Computer Ethics

Edited by Lavinia Marin (Delft University of Technology)
About this topic
Summary Computer ethics is a relatively new field of ethical inquiry, although some of its foundational texts range from 1960s. It can be seen as either a field of applied ethics (ethics applied to computers) or as form of professional ethics, but, more widely, as an attempt to re-think the human condition in light of digital technology developments. Fundamental ethical topics in this area include: responsibility, privacy, surveillance, automation and autonomy, the good life online, evil online, etc.
Key works Weckert, John (ed.). Computer ethics. Routledge, 2017 is an edited collection containing a selection of fundamental texts in computer ethics ranging from the 1960's until 2004.  Another comprehensive book is van den Hoven & Weckert 2008Information Technology and Moral Philosophy (2008)
Introductions Moor 1985  Floridi 2010 Müller 2020
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  1. The teaching of computer ethics on computer science and related degree programmes. a European survey.Ioannis Stavrakakis, Damian Gordon, Brendan Tierney, Anna Becevel, Emma Murphy, Gordana Dodig-Crnkovic, Radu Dobrin, Viola Schiaffonati, Cristina Pereira, Svetlana Tikhonenko, J. Paul Gibson, Stephane Maag, Francesco Agresta, Andrea Curley, Michael Collins & Dympna O’Sullivan - 2022 - International Journal of Ethics Education 7 (1):101-129.
    Within the Computer Science community, many ethical issues have emerged as significant and critical concerns. Computer ethics is an academic field in its own right and there are unique ethical issues associated with information technology. It encompasses a range of issues and concerns including privacy and agency around personal information, Artificial Intelligence and pervasive technology, the Internet of Things and surveillance applications. As computing technology impacts society at an ever growing pace, there are growing calls for more computer ethics content (...)
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  2. The Use and Misuse of Counterfactuals in Ethical Machine Learning.Atoosa Kasirzadeh & Andrew Smart - 2021 - In ACM Conference on Fairness, Accountability, and Transparency (FAccT 21).
    The use of counterfactuals for considerations of algorithmic fairness and explainability is gaining prominence within the machine learning community and industry. This paper argues for more caution with the use of counterfactuals when the facts to be considered are social categories such as race or gender. We review a broad body of papers from philosophy and social sciences on social ontology and the semantics of counterfactuals, and we conclude that the counterfactual approach in machine learning fairness and social explainability can (...)
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  3. Ethics of Computer Gaming: A Groundwork.Samuel Ulbricht - 2022 - Berlin: Springer Berlin: Palgrave Macmillan.
    Despite the increasing number of gamers worldwide, the moral classification of computer gaming marks an as yet unsolved riddle of philosophical ethics. In view of the explosive nature of the topic in everyday life (as seen in various debates about rampages), it is obvious that a differentiated professional clarification of the phenomenon is needed: Can playing computer games be immoral? -/- To answer this question, the author first discusses what we do at all when we play computer games: What kind (...)
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  4. Quantum of Wisdom.Brett Karlan & Colin Allen - forthcoming - In Greg Viggiano (ed.), Quantum Computing and AI: Social, Ethical, and Geo-Political Implications. Toronto, ON, Canada: University of Toronto Press. pp. 1-6.
    Practical quantum computing devices and their applications to AI in particular are presently mostly speculative. Nevertheless, questions about whether this future technology, if achieved, presents any special ethical issues are beginning to take shape. As with any novel technology, one can be reasonably confident that the challenges presented by "quantum AI" will be a mixture of something new and something old. Other commentators (Sevilla & Moreno 2019), have emphasized continuity, arguing that quantum computing does not substantially affect approaches to value (...)
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  5. The Ethical Use of Artificial Intelligence in Human Resource Management: A Decision-Making Framework.Sarah Bankins - 2021 - Ethics and Information Technology 23 (4):841-854.
    Artificial intelligence is increasingly inputting into various human resource management functions, such as sourcing job applicants and selecting staff, allocating work, and offering personalized career coaching. While the use of AI for such tasks can offer many benefits, evidence suggests that without careful and deliberate implementation its use also has the potential to generate significant harms. This raises several ethical concerns regarding the appropriateness of AI deployment to domains such as HRM, which directly deal with managing sometimes sensitive aspects of (...)
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  6. A Willingness to Be Vulnerable: Norm Psychology and Human–Robot Relationships.Stephen A. Setman - 2021 - Ethics and Information Technology 23 (4):815-824.
    Should we welcome social robots into interpersonal relationships? In this paper I show that an adequate answer to this question must take three factors into consideration: the psychological vulnerability that characterizes ordinary interpersonal relationships, the normative significance that humans attach to other people’s attitudes in such relationships, and the tendency of humans to anthropomorphize and “mentalize” artificial agents, often beyond their actual capacities. I argue that we should welcome social robots into interpersonal relationships only if they are endowed with a (...)
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  7. Improving Ethical Attitudes to Animals with Digital Technologies: The Case of Apes and Zoos.Simon Coghlan, Sarah Webber & Marcus Carter - 2021 - Ethics and Information Technology 23 (4):825-839.
    This paper examines how digital technologies might be used to improve ethical attitudes towards nonhuman animals, by exploring the case study of nonhuman apes kept in modern zoos. The paper describes and employs a socio-ethical framework for undermining anti-ape prejudice advanced by philosopher Edouard Machery which draws on classic anti-racism strategies from the social sciences. We also discuss how digital technologies might be designed and deployed to enable and enhance rather than impede the three anti-prejudice strategies of contact and interaction, (...)
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  8. Ethics of Automated Vehicles: Breaking Traffic Rules for Road Safety.Nick Reed, Tania Leiman, Paula Palade, Marieke Martens & Leon Kester - 2021 - Ethics and Information Technology 23 (4):777-789.
    In this paper, we explore and describe what is needed to allow connected and automated vehicles to break traffic rules in order to minimise road safety risk and to operate with appropriate transparency. Reviewing current traffic rules with particular reference to two driving situations, we illustrate why current traffic rules are not suitable for CAVs and why making new traffic rules specifically for CAVs would be inappropriate. In defining an alternative approach to achieving safe CAV driving behaviours, we describe the (...)
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  9. Understanding Responsibility in Responsible AI. Dianoetic Virtues and the Hard Problem of Context.Mihaela Constantinescu, Cristina Voinea, Radu Uszkai & Constantin Vică - 2021 - Ethics and Information Technology 23 (4):803-814.
    During the last decade there has been burgeoning research concerning the ways in which we should think of and apply the concept of responsibility for Artificial Intelligence. Despite this conceptual richness, there is still a lack of consensus regarding what Responsible AI entails on both conceptual and practical levels. The aim of this paper is to connect the ethical dimension of responsibility in Responsible AI with Aristotelian virtue ethics, where notions of context and dianoetic virtues play a grounding role for (...)
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  10. Addressing Inequal Risk Exposure in the Development of Automated Vehicles.Manuel Dietrich - 2021 - Ethics and Information Technology 23 (4):727-738.
    Automated vehicles are expected to operate on public roads, together with non-automated vehicles and other road users such as pedestrians or bicycles. Recent ethical reports and guidelines raise worries that AVs will introduce injustice or reinforce existing social inequalities in road traffic. One major injustice concern in today’s traffic is that different types of road users are exposed differently to risks of corporal harm. In the first part of the paper, we discuss the responsibility of AV developers to address existing (...)
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  11. May Kantians Commit Virtual Killings That Affect No Other Persons?Tobias Flattery - 2021 - Ethics and Information Technology 23 (4):751-762.
    Are acts of violence performed in virtual environments ever morally wrong, even when no other persons are affected? While some such acts surely reflect deficient moral character, I focus on the moral rightness or wrongness of acts. Typically it’s thought that, on Kant’s moral theory, an act of virtual violence is morally wrong (i.e., violate the Categorical Imperative) only if the act mistreats another person. But I argue that, on Kant’s moral theory, some acts of virtual violence can be morally (...)
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  12. The European Commission Report on Ethics of Connected and Automated Vehicles and the Future of Ethics of Transportation.Filippo Santoni de Sio - 2021 - Ethics and Information Technology 23 (4):713-726.
    The paper has two goals. The first is presenting the main results of the recent report Ethics of Connected and Automated Vehicles: recommendations on road safety, privacy, fairness, explainability and responsibility written by the Horizon 2020 European Commission Expert Group to advise on specific ethical issues raised by driverless mobility, of which the author of this paper has been member and rapporteur. The second is presenting some broader ethical and philosophical implications of these recommendations, and using these to contribute to (...)
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  13. Can the Predictive Processing Model of the Mind Ameliorate the Value-Alignment Problem?William Ratoff - 2021 - Ethics and Information Technology 23 (4):739-750.
    How do we ensure that future generally intelligent AI share our values? This is the value-alignment problem. It is a weighty matter. After all, if AI are neutral with respect to our wellbeing, or worse, actively hostile toward us, then they pose an existential threat to humanity. Some philosophers have argued that one important way in which we can mitigate this threat is to develop only AI that shares our values or that has values that ‘align with’ ours. However, there (...)
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  14. Psychological Consequences of Legal Responsibility Misattribution Associated with Automated Vehicles.Peng Liu, Manqing Du & Tingting Li - 2021 - Ethics and Information Technology 23 (4):763-776.
    A human driver and an automated driving system might share control of automated vehicles in the near future. This raises many concerns associated with the assignment of responsibility for negative outcomes caused by them; one is that the human driver might be required to bear the brunt of moral and legal responsibilities. The psychological consequences of responsibility misattribution have not yet been examined. We designed a hypothetical crash similar to Uber’s 2018 fatal crash. We incorporated five legal responsibility attributions. Participants (...)
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  15. Non-Empirical Problems in Fair Machine Learning.Teresa Scantamburlo - 2021 - Ethics and Information Technology 23 (4):703-712.
    The problem of fair machine learning has drawn much attention over the last few years and the bulk of offered solutions are, in principle, empirical. However, algorithmic fairness also raises important conceptual issues that would fail to be addressed if one relies entirely on empirical considerations. Herein, I will argue that the current debate has developed an empirical framework that has brought important contributions to the development of algorithmic decision-making, such as new techniques to discover and prevent discrimination, additional assessment (...)
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  16. Predictive Privacy: Towards an Applied Ethics of Data Analytics.Rainer Mühlhoff - 2021 - Ethics and Information Technology 23 (4):675-690.
    Data analytics and data-driven approaches in Machine Learning are now among the most hailed computing technologies in many industrial domains. One major application is predictive analytics, which is used to predict sensitive attributes, future behavior, or cost, risk and utility functions associated with target groups or individuals based on large sets of behavioral and usage data. This paper stresses the severe ethical and data protection implications of predictive analytics if it is used to predict sensitive information about single individuals or (...)
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  17. Automated Vehicles and the Morality of Post-Collision Behavior.Sebastian Krügel, Matthias Uhl & Bryn Balcombe - 2021 - Ethics and Information Technology 23 (4):691-701.
    We address the considerations of the European Commission Expert Group on the ethics of connected and automated vehicles regarding data provision in the event of collisions. While human drivers’ appropriate post-collision behavior is clearly defined, regulations for automated driving do not provide for collision detection. We agree it is important to systematically incorporate citizens’ intuitions into the discourse on the ethics of automated vehicles. Therefore, we investigate whether people expect automated vehicles to behave like humans after an accident, even if (...)
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  18. Ethical Dilemmas Are Really Important to Potential Adopters of Autonomous Vehicles.Tripat Gill - 2021 - Ethics and Information Technology 23 (4):657-673.
    The ethical dilemma of whether autonomous vehicles should protect the passengers or pedestrians when harm is unavoidable has been widely researched and debated. Several behavioral scientists have sought public opinion on this issue, based on the premise that EDs are critical to resolve for AV adoption. However, many scholars and industry participants have downplayed the importance of these edge cases. Policy makers also advocate a focus on higher level ethical principles rather than on a specific solution to EDs. But conspicuously (...)
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  19. Ethical Concerns in Rescue Robotics: A Scoping Review.Linda Battistuzzi, Carmine Tommaso Recchiuto & Antonio Sgorbissa - 2021 - Ethics and Information Technology 23 (4):863-875.
    Rescue operations taking place in disaster settings can be fraught with ethical challenges. Further ethical challenges will likely be introduced by the use of robots, which are expected to soon become commonplace in search and rescue missions and disaster recovery efforts. To help focus timely reflection on the ethical considerations associated with the deployment of rescue robots, we have conducted a scoping review exploring the relevant academic literature following a widely recognized scoping review framework. Of the 429 papers identified by (...)
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  20. How Can We Know a Self-Driving Car is Safe?Jack Stilgoe - 2021 - Ethics and Information Technology 23 (4):635-647.
    Self-driving cars promise solutions to some of the hazards of human driving but there are important questions about the safety of these new technologies. This paper takes a qualitative social science approach to the question ‘how safe is safe enough?’ Drawing on 50 interviews with people developing and researching self-driving cars, I describe two dominant narratives of safety. The first, safety-in-numbers, sees safety as a self-evident property of the technology and offers metrics in an attempt to reassure the public. The (...)
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  21. From Human Resources to Human Rights: Impact Assessments for Hiring Algorithms.Josephine Yam & Joshua August Skorburg - 2021 - Ethics and Information Technology 23 (4):611-623.
    Over the years, companies have adopted hiring algorithms because they promise wider job candidate pools, lower recruitment costs and less human bias. Despite these promises, they also bring perils. Using them can inflict unintentional harms on individual human rights. These include the five human rights to work, equality and nondiscrimination, privacy, free expression and free association. Despite the human rights harms of hiring algorithms, the AI ethics literature has predominantly focused on abstract ethical principles. This is problematic for two reasons. (...)
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  22. Digitalization of Contact Tracing: Balancing Data Privacy with Public Health Benefit.Jeremy Wacksman - 2021 - Ethics and Information Technology 23 (4):855-861.
    The COVID-19 pandemic has brought the long-standing public health practice of contact tracing into the public spotlight. While contact tracing and case investigation have been carefully designed to protect privacy, the huge volume of tracing which is being carried out as part of the pandemic response in the United States is highlighting potential concerns around privacy, legality, and equity. Contact tracing during the pandemic has gained particular attention for the new use of digital technologies—both on the consumer side in the (...)
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  23. What is the ‘Personal’ in ‘Personal Information’?Sille Obelitz Søe, Rikke Frank Jørgensen & Jens-Erik Mai - 2021 - Ethics and Information Technology 23 (4):625-633.
    Contemporary privacy theories and European discussions about data protection employ the notion of ‘personal information’ to designate their areas of concern. The notion of personal information is demarcated from non-personal information—or just information—indicating that we are dealing with a specific kind of information. However, within privacy scholarship the notion of personal information appears undertheorized, rendering the concept somewhat unclear. We argue that in an age of datafication, protection of personal information and privacy is crucial, making the understanding of what is (...)
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  24. How to Feel About Emotionalized Artificial Intelligence? When Robot Pets, Holograms, and Chatbots Become Affective Partners.Eva Weber-Guskar - 2021 - Ethics and Information Technology 23 (4):601-610.
    Interactions between humans and machines that include artificial intelligence are increasingly common in nearly all areas of life. Meanwhile, AI-products are increasingly endowed with emotional characteristics. That is, they are designed and trained to elicit emotions in humans, to recognize human emotions and, sometimes, to simulate emotions. The introduction of such systems in our lives is met with some criticism. There is a rather strong intuition that there is something wrong about getting attached to a machine, about having certain emotions (...)
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  25. Non-Consensual Personified Sexbots: An Intrinsic Wrong.Karen Lancaster - 2021 - Ethics and Information Technology 23 (4):589-600.
    Humanoid robots used for sexual purposes are beginning to look increasingly lifelike. It is possible for a user to have a bespoke sexbot created which matches their exact requirements in skin pigmentation, hair and eye colour, body shape, and genital design. This means that it is possible—and increasingly easy—for a sexbot to be created which bears a very high degree of resemblance to a particular person. There is a small but steadily increasing literature exploring some of the ethical issues surrounding (...)
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  26. The Claire Covid-19 Initiative: Approach, Experiences and Recommendations.Gianluca Bontempi, Ricardo Chavarriaga, Hans eD Canck, Emanuela Girardi, Holger Hoos, Iarla Kilbane-Dawe, Tonio Ball, Ann Nowé, Jose Sousa, Davide Bacciu, Marco Aldinucci, Manlio eD Domenico, Alessandro Saffiotti & Marco Maratea - 2021 - Ethics and Information Technology 23 (S1):127-133.
    A volunteer effort by Artificial Intelligence researchers has shown it can deliver significant research outcomes rapidly to help tackle COVID-19. Within two months, CLAIRE’s self-organising volunteers delivered the World’s first comprehensive curated repository of COVID-19-related datasets useful for drug-repurposing, drafted review papers on the role CT/x-ray scan analysis and robotics could play, and progressed research in other areas. Given the pace required and nature of voluntary efforts, the teams faced a number of challenges. These offer insights in how better to (...)
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  27. Ethics in the COVID-19 Pandemic: Myths, False Dilemmas, and Moral Overload.Georgy Ishmaev, Matthew Dennis & M. Jeroen van den Hoven - 2021 - Ethics and Information Technology 23 (S1):19-34.
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  28. Give More Data, Awareness and Control to Individual Citizens, and They Will Help COVID-19 Containment.Mirco Nanni, Gennady Andrienko, Albert-László Barabási, Chiara Boldrini, Francesco Bonchi, Ciro Cattuto, Francesca Chiaromonte, Giovanni Comandé, Marco Conti, Mark Coté, Frank Dignum, Virginia Dignum, Josep Domingo-Ferrer, Paolo Ferragina, Fosca Giannotti, Riccardo Guidotti, Dirk Helbing, Kimmo Kaski, Janos Kertesz, Sune Lehmann, Bruno Lepri, Paul Lukowicz, Stan Matwin, David Megías Jiménez, Anna Monreale, Katharina Morik, Nuria Oliver, Andrea Passarella, Andrea Passerini, Dino Pedreschi, Alex Pentland, Fabio Pianesi, Francesca Pratesi, Salvatore Rinzivillo, Salvatore Ruggieri, Arno Siebes, Vicenc Torra, Roberto Trasarti, Jeroen van den Hoven & Alessandro Vespignani - 2021 - Ethics and Information Technology 23 (S1):1-6.
    The rapid dynamics of COVID-19 calls for quick and effective tracking of virus transmission chains and early detection of outbreaks, especially in the “phase 2” of the pandemic, when lockdown and other restriction measures are progressively withdrawn, in order to avoid or minimize contagion resurgence. For this purpose, contact-tracing apps are being proposed for large scale adoption by many countries. A centralized approach, where data sensed by the app are all sent to a nation-wide server, raises concerns about citizens’ privacy (...)
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  29. Responsible Innovation in Synthetic Biology in Response to COVID-19: The Role of Data Positionality.Koen Bruynseels - 2020 - Ethics and Information Technology 23 (S1):117-125.
    Synthetic biology, as an engineering approach to biological systems, has the potential to disruptively innovate the development of vaccines, therapeutics, and diagnostics. Data accessibility and differences in data-usage capabilities are important factors in shaping this innovation landscape. In this paper, the data that underpin synthetic biology responses to the COVID-19 pandemic are analyzed as positional information goods—goods whose value depends on exclusivity. The positionality of biological data impacts the ability to guide innovations toward societally preferred goals. From both an ethical (...)
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  30. Beyond Privacy Vs. Health: A Justification Analysis of the Contact-Tracing Apps Debate in the Netherlands.Lotje Elizabeth Siffels - 2020 - Ethics and Information Technology 23 (S1):99-103.
    In the Netherlands, as in many other nations, the government has proposed the use of a contact-tracing app as a means of helping to contain the spread of the corona virus. The discussion about the use of such an app has mostly been framed in terms of a tradeoff between privacy and public health. This research statement presents an analysis of the Dutch public debate on Corona-apps by using the framework of Orders of Worth by Boltanski and Thévenot. It argues (...)
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  31. Contact Tracing Apps: An Ethical Roadmap.Marjolein Lanzing - 2020 - Ethics and Information Technology 23 (S1):87-90.
    This research statement presents a roadmap for the ethical evaluation of contact tracing apps. Assuming the possible development of an effective and secure contact tracing app, this roadmap explores three ethical concerns—privacy, data monopolists and coercion- based on three scenarios. The first scenario envisions and critically evaluates an app that is built on the conceptualization of privacy as anonymity and a mere individual right rather than a social value. The second scenario sketches and critically discusses an app that adequately addresses (...)
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  32. Improving on and Assessing Ethical Guidelines for Digital Tracking and Tracing Systems for Pandemics.Björn Lundgren - 2020 - Ethics and Information Technology 23 (S1):139-142.
    So-called digital tracking and tracing systems have been proposed as a means to prevent the spread of SARS-CoV-2. There are ethical guidelines and evaluations of such systems available. As part of a research project, I will build on and critically evaluate the foundations of such guidelines. The goal is to provide both incremental improvements of the specific requirements for DTTSs and to present and discuss more fundamental challenge, the risk for indirect effects and slippery slopes. The nature of slippery slopes (...)
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  33. Towards a Seamful Ethics of Covid-19 Contact Tracing Apps?Andrew S. Hoffman, Bart Jacobs, Bernard van Gastel, Hanna Schraffenberger, Tamar Sharon & Berber Pas - 2020 - Ethics and Information Technology 23 (S1):105-115.
    In the early months of 2020, the deadly Covid-19 disease spread rapidly around the world. In response, national and regional governments implemented a range of emergency lockdown measures, curtailing citizens’ movements and greatly limiting economic activity. More recently, as restrictions begin to be loosened or lifted entirely, the use of so-called contact tracing apps has figured prominently in many jurisdictions’ plans to reopen society. Critics have questioned the utility of such technologies on a number of fronts, both practical and ethical. (...)
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  34. Emerging Technologies as the Next Pandemic?: Possible Consequences of the Covid Crisis for the Future of Responsible Research and Innovation.Bernd Carsten Stahl - 2020 - Ethics and Information Technology 23 (S1):135-137.
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  35. Perceptual Breakdown During a Global Pandemic: Introducing Phenomenological Insights for Digital Mental Health Purposes.Janna van Grunsven - 2020 - Ethics and Information Technology 23 (S1):91-98.
    Online therapy sessions and other forms of digital mental health services (DMH) have seen a sharp spike in new users since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic. Having little access to their social networks and support systems, people have had to turn to digital tools and spaces to cope with their experiences of anxiety and loss. With no clear end to the pandemic in sight, many of us are likely to remain reliant upon DMH for the foreseeable future. As such, (...)
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  36. Ethics of Digital Contact Tracing and COVID-19: Who is (Not) Free to Go?Michael Klenk & Hein Duijf - 2020 - Ethics and Information Technology 23 (S1):69-77.
    Digital tracing technologies are heralded as an effective way of containing SARS-CoV-2 faster than it is spreading, thereby allowing the possibility of easing draconic measures of population-wide quarantine. But existing technological proposals risk addressing the wrong problem. The proper objective is not solely to maximise the ratio of people freed from quarantine but to also ensure that the composition of the freed group is fair. We identify several factors that pose a risk for fair group composition along with an analysis (...)
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  37. Corona and Value Change. The Role of Social Media and Emotional Contagion.Steffen Steinert - 2020 - Ethics and Information Technology 23 (S1):59-68.
    People share their emotions on social media and evidence suggests that in times of crisis people are especially motivated to post emotional content. The current Coronavirus pandemic is such a crisis. The online sharing of emotional content during the Coronavirus crisis may contribute to societal value change. Emotion sharing via social media could lead to emotional contagion which in turn could facilitate an emotional climate in a society. In turn, the emotional climate of a society can influence society’s value structure. (...)
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  38. Blind-Sided by Privacy? Digital Contact Tracing, the Apple/Google API and Big Tech’s Newfound Role as Global Health Policy Makers.Tamar Sharon - 2020 - Ethics and Information Technology 23 (S1):45-57.
    Since the outbreak of COVID-19, governments have turned their attention to digital contact tracing. In many countries, public debate has focused on the risks this technology poses to privacy, with advocates and experts sounding alarm bells about surveillance and mission creep reminiscent of the post 9/11 era. Yet, when Apple and Google launched their contact tracing API in April 2020, some of the world’s leading privacy experts applauded this initiative for its privacy-preserving technical specifications. In an interesting twist, the tech (...)
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  39. You’Ve Got a Friend in Me: Sociable Robots for Older Adults in an Age of Global Pandemics.Nancy S. Jecker - 2020 - Ethics and Information Technology 23 (S1):35-43.
    Social isolation and loneliness are ongoing threats to health made worse by the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. During the pandemic, half the globe's population have been placed under strict physical distancing orders and many long-term care facilities serving older adults went into lockdown mode, restricting access to all visitors, including family members. Before the pandemic emerged, a 2020 National Academy of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine report warned of the underappreciated adverse effects of social isolation and loneliness on health, especially among (...)
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  40. AI Recruitment Algorithms and the Dehumanization Problem.Megan Fritts & Frank Cabrera - 2021 - Ethics and Information Technology (4):1-11.
    According to a recent survey by the HR Research Institute, as the presence of artificial intelligence (AI) becomes increasingly common in the workplace, HR professionals are worried that the use of recruitment algorithms will lead to a “dehumanization” of the hiring process. Our main goals in this paper are threefold: i) to bring attention to this neglected issue, ii) to clarify what exactly this concern about dehumanization might amount to, and iii) to sketch an argument for why dehumanizing the hiring (...)
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  41. Web-Based School Information and Publication System: A Developmental Study.Kevin Caratiquit - 2021 - Global Education and Social Sciences Journal 1 (3):45-55.
    The study aimed to promote the school online, provide timely, engaging, and current information of the school to employees, learners, parents, and community, share updates of school activities online, supply downloadable instructional materials and resources for both employees and students. Also, it evaluated the assessment of teaching and non-teaching staff, learners, parents and IT specialists to the ISO 25010:2011 software quality standards of the developed Web-based School Information and Publication System along functional and suitability, maintainability, usability, security, reliability, performance efficiency, (...)
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  42. Revocable Anonymisation in Video Surveillance: A ‘Digital Cloak of Invisibility’.Feiten Linus, Sebastian Sester, Christian Zimmermann, Sebastian Weydner-Volkmann, Laura Wehle & Bernd Becker - 2016 - In Technology and Intimacy: Choice or Coercion. HCC 2016. IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology, vol 474. Cham.: pp. 314-327.
    Video surveillance is an omnipresent phenomenon in today’s metropolitan life. Mainly intended to solve crimes, to prevent them by realtime-monitoring or simply as a deterrent, video surveillance has also become interesting in economical contexts; e.g. to create customer profiles and analyse patterns of their shopping behaviour. The extensive use of video surveillance is challenged by legal claims and societal norms like not putting everybody under generalised suspicion or not recording people without their consent. In this work we propose a technological (...)
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  43. Digitale Tarnkappe: Anonymisierung in Videoaufnahmen.Sebastian Weydner-Volkmann, Linus Feiten, Christian Zimmermann, Sebastian Sester, Laura Wehle & Bernd Becker - 2016 - Informatik 2016 – Proceedings der Tagung Vom 26.-30. September 2016 in Klagenfurt.
    Videoüberwachung ist heute allgegenwärtig. Sie dient dazu, Delikte im Nachhinein aufzuklären, zur Echtzeit-Überwachung oder zur Abschreckung. Darüber hinaus gibt es aber auch wirtschaftliche Interessen für eine Videoüberwachung und automatische Erfassung von Personen – z.B. zur Erstellung von Kundenprofilen und somit zur Analyse von Kaufverhalten. Dem gegenüber stehen Rechtsanspruche sowie ethische und gesellschaftliche Grundnormen, etwa dass Menschen nicht unter Generalverdacht gestellt oder ohne Zustimmung aufgezeichnet werden dürfen. In dieser Arbeit wird ein technischer Lösungsansatz behandelt, der eine flexible Handhabung der Videoüberwachung erlaubt. (...)
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  44. Computer Ethics.John Weckert (ed.) - 2007 - Routledge.
    The study of the ethical issues related to computer use developed primarily in the 1980s, although a number of important papers were published in previous decades, many of which are contained in this volume. Computer ethics, as the field became known, flourished in the following decades. The emphasis initially was more on the computing profession: on questions related to the development of systems, the behaviour of computing professionals and so on. Later the focus moved to the Internet and to users (...)
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  45. Information Ethics: On the Philosophical Foundation of Computer Ethics.Luciano Floridi - 2007 - In John Weckert (ed.), Computer Ethics. pp. 63–82.
    The essential difficulty about Computer Ethics’ (CE) philosophical status is a methodological problem: standard ethical theories cannot easily be adapted to deal with CE-problems, which appear to strain their conceptual resources, and CE requires a conceptual foundation as an ethical theory. Information Ethics (IE), the philosophical foundational counterpart of CE, can be seen as a particular case of ‘environmental’ ethics or ethics of the infosphere. What is good for an information entity and the infosphere in general? This is the ethical (...)
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  46. Technikvertrauen. Beiträge zur Technikfolgenabschätzung jenseits von Akzeptanz und Akzeptabilität?Sebastian Weydner-Volkmann - 2021 - Technikfolgenabschätzung – Theorie Und Praxis 30 (2):53-59.
    This article explores the potential for “trust in technology” to make a productive conceptual contribution to the ethical evaluation of technology, complementing the concepts of “acceptance” and “acceptability” already established in technology assessment. It shows that for digital technologies in particular, “trust” can better address aspects of security against attacks as it allows to integrate concepts of IT security. Furthermore, “trustworthy technology” allows for a better inclusion of lay perspectives, since rationally justified trust in the sense of risk expectations can (...)
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  47. Measuring Fairness in an Unfair World.Jonathan Herington - 2020 - Proceedings of AAAI/ACM Conference on AI, Ethics, and Society 2020:286-292.
    Computer scientists have made great strides in characterizing different measures of algorithmic fairness, and showing that certain measures of fairness cannot be jointly satisfied. In this paper, I argue that the three most popular families of measures - unconditional independence, target-conditional independence and classification-conditional independence - make assumptions that are unsustainable in the context of an unjust world. I begin by introducing the measures and the implicit idealizations they make about the underlying causal structure of the contexts in which they (...)
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  48. Does Kindness Towards Robots Lead to Virtue? A Reply to Sparrow’s Asymmetry Argument.Mark Coeckelbergh - 2021 - Ethics and Information Technology 1 (Online first):649-656.
    Does cruel behavior towards robots lead to vice, whereas kind behavior does not lead to virtue? This paper presents a critical response to Sparrow’s argument that there is an asymmetry in the way we (should) think about virtue and robots. It discusses how much we should praise virtue as opposed to vice, how virtue relates to practical knowledge and wisdom, how much illusion is needed for it to be a barrier to virtue, the relation between virtue and consequences, the moral (...)
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  49. AI for Social Good, AI for Datong.Pak-Hang Wong - 2021 - Informatio 26 (1):42-57.
    The Chinese government and technology companies assume a proactive stance towards digital technologies and AI and their roles in users’—and more generally, people’s—lives. This vision of ‘Tech for Good’, i.e., the development of good digital technologies and AI or the application of them for good, is also shared by major technology companies in the globe, e.g., Google, Microsoft, and Facebook. Interestingly, these initiatives have invited a number of critiques for their feasibility and desirability, particularly in relation to the social and (...)
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  50. The Sherry Turkle Miracle.Kristof Nyiri - 2021 - Budapest: Hungarian Academy of Sciences.
    Papers presented at a Hungarian Academy of Sciences online workshop held on May 27, 2021.
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