Computer Ethics

Edited by Lavinia Marin (Delft University of Technology)
About this topic
Summary Computer ethics is a relatively new field of ethical inquiry, although some of its foundational texts range from 1960s. It can be seen as either a field of applied ethics (ethics applied to computers) or as form of professional ethics, but, more widely, as an attempt to re-think the human condition in light of digital technology developments. Fundamental ethical topics in this area include: responsibility, privacy, surveillance, automation and autonomy, the good life online, evil online, etc.
Key works Weckert, John (ed.). Computer ethics. Routledge, 2017 is an edited collection containing a selection of fundamental texts in computer ethics ranging from the 1960's until 2004.  Another comprehensive book is van den Hoven & Weckert 2008Information Technology and Moral Philosophy (2008)
Introductions Moor 1985  Floridi 2010 Müller 2020
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  1. Non-Consensual Personified Sexbots: An Intrinsic Wrong.Karen Lancaster - forthcoming - Ethics and Information Technology.
    Humanoid robots used for sexual purposes are beginning to look increasingly lifelike. It is possible for a user to have a bespoke sexbot created which matches their exact requirements in skin pigmentation, hair and eye colour, body shape, and genital design. This means that it is possible—and increasingly easy—for a sexbot to be created which bears a very high degree of resemblance to a particular person. There is a small but steadily increasing literature exploring some of the ethical issues surrounding (...)
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  2. Online Deliberation and #CivicTech: A Symposium.Weiyu Zhang, Todd Davies & Anna Przybylska - 2021 - Journal of Deliberative Democracy 17 (1):76-77.
    Online deliberation is one important instance of civic tech that is both for and by the citizens, through engaging citizens in Internet-supported deliberative discussions on public issues. This article explains the origins of a set of symposium articles in this journal issue based on the 2017 'International Conference on Deliberation and Decision Making: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Civic Tech' held in Singapore. Symposium articles are presented in a sequence that flows from designing decision making systems to platforms to specific technological nudges.
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  3. Introduction to the Special Issue: Value Sensitive Design: Charting the Next Decade.Batya Friedman, Maaike Harbers, David G. Hendry, Jeroen van den Hoven, Catholijn Jonker & Nick Logler - forthcoming - Ethics and Information Technology.
    In this article, we introduce the Special Issue, Value Sensitive Design: Charting the Next Decade, which arose from a week-long workshop hosted by Lorentz Center, Leiden, The Netherlands, November 14–18, 2016. Forty-one researchers and designers, ranging in seniority from doctoral students to full professors, from Australia, Europe, and North America, and representing a wide range of academic fields participated in the workshop. The first article in the special issue puts forward eight grand challenges for value sensitive design to help guide (...)
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  4. Problems with “Friendly AI”.Oliver Li - forthcoming - Ethics and Information Technology.
    On virtue ethical grounds, Barbro Fröding and Martin Peterson recently recommended that near-future AIs should be developed as ‘Friendly AI’. AI in social interaction with humans should be programmed such that they mimic aspects of human friendship. While it is a reasonable goal to implement AI systems interacting with humans as Friendly AI, I identify four issues that need to be addressed concerning Friendly AI with Fröding’s and Peterson’s understanding of Friendly AI as a starting point. In a first step, (...)
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  5. Artificial Intelligence Regulation: A Framework for Governance.Patricia Gomes Rêgo de Almeida, Carlos Denner dos Santos & Josivania Silva Farias - forthcoming - Ethics and Information Technology.
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  6. Eight Grand Challenges for Value Sensitive Design From the 2016 Lorentz Workshop.Batya Friedman, Maaike Harbers, David G. Hendry, Jeroen van den Hoven, Catholijn Jonker & Nick Logler - forthcoming - Ethics and Information Technology.
    In this article, we report on eight grand challenges for value sensitive design, which were developed at a one-week workshop, Value Sensitive Design: Charting the Next Decade, Lorentz Center, Leiden, The Netherlands, November 14–18, 2016. A grand challenge is a substantial problem, opportunity, or question that motives sustained research and design activity. The eight grand challenges are: Accounting for Power, Evaluating Value Sensitive Design, Framing and Prioritizing Values, Professional and Industry Appropriation, Tech policy, Values and Human Emotions, Value Sensitive Design (...)
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  7. What It’s Like to Be a ___: Why It’s (Often) Unethical to Use VR as an Empathy Nudging Tool.Erick Jose Ramirez, Miles Elliott & Per-Erik Milam - 2021 - Ethics and Information Technology 1.
    In this article, we apply the literature on the ethics of choice-architecture (nudges) to the realm of virtual reality (VR) to point out ethical problems with using VR for empathy-based nudging. Specifically, we argue that VR simulations aiming to enhance empathic understanding of others via perspective-taking will almost always be unethical to develop or deploy. We argue that VR-based empathy enhancement not only faces traditional ethical concerns about nudge (autonomy, welfare, transparency), but also a variant of the semantic variance problem (...)
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  8. Statistically Responsible Artificial Intelligences.Nicholas Smith & Darby Vickers - forthcoming - Ethics and Information Technology.
    As artificial intelligence becomes ubiquitous, it will be increasingly involved in novel, morally significant situations. Thus, understanding what it means for a machine to be morally responsible is important for machine ethics. Any method for ascribing moral responsibility to AI must be intelligible and intuitive to the humans who interact with it. We argue that the appropriate approach is to determine how AIs might fare on a standard account of human moral responsibility: a Strawsonian account. We make no claim that (...)
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  9. A Fictional Dualism Model of Social Robots.Paula Sweeney - forthcoming - Ethics and Information Technology.
    In this paper I propose a Fictional Dualism model of social robots. The model helps us to understand the human emotional reaction to social robots and also acts as a guide for us in determining the significance of that emotional reaction, enabling us to better define the moral and legislative rights of social robots within our society. I propose a distinctive position that allows us to accept that robots are tools, that our emotional reaction to them can be important to (...)
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  10. On the Indignity of Killer Robots.Garry Young - forthcoming - Ethics and Information Technology.
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  11. AI Ethics and the Banality of Evil.Payman Tajalli - forthcoming - Ethics and Information Technology.
    In this paper, I draw on Hannah Arendt’s notion of ‘banality of evil’ to argue that as long as AI systems are designed to follow codes of ethics or particular normative ethical theories chosen by us and programmed in them, they are Eichmanns destined to commit evil. Since intelligence alone is not sufficient for ethical decision making, rather than strive to program AI to determine the right ethical decision based on some ethical theory or criteria, AI should be concerned with (...)
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  12. Ethical Implications of Digital Infrastructures for Pluralistic Perspectives.Maria Joseph Israel & Ahmed Amer - forthcoming - Ethics and Information Technology.
    It is important to design digital infrastructure that can better accommodate multicultural and pluralistic views from its foundations. It is insufficient to look at only the responses and influences of culture on technology without considering how the technology can be adapted in anticipation of, and to support, pluralistic multicultural perspectives in its original design. This goes beyond the simple act of supporting multiple languages and interfaces, but should include the ability of digital and data infrastructure to capture and accommodate pluralistic (...)
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  13. Ethics in the COVID-19 Pandemic: Myths, False Dilemmas, and Moral Overload.Georgy Ishmaev, Matthew Dennis & M. Jeroen van den Hoven - forthcoming - Ethics and Information Technology.
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  14. Digital Well-Being Under Pandemic Conditions: Catalysing a Theory of Online Flourishing.Matthew J. Dennis - forthcoming - Ethics and Information Technology.
    The COVID-19 pandemic has catalysed what may soon become a permanent digital transition in the domains of work, education, medicine, and leisure. This transition has also precipitated a spike in concern regarding our digital well-being. Prominent lobbying groups, such as the Center for Humane Technology, have responded to this concern. In April 2020, the CHT has offered a set of ‘Digital Well-Being Guidelines during the COVID-19 Pandemic.’ These guidelines offer a rule-based approach to digital well-being, one which aims to mitigate (...)
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  15. An Ontic–Ontological Theory for Ethics of Designing Social Robots: A Case of Black African Women and Humanoids.M. John Lamola - forthcoming - Ethics and Information Technology.
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  16. Value Sensitive Design as a Formative Framework.David G. Hendry, Batya Friedman & Stephanie Ballard - forthcoming - Ethics and Information Technology.
    In this article, we first offer a model of design knowledge types and their interrelationships in value sensitive design. Then we demonstrate that value sensitive design is a formative framework, which provides a shaping influence on practice, enables creative appropriation, and supports theory and method development.
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  17. Computationally Rational Agents Can Be Moral Agents.Bongani Andy Mabaso - forthcoming - Ethics and Information Technology.
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  18. Engendering Algorithmic Oppressions.Susan V. H. Castro - 2020 - Blog of the APA.
    In this APA blog, I appeal to two 2020 cases of algorithms gone wrong to motivate philosophical attention to algorithmic oppression. I offer a simple definition, then describe a few of the ways it is engendered. References and extends work by Safiya Noble, Cathy O'Neil, Ruha Benjamin, Virginia Eubanks, Sara Wachter-Boettcher, Michael Kearns & Aaron Roth.
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  19. The Claire Covid-19 Initiative: Approach, Experiences and Recommendations.Gianluca Bontempi, Ricardo Chavarriaga, Hans eD Canck, Emanuela Girardi, Holger Hoos, Iarla Kilbane-Dawe, Tonio Ball, Ann Nowé, Jose Sousa, Davide Bacciu, Marco Aldinucci, Manlio eD Domenico, Alessandro Saffiotti & Marco Maratea - forthcoming - Ethics and Information Technology.
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  20. Give More Data, Awareness and Control to Individual Citizens, and They Will Help COVID-19 Containment.Mirco Nanni, Gennady Andrienko, Albert-László Barabási, Chiara Boldrini, Francesco Bonchi, Ciro Cattuto, Francesca Chiaromonte, Giovanni Comandé, Marco Conti, Mark Coté, Frank Dignum, Virginia Dignum, Josep Domingo-Ferrer, Paolo Ferragina, Fosca Giannotti, Riccardo Guidotti, Dirk Helbing, Kimmo Kaski, Janos Kertesz, Sune Lehmann, Bruno Lepri, Paul Lukowicz, Stan Matwin, David Megías Jiménez, Anna Monreale, Katharina Morik, Nuria Oliver, Andrea Passarella, Andrea Passerini, Dino Pedreschi, Alex Pentland, Fabio Pianesi, Francesca Pratesi, Salvatore Rinzivillo, Salvatore Ruggieri, Arno Siebes, Vicenc Torra, Roberto Trasarti, Jeroen van den Hoven & Alessandro Vespignani - forthcoming - Ethics and Information Technology.
    The rapid dynamics of COVID-19 calls for quick and effective tracking of virus transmission chains and early detection of outbreaks, especially in the “phase 2” of the pandemic, when lockdown and other restriction measures are progressively withdrawn, in order to avoid or minimize contagion resurgence. For this purpose, contact-tracing apps are being proposed for large scale adoption by many countries. A centralized approach, where data sensed by the app are all sent to a nation-wide server, raises concerns about citizens’ privacy (...)
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  21. Towards Trustworthy Blockchains: Normative Reflections on Blockchain-Enabled Virtual Institutions.Yan Teng - forthcoming - Ethics and Information Technology.
    This paper proposes a novel way to understand trust in blockchain technology by analogy with trust placed in institutions. In support of the analysis, a detailed investigation of institutional trust is provided, which is then used as the basis for understanding the nature and ethical limits of blockchain trust. Two interrelated arguments are presented. First, given blockchains’ capacity for being institution-like entities by inviting expectations similar to those invited by traditional institutions, blockchain trust is argued to be best conceptualized as (...)
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  22. Was Snowden Virtuous?Clive Harfield - forthcoming - Ethics and Information Technology.
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  23. Data Ethics Decision Aid (DEDA): A Dialogical Framework for Ethical Inquiry of AI and Data Projects in the Netherlands.Aline Shakti Franzke, Iris Muis & Mirko Tobias Schäfer - forthcoming - Ethics and Information Technology.
    This contribution discusses the development of the Data Ethics Decision Aid, a framework for reviewing government data projects that considers their social impact, the embedded values and the government’s responsibilities in times of data-driven public management. Drawing from distinct qualitative research approaches, the DEDA framework was developed in an iterative process and has since then been applied by various Dutch municipalities, the Association of Dutch Municipalities, and the Ministry of General Affairs. We present the DEDA framework as an effective process (...)
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  24. The Ethics of Inattention: Revitalising Civil Inattention as a Privacy-Protecting Mechanism in Public Spaces.Tamar Sharon & Bert-Jaap Koops - forthcoming - Ethics and Information Technology.
    Societies evolve practices that reflect social norms of appropriateness in social interaction, for example when and to what extent one should respect the boundaries of another person’s private sphere. One such practice is what the sociologist Erving Goffman called civil inattention—the social norm of showing a proper amount of indifference to others—which functions as an almost unnoticed yet highly potent privacy-preserving mechanism. These practices can be disrupted by technologies that afford new forms of intrusions. In this paper, we show how (...)
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  25. We Are Less Free Than How We Think: Regular Patterns in Nonverbal Communication.".Alessandro Vinciarelli, Anna Esposito, Mohammad Tayarani, Giorgio Roffo, Filomena Scibelli, Perrone Francesco & Dong BachVo - 2019 - In Multimodal Behavior Analysis in the Wild Advances and Challenges Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition. pp. Pages 269-288.
    The goal of this chapter is to show that human behavior is not random but follows principles and laws that result into regular patterns that can be not only observed, but also automatically detected and analyzed. The word “behavior” accounts here for nonverbal behavioral cues (e.g., facial expressions, laughter, gestures, etc.) that people display, typically outside conscious awareness, during social interactions. In particular, the chapter shows that observable behavioral patterns typically account for social and psychological differences that cannot be observed (...)
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  26. Optimization of What? For-Profit Health Apps as Manipulative Digital Environments.Marijn Sax - forthcoming - Ethics and Information Technology.
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  27. Ethical Analysis on the Application of Neurotechnology for Human Augmentation in Physicians and Surgeons.Soaad Hossain & Syed Ishtiaque Ahmed - 2021 - In Kohei Arai, Supriya Kapoor & Rahul Bhatia (eds.), Proceedings of the Future Technologies Conference (FTC) 2020. Switzerland: pp. 78-99.
    With the shortage of physicians and surgeons and increase in demand worldwide due to situations such as the COVID-19 pandemic, there is a growing interest in finding solutions to help address the problem. A solution to this problem would be to use neurotechnology to provide them augmented cognition, senses and action for optimal diagnosis and treatment. Consequently, doing so can negatively impact them and others. We argue that applying neurotechnology for human enhancement in physicians and surgeons can cause injustices, and (...)
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  28. Virtual Action.Jan-Hendrik Heinrichs - forthcoming - Ethics and Information Technology.
    In the debate about actions in virtual environments two interdependent types of question have been pondered: What is a person doing who acts in a virtual environment? Second, can virtual actions be evaluated morally? These questions have been discussed using examples from morally dubious computer games, which seem to revel in atrocities. The examples were introduced using the terminology of “virtual murder” “virtual rape” and “virtual pedophilia”. The terminological choice had a lasting impact on the debate, on the way action (...)
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  29. Sovereignty, Privacy, and Ethics in Blockchain-Based Identity Management Systems.Georgy Ishmaev - forthcoming - Ethics and Information Technology.
    Self-sovereign identity solutions implemented on the basis of blockchain technology are seen as alternatives to existing digital identification systems, or even as a foundation of standards for the new global infrastructures for identity management systems. It is argued that ‘self-sovereignty' in this context can be understood as the concept of individual control over identity relevant private data, capacity to choose where such data is stored, and the ability to provide it to those who need to validate it. It is also (...)
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  30. Critically Engaging the Ethics of AI for a Global Audience.Samuel T. Segun - forthcoming - Ethics and Information Technology.
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  31. We Need to Talk About Deception in Social Robotics!Amanda Sharkey & Noel Sharkey - forthcoming - Ethics and Information Technology.
    Although some authors claim that deception requires intention, we argue that there can be deception in social robotics, whether or not it is intended. By focusing on the deceived rather than the deceiver, we propose that false beliefs can be created in the absence of intention. Supporting evidence is found in both human and animal examples. Instead of assuming that deception is wrong only when carried out to benefit the deceiver, we propose that deception in social robotics is wrong when (...)
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  32. Privacy for the Weak, Transparency for the Powerful: The Cypherpunk Ethics of Julian Assange.Patrick D. Anderson - forthcoming - Ethics and Information Technology.
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  33. Responsible Innovation in Synthetic Biology in Response to COVID-19: The Role of Data Positionality.Koen Bruynseels - forthcoming - Ethics and Information Technology.
    Synthetic biology, as an engineering approach to biological systems, has the potential to disruptively innovate the development of vaccines, therapeutics, and diagnostics. Data accessibility and differences in data-usage capabilities are important factors in shaping this innovation landscape. In this paper, the data that underpin synthetic biology responses to the COVID-19 pandemic are analyzed as positional information goods—goods whose value depends on exclusivity. The positionality of biological data impacts the ability to guide innovations toward societally preferred goals. From both an ethical (...)
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  34. Special Issue on Responsible Robotics: Introduction.Aimee van Wynsberghe & Noel Sharkey - 2020 - Ethics and Information Technology 22 (4):281-282.
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  35. Digital Contact Tracing and Exposure Notification: Ethical Guidance for Trustworthy Pandemic Management.Robert Ranisch, Niels Nijsingh, Angela Ballantyne, Anne van Bergen, Alena Buyx, Orsolya Friedrich, Tereza Hendl, Georg Marckmann, Christian Munthe & Verina Wild - forthcoming - Ethics and Information Technology.
    There is growing interest in contact tracing apps for pandemic management. It is crucial to consider ethical requirements before, while, and after implementing such apps. In this paper, we illustrate the complexity and multiplicity of the ethical considerations by presenting an ethical framework for a responsible design and implementation of CT apps. Using this framework as a starting point, we briefly highlight the interconnection of social and political contexts, available measures of pandemic management, and a multi-layer assessment of CT apps. (...)
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  36. Transparency as Design Publicity: Explaining and Justifying Inscrutable Algorithms.Michele Loi, Andrea Ferrario & Eleonora Viganò - forthcoming - Ethics and Information Technology.
    In this paper we argue that transparency of machine learning algorithms, just as explanation, can be defined at different levels of abstraction. We criticize recent attempts to identify the explanation of black box algorithms with making their decisions interpretable, focusing our discussion on counterfactual explanations. These approaches to explanation simplify the real nature of the black boxes and risk misleading the public about the normative features of a model. We propose a new form of algorithmic transparency, that consists in explaining (...)
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  37. Corona Pan(Dem)Ic: Gateway to Global Surveillance.Regina Sibylle Surber - forthcoming - Ethics and Information Technology.
    The essay reviews the digital emergency measures many governments have adopted in an attempt to curb Covid-19. It argues that those ‘virologically legitimized’ measures may infringe the human right to privacy and mark the transition into a world of global surveillance. At this possible turning point in human history, panic and latent fear seem to fog much needed farsightedness. Leaving the current state of emotional paralysis and restarting to critically assess the digital pandemic management can serve as an emergency break (...)
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  38. Scoping the Ethical Principles of Cybersecurity Fear Appeals.Marc Dupuis & Karen Renaud - forthcoming - Ethics and Information Technology.
    Fear appeals are used in many domains. Cybersecurity researchers are also starting to experiment with fear appeals, many reporting positive outcomes. Yet there are ethical concerns related to the use of fear to motivate action. In this paper, we explore this aspect from the perspectives of cybersecurity fear appeal deployers and recipients. We commenced our investigation by considering fear appeals from three foundational ethical perspectives. We then consulted the two stakeholder groups to gain insights into the ethical concerns they consider (...)
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  39. Beyond Privacy Vs. Health: A Justification Analysis of the Contact-Tracing Apps Debate in the Netherlands.Lotje Elizabeth Siffels - forthcoming - Ethics and Information Technology.
    In the Netherlands, as in many other nations, the government has proposed the use of a contact-tracing app as a means of helping to contain the spread of the corona virus. The discussion about the use of such an app has mostly been framed in terms of a tradeoff between privacy and public health. This research statement presents an analysis of the Dutch public debate on Corona-apps by using the framework of Orders of Worth by Boltanski and Thévenot. It argues (...)
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  40. Improving on and Assessing Ethical Guidelines for Digital Tracking and Tracing Systems for Pandemics.Björn Lundgren - forthcoming - Ethics and Information Technology.
    So-called digital tracking and tracing systems have been proposed as a means to prevent the spread of SARS-CoV-2. There are ethical guidelines and evaluations of such systems available. As part of a research project, I will build on and critically evaluate the foundations of such guidelines. The goal is to provide both incremental improvements of the specific requirements for DTTSs and to present and discuss more fundamental challenge, the risk for indirect effects and slippery slopes. The nature of slippery slopes (...)
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  41. Contact Tracing Apps: An Ethical Roadmap.Marjolein Lanzing - forthcoming - Ethics and Information Technology.
    This research statement presents a roadmap for the ethical evaluation of contact tracing apps. Assuming the possible development of an effective and secure contact tracing app, this roadmap explores three ethical concerns—privacy, data monopolists and coercion- based on three scenarios. The first scenario envisions and critically evaluates an app that is built on the conceptualization of privacy as anonymity and a mere individual right rather than a social value. The second scenario sketches and critically discusses an app that adequately addresses (...)
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  42. Towards a Seamful Ethics of Covid-19 Contact Tracing Apps?Andrew S. Hoffman, Bart Jacobs, Bernard van Gastel, Hanna Schraffenberger, Tamar Sharon & Berber Pas - forthcoming - Ethics and Information Technology.
    In the early months of 2020, the deadly Covid-19 disease spread rapidly around the world. In response, national and regional governments implemented a range of emergency lockdown measures, curtailing citizens’ movements and greatly limiting economic activity. More recently, as restrictions begin to be loosened or lifted entirely, the use of so-called contact tracing apps has figured prominently in many jurisdictions’ plans to reopen society. Critics have questioned the utility of such technologies on a number of fronts, both practical and ethical. (...)
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  43. Robots Responding to Care Needs? A Multitasking Care Robot Pursued for 25 Years, Available Products Offer Simple Entertainment and Instrumental Assistance.Lina Van Aerschot & Jaana Parviainen - 2020 - Ethics and Information Technology 22 (3):247-256.
    Twenty-five years ago, robotics guru Joseph Engelberger had a mission to motivate research teams all over the world to design the ‘Elderly Care Giver’, a multitasking personal robot assistant for everyday care needs in old age. In this article, we discuss how this vision of omnipotent care robots has influenced the design strategies of care robotics, the development of R&D initiatives and ethics research on use of care robots. Despite the expectations of robots revolutionizing care of older people, the role (...)
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  44. Social Media, Interpersonal Relations and the Objective Attitude.Michael-John Turp - 2020 - Ethics and Information Technology 22 (3):269-279.
    How do social media affect interpersonal relationships? Adopting a Strawsonian framework, I argue that social media make us more likely to adopt the objective attitude towards persons. Technologically mediated communication tends to inhibit interpersonal emotions and other reactive attitudes. This is due to a relative lack of the social cues that typically enable us to read minds and react to them. Adopting the objective attitude can be harmful for two reasons. First, it tends to undermine the basis of interpersonal relationships. (...)
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  45. Privacy, Transparency, and the Prisoner’s Dilemma.Adam D. Moore & Sean Martin - 2020 - Ethics and Information Technology 22 (3):211-222.
    Aside from making a few weak, and hopefully widely shared claims about the value of privacy, transparency, and accountability, we will offer an argument for the protection of privacy based on individual self-interest and prudence. In large part, this argument will parallel considerations that arise in a prisoner’s dilemma game. After briefly sketching an account of the value of privacy, transparency, and accountability, along with the salient features of a prisoner’s dilemma games, a game-theory analysis will be offered. In a (...)
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  46. Exploring Solutions to the Privacy Paradox in the Context of E-Assessment: Informed Consent Revisited.Ekaterina Muravyeva, José Janssen, Marcus Specht & Bart Custers - 2020 - Ethics and Information Technology 22 (3):223-238.
    Personal data use is increasingly permeating our everyday life. Informed consent for personal data use is a central instrument for ensuring the protection of personal data. However, current informed consent practices often fail to actually inform data subjects about the use of personal data. This article presents the results of a requirements analysis for informed consent from both a legal and usability perspective, considering the application context of educational assessment. The requirements analysis is based on European Union law and a (...)
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  47. What Does the Gamer Do?Rebecca Davnall - forthcoming - Ethics and Information Technology.
    The 'Gamer's Dilemma' is the problem of why some actions occurring in video game contexts seem to have similar, albeit attenuated, kinds of moral significance to their real-world equivalents, while others do not. In this paper, I argue that much of the confusion in the literature on this problem is not ethical but metaphysical. The Gamer's Dilemma depends on a particular theory of the virtual, which I call 'inflationary', according to which virtual worlds are a metaphysical novelty generated almost exclusively (...)
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  48. Emerging Technologies as the Next Pandemic?Bernd Carsten Stahl - forthcoming - Ethics and Information Technology.
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  49. The “Digital Animal Intuition:” the Ethics of Violence Against Animals in Video Games.Simon Coghlan & Lucy Sparrow - forthcoming - Ethics and Information Technology.
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  50. Friendly AI.Barbro Fröding & Martin Peterson - forthcoming - Ethics and Information Technology.
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