–2011: A Select List of Recent Books. [REVIEW]Herman T. Tavani - 2010 - Ethics and Information Technology 12 (4):379-382.
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  38. Owning the Future, Seth Shulman. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1999. [REVIEW]Joseph S. Fulda - 2000 - Ethics and Information Technology 2 (3):193-194.
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  39. Introduction: One Thousand Friends. [REVIEW]Dean Cocking, Jeroen van den Hoven & Job Timmermans - 2012 - Ethics and Information Technology 14 (3):179-184.
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  40. Militainment and Mechatronics: Occultatio and the Veil of Science Fiction Cool in United States Air Force Advertisements.Nicholas R. Maradin Iii - 2013 - Ethics and Information Technology 15 (2).
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  41. How to Approximate Users' Values While Preserving Privacy: Experiences with Using Attitudes Towards Work Tasks as Proxies for Personal Value Elicitation. [REVIEW]Sven H. Koch, Rumyana Proynova, Barbara Paech & Thomas Wetter - 2013 - Ethics and Information Technology 15 (1):45-61.
    Software users have different sets of personal values, such as benevolence, self-direction, and tradition. Among other factors, these personal values influence users’ emotions, preferences, motivations, and ways of performing tasks—and hence, information needs. Studies of user acceptance indicate that personal traits like values and related soft issues are important for the user’s approval of software. If a user’s dominant personal value were known, software could automatically show an interface variant which offers information and functionality that best matches his or her (...)
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  42. Property, Privacy and Personhood in a World of Ambient Intelligence.Niels Dijk - 2010 - Ethics and Information Technology 12 (1):57-69.
    Profiling technologies are the facilitating force behind the vision of Ambient Intelligence in which everyday devices are connected and embedded with all kinds of smart characteristics enabling them to take decisions in order to serve our preferences without us being aware of it. These technological practices have considerable impact on the process by which our personhood takes shape and pose threats like discrimination and normalisation. The legal response to these developments should move away from a focus on entitlements to personal (...)
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  43. Owning the Future by Seth Shulman. [REVIEW]Joseph S. Fulda - 2000 - Ethics and Information Technology 2 (3):193-194.
    Very favorable review of a wide-ranging book.
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  44. Information Technology.Luciano Floridi - 2012 - In Jan Kyrre Berg Olsen Friis, Stig Andur Pedersen & Vincent F. Hendricks (eds.), A Companion to the Philosophy of Technology. Wiley-Blackwell.
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  45. Understanding the Behavioral Intention to Report Unethical Information Technology Practices: The Role of Machiavellianism, Gender, and Computer Expertise. [REVIEW]Antonis C. Stylianou, Susan Winter, Yuan Niu, Robert A. Giacalone & Matt Campbell - 2013 - Journal of Business Ethics 117 (2):333-343.
    Although organizations can derive competitive advantage from developing and implementing information systems, they are confronted with a rising number of unethical information practices. Because end-users and computer experts are the conduit to an ethical organizational environment, their intention to report unethical IT-related practices plays a critical role in protecting intellectual property and privacy rights. Using the survey methodology, this article investigates the relationship between willingness to report intellectual property and privacy violations and Machiavellianism, gender and computer literacy in the form (...)
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  46. Intending to Err: The Ethical Challenge of Lethal, Autonomous Systems. [REVIEW]Mark S. Swiatek - 2012 - Ethics and Information Technology 14 (4):241-254.
    Current precursors in the development of lethal, autonomous systems point to the use of biometric devices for assessing, identifying, and verifying targets. The inclusion of biometric devices entails the use of a probabilistic matching program that requires the deliberate targeting of noncombatants as a statistically necessary function of the system. While the tactical employment of the LAS may be justified on the grounds that the deliberate killing of a smaller number of noncombatants is better than the accidental killing of a (...)
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  47. Real Character-Friends: Aristotelian Friendship, Living Together, and Technology.Michael T. McFall - 2012 - Ethics and Information Technology 14 (3):221-230.
    Aristotle’s account of friendship has largely withstood the test of time. Yet there are overlooked elements of his account that, when challenged by apparent threats of current and emerging communication technologies, reveal his account to be remarkably prescient. I evaluate the danger that technological advances in communication pose to the future of friendship by examining and defending Aristotle’s claim that perfect or character-friends must live together. I concede that technologically-mediated communication can aid existing character-friendships, but I argue that character-friendships cannot (...)
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  48. Introduction: One Thousand Friends. [REVIEW]Dean Cocking, Jeroen den Hoven & Job Timmermans - 2012 - Ethics and Information Technology 14 (3):179-184.
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  49. Cracking Down on Autonomy: Three Challenges to Design in IT Law. [REVIEW]U. Pagallo - 2012 - Ethics and Information Technology 14 (4):319-328.
    The paper examines how technology challenges conventional borders of national legal systems, as shown by cases that scholars address as a part of their everyday work in the fields of information technology (IT)-Law, i.e., computer crimes, data protection, digital copyright, and so forth. Information on the internet has in fact a ubiquitous nature that transcends political borders and questions the notion of the law as made of commands enforced through physical sanctions. Whereas many of today’s impasses on jurisdiction, international conflicts (...)
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  50. Coercion or Empowerment? Moderation of Content in Wikipedia as 'Essentially Contested' Bureaucratic Rules.Paul B. de Laat - 2012 - Ethics and Information Technology 14 (2):123-135.
    In communities of user-generated content, systems for the management of content and/or their contributors are usually accepted without much protest. Not so, however, in the case of Wikipedia, in which the proposal to introduce a system of review for new edits (in order to counter vandalism) led to heated discussions. This debate is analysed, and arguments of both supporters and opponents (of English, German and French tongue) are extracted from Wikipedian archives. In order to better understand this division of the (...)
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