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  1. Ethics of Identity in the Time of Big Data - Delivered at 25th Annual International Vincentian Business Ethics Conference (IVBEC), 2018, St. John’s University, New York.James Brusseau - manuscript
    According to Facebook’s Mark Zuckerberg, big data reality means, “The days of having a different image for your co-workers and for others are coming to an end, which is good because having multiple identities represents a lack of integrity.” Two sets of questions follow. One centers on technology and asks how big data mechanisms collapse our various selves (work-self, family-self, romantic-self) into one personality. The second question set shifts from technology to ethics by asking whether we want the kind of (...)
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  2. Virtual Reality Interview (Metaphysics and Epistemology): "Welcome Back!".Erick Jose Ramirez & Miles Elliott - manuscript
    This is a virtual reality simulation that imagines its subject as emerging from a long stint in Robert Nozick's "Experience Machine." The simulation is an interview (with many branching paths) meant to gauge the subject's views on the metaphysics of virtual objects and the ethics of virtual actions. It draws heavily from the published work of David Chalmers, Mark Silcox, Jon Cogburn, Morgan Luck, and Nick Bostrom. *Requires an Oculus Rift (or Rift-S) or HTC Vive and a VR capable computer. (...)
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  3. Legal Aspects of Big Data - GDPR.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    The use of Big Data presents significant legal problems, especially in terms of data protection. The existing legal framework of the European Union based in particular on the Directive no. 46/95/EC and the General Regulation on the Protection of Personal Data provide adequate protection. But for Big Data, a comprehensive and global strategy is needed. The evolution over time was from the right to exclude others to the right to control their own data and, at present, to the rethinking of (...)
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  4. Using Technological Frames as an Analytic Tool in Value Sensitive Design.Christiane Grünloh - forthcoming - Ethics and Information Technology.
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  5. Using Agent-Based Simulations to Address Value Tensions in Design.Maaike Harbers - forthcoming - Ethics and Information Technology.
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  6. Coding the Dictatorship of ‘the They:’ A Phenomenological Critique of Digital Rights Management.Gordon Hull - forthcoming - In J. Jeremy Wisnewski Mark Sanders (ed.), Ethics and Phenomenology. Lexington Books.
    This paper uses Heidegger’s discussion of artifacts in Being and Time to motivate a phenomenological critique of Digital Rights Management regimes such as the one that allows DVDs to require one to watch commercials and copyright notices. In the first section, I briefly sketch traditional ethical approaches to intellectual property and indicate the gap that a phenomenological approach can fill. In section 2, following Heidegger’s discussion in Being and Time, I analyze DRM technologies as exemplary of the breakdown of things (...)
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  7. A Matter of Trust: : Higher Education Institutions as Information Fiduciaries in an Age of Educational Data Mining and Learning Analytics.Kyle M. L. Jones, Alan Rubel & Ellen LeClere - forthcoming - JASIST: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology.
    Higher education institutions are mining and analyzing student data to effect educational, political, and managerial outcomes. Done under the banner of “learning analytics,” this work can—and often does—surface sensitive data and information about, inter alia, a student’s demographics, academic performance, offline and online movements, physical fitness, mental wellbeing, and social network. With these data, institutions and third parties are able to describe student life, predict future behaviors, and intervene to address academic or other barriers to student success (however defined). Learning (...)
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  8. Agile Ethics: An Iterative and Flexible Approach to Assessing Ethical, Legal and Social Issues in the Agile Development of Crisis Management Information Systems.Inga Kroener, David Barnard-Wills & Julia Muraszkiewicz - forthcoming - Ethics and Information Technology.
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  9. Arduino and Access: Value Tensions in the Maker Movement.Nick Logler - forthcoming - Ethics and Information Technology.
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  10. Automated Influence and the Challenge of Cognitive Security.Sarah Rajtmajer & Daniel Susser - forthcoming - HoTSoS: ACM Symposium on Hot Topics in the Science of Security.
    Advances in AI are powering increasingly precise and widespread computational propaganda, posing serious threats to national security. The military and intelligence communities are starting to discuss ways to engage in this space, but the path forward is still unclear. These developments raise pressing ethical questions, about which existing ethics frameworks are silent. Understanding these challenges through the lens of “cognitive security,” we argue, offers a promising approach.
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  11. Corporatised Identities ≠ Digital Identities: Algorithmic Filtering on Social Media and the Commercialisation of Presentations of Self.Charlie Harry Smith - forthcoming - In Christopher Burr & Luciano Floridi (eds.), Ethics of Digital Well-being: A Multidisciplinary Approach. Springer.
    Goffman’s (1959) dramaturgical identity theory requires modification when theorising about presentations of self on social media. This chapter contributes to these efforts, refining a conception of digital identities by differentiating them from ‘corporatised identities’. Armed with this new distinction, I ultimately argue that social media platforms’ production of corporatised identities undermines their users’ autonomy and digital well-being. This follows from the disentanglement of several commonly conflated concepts. Firstly, I distinguish two kinds of presentation of self that I collectively refer to (...)
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  12. An Analysis For A Just Cyber Warfare.Mariarosaria Taddeo - forthcoming - In Warfare. Fourth International Conference of Cyber Conflict. NATO CCD COE and IEEE Publication.
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  13. Design for Value Change.Ibo van de Poel - forthcoming - Ethics and Information Technology.
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  14. The Philosophical Basis of Algorithmic Recourse.Suresh Venkatasubramanian & Mark Alfano - forthcoming - Fairness, Accountability, and Transparency Conference 2020.
    Philosophers have established that certain ethically important val- ues are modally robust in the sense that they systematically deliver correlative benefits across a range of counterfactual scenarios. In this paper, we contend that recourse – the systematic process of reversing unfavorable decisions by algorithms and bureaucracies across a range of counterfactual scenarios – is such a modally ro- bust good. In particular, we argue that two essential components of a good life – temporally extended agency and trust – are under- (...)
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  15. Strategy Mapping: A Method for Making Value Tensions Explicit in Design and Deployment of IT Systems.Åke Walldius - forthcoming - Ethics and Information Technology.
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  16. Twenty Years of Value Sensitive Design: A Review of Methodological Practices in VSD Projects. [REVIEW]Till Winkler & Sarah Spiekermann - forthcoming - Ethics and Information Technology.
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  17. Stakeholder Tokens: A Constructive Method for Value Sensitive Design Stakeholder Analysis.Daisy Yoo - forthcoming - Ethics and Information Technology.
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  18. Where the Stakeholders Are: Tapping Into Social Media During Value-Sensitive Design Research.Annuska Zolyomi - forthcoming - Ethics and Information Technology.
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  19. Infringing Software Property Rights: Ontological, Methodological, and Ethical Questions.Nicola Angius & Giuseppe Primiero - 2020 - Philosophy and Technology 33 (2):283-308.
    This paper contributes to the computer ethics debate on software ownership protection by examining the ontological, methodological, and ethical problems related to property right infringement that should come prior to any legal discussion. The ontological problem consists in determining precisely what it is for a computer program to be a copy of another one, a largely neglected problem in computer ethics. The methodological problem is defined as the difficulty of deciding whether a given software system is a copy of another (...)
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  20. Video Games, Violence, and the Ethics of Fantasy: Killing Time.Christopher Bartel - 2020 - London: Bloomsbury Academic.
    Is it ever morally wrong to enjoy fantasizing about immoral things? Many video games allow players to commit numerous violent and immoral acts. But, should players worry about the morality of their virtual actions? A common argument is that games offer merely the virtual representation of violence. No one is actually harmed by committing a violent act in a game. So, it cannot be morally wrong to perform such acts. While this is an intuitive argument, it does not resolve the (...)
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  21. The Ethics of Smart City (EoSC): Moral Implications of Hyperconnectivity, Algorithmization and the Datafication of Urban Digital Society.Patrici Calvo - 2020 - Ethics and Information Technology 22 (2):141-149.
    Cities, such as industry or the universities, are immersed in a process of digital transformation generated by the possibility and technological convergence of the Internet of Things, Big Data and Artificial Intelligence and its consequences: hyperconnectivity, datafication and algorithmization. A process of transformation towards what has come to be called as Smart Cities. The aim of this paper is to show the impacts and consequences of digital connectivity, algorithmization and the datafication of urban digital society to outline possible ways of (...)
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  22. The Ethical Limits of Blockchain-Enabled Markets for Private IoT Data.Georgy Ishmaev - 2020 - Philosophy and Technology 33 (3):411-432.
    This paper looks at the development of blockchain technologies that promise to bring new tools for the management of private data, providing enhanced security and privacy to individuals. Particular interest present solutions aimed at reorganizing data flows in the Internet of Things architectures, enabling the secure and decentralized exchange of data between network participants. However, as this paper argues, the promised benefits are counterbalanced by a significant shift towards the propertization of private data, underlying these proposals. Considering the unique capacity (...)
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  23. Presumptuous Aim Attribution, Conformity, and the Ethics of Artificial Social Cognition.Owen C. King - 2020 - Ethics and Information Technology 22 (1):25-37.
    Imagine you are casually browsing an online bookstore, looking for an interesting novel. Suppose the store predicts you will want to buy a particular novel: the one most chosen by people of your same age, gender, location, and occupational status. The store recommends the book, it appeals to you, and so you choose it. Central to this scenario is an automated prediction of what you desire. This article raises moral concerns about such predictions. More generally, this article examines the ethics (...)
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  24. Splintering the Gamer’s Dilemma: Moral Intuitions, Motivational Assumptions, and Action Prototypes.Jens Kjeldgaard-Christiansen - 2020 - Ethics and Information Technology 22 (1):93-102.
    The gamer’s dilemma :31–36, 2009) asks whether any ethical features distinguish virtual pedophilia, which is generally considered impermissible, from virtual murder, which is generally considered permissible. If not, this equivalence seems to force one of two conclusions: either both virtual pedophilia and virtual murder are permissible, or both virtual pedophilia and virtual murder are impermissible. In this article, I attempt, first, to explain the psychological basis of the dilemma. I argue that the two different action types picked out by “virtual (...)
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  25. Excavating “Excavating AI”: The Elephant in the Gallery.Michael J. Lyons - 2020 - arXiv 2009:1-15.
    Two art exhibitions, “Training Humans” and “Making Faces,” and the accompanying essay “Excavating AI: The politics of images in machine learning training sets” by Kate Crawford and Trevor Paglen, are making substantial impact on discourse taking place in the social and mass media networks, and some scholarly circles. Critical scrutiny reveals, however, a self-contradictory stance regarding informed consent for the use of facial images, as well as serious flaws in their critique of ML training sets. Our analysis underlines the non-negotiability (...)
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  26. Algorithms, Agency, and Respect for Persons.Alan Rubel, Clinton Castro & Adam Pham - 2020 - Social Theory and Practice 46 (3):547-572.
    Algorithmic systems and predictive analytics play an increasingly important role in various aspects of modern life. Scholarship on the moral ramifications of such systems is in its early stages, and much of it focuses on bias and harm. This paper argues that in understanding the moral salience of algorithmic systems it is essential to understand the relation between algorithms, autonomy, and agency. We draw on several recent cases in criminal sentencing and K–12 teacher evaluation to outline four key ways in (...)
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  27. Measuring Morality in Videogames Research.Malcolm Ryan, Paul Formosa, Stephanie Howarth & Dan Staines - 2020 - Ethics and Information Technology 22 (1):55-68.
    There has been a recent surge of research interest in videogames of moral engagement for entertainment, advocacy and education. We have seen a wealth of analysis and several theoretical models proposed, but experimental evaluation has been scarce. One of the difficulties lies in the measurement of moral engagement. How do we meaningfully measure whether players are engaging with and affected by the moral choices in the games they play? In this paper, we survey the various standard psychometric instruments from the (...)
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  28. Revisiting the Belmont Report’s Ethical Principles in Internet-Mediated Research: Perspectives From Disciplinary Associations in the Social Sciences.Icy Fresno Anabo, Iciar Elexpuru-Albizuri & Lourdes Villardón-Gallego - 2019 - Ethics and Information Technology 21 (2):137-149.
    The purpose of this article is to illuminate the conceptualisations and applications of the Belmont Report’s key ethical principles of respect for persons, beneficence, and justice based on a document analysis of five of the most relevant disciplinary guidelines on internet research in the social sciences. These seminal documents are meant to provide discipline-specific guidance for research design and implementation and are regarded as key references when conducting research online. Our analysis revealed that the principles of respect and beneficence were (...)
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  29. Digital Health Fiduciaries: Protecting User Privacy When Sharing Health Data.Chirag Arora - 2019 - Ethics and Information Technology 21 (3):181-196.
    Wearable self-tracking devices capture multidimensional health data and offer several advantages including new ways of facilitating research. However, they also create a conflict between individual interests of avoiding privacy harms, and collective interests of assembling and using large health data sets for public benefits. While some scholars argue for transparency and accountability mechanisms to resolve this conflict, an average user is not adequately equipped to access and process information relating to the consequences of consenting to further uses of her data. (...)
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  30. The Moral Limits of the Market: The Case of Consumer Scoring Data.Clinton Castro & Adam Pham - 2019 - Ethics and Information Technology 21 (2):117-126.
    We offer an ethical assessment of the market for data used to generate what are sometimes called “consumer scores” (i.e., numerical expressions that are used to describe or predict people’s dispositions and behavior), and we argue that the assessment has ethical implications on how the market for consumer scoring data should be regulated. To conduct the assessment, we employ two heuristics for evaluating markets. One is the “harm” criterion, which relates to whether the market produces serious harms, either for participants (...)
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  31. Advancing the Ethical Use of Digital Data in Human Research: Challenges and Strategies to Promote Ethical Practice.Karin Clark, Matt Duckham, Marilys Guillemin, Assunta Hunter, Jodie McVernon, Christine O’Keefe, Cathy Pitkin, Steven Prawer, Richard Sinnott, Deborah Warr & Jenny Waycott - 2019 - Ethics and Information Technology 21 (1):59-73.
    The proliferation of digital data and internet-based research technologies is transforming the research landscape, and researchers and research ethics communities are struggling to respond to the ethical issues being raised. This paper discusses the findings from a collaborative project that explored emerging ethical issues associated with the expanding use of digital data for research. The project involved consulting with researchers from a broad range of disciplinary fields. These discussions identified five key sets of issues and informed the development of guidelines (...)
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  32. Planning for Ethical Agent-Agent Interaction.Jesse David Dinneen - 2019 - Good Systems: Ethical AI for CSCW, Workshop at CSCW '19: ACM SIGCHI Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work.
    In this position paper for the 2019 CSCW workshop Good Systems: Ethical AI for CSCW I propose one tool and one idea for navigating the complex ethical problem space that results from the interaction of human and/or AI agents in shared, hopefully cooperative, computing environments.
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  33. Democratizing Cognitive Technology: A Proactive Approach.Marcello Ienca - 2019 - Ethics and Information Technology 21 (4):267-280.
    Cognitive technology is an umbrella term sometimes used to designate the realm of technologies that assist, augment or simulate cognitive processes or that can be used for the achievement of cognitive aims. This technological macro-domain encompasses both devices that directly interface the human brain as well as external systems that use artificial intelligence to simulate or assist human cognition. As they hold the promise of assisting and augmenting human cognitive capabilities both individually and collectively, cognitive technologies could produce, in the (...)
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  34. Reassessing Values for Emerging Big Data Technologies: Integrating Design-Based and Application-Based Approaches.Karolina La Fors, Bart Custers & Esther Keymolen - 2019 - Ethics and Information Technology 21 (3):209-226.
    Through the exponential growth in digital devices and computational capabilities, big data technologies are putting pressure upon the boundaries of what can or cannot be considered acceptable from an ethical perspective. Much of the literature on ethical issues related to big data and big data technologies focuses on separate values such as privacy, human dignity, justice or autonomy. More holistic approaches, allowing a more comprehensive view and better balancing of values, usually focus on either a design-based approach, in which it (...)
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  35. Augmented Reality, Augmented Ethics: Who has the Right to Augment a Particular Physical Space?Erica L. Neely - 2019 - Ethics and Information Technology 21 (1):11-18.
    Augmented reality blends the virtual and physical worlds such that the virtual content experienced by a user of AR technology depends on the user’s geographical location. Games such as Pokémon GO and technologies such as HoloLens are introducing an increasing number of people to augmented reality. AR technologies raise a number of ethical concerns; I focus on ethical rights surrounding the augmentation of a particular physical space. To address this I distinguish public and private spaces; I also separate the case (...)
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  36. The Ethics of Uncertainty for Data Subjects.Philip Nickel - 2019 - In Jenny Krutzinna & Luciano Floridi (eds.), The Ethics of Medical Data Donation. Springer Verlag. pp. 55-74.
    Modern health data practices come with many practical uncertainties. In this paper, I argue that data subjects’ trust in the institutions and organizations that control their data, and their ability to know their own moral obligations in relation to their data, are undermined by significant uncertainties regarding the what, how, and who of mass data collection and analysis. I conclude by considering how proposals for managing situations of high uncertainty might be applied to this problem. These emphasize increasing organizational flexibility, (...)
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  37. The Value Alignment Problem: A Geometric Approach.Martin Peterson - 2019 - Ethics and Information Technology 21 (1):19-28.
    Stuart Russell defines the value alignment problem as follows: How can we build autonomous systems with values that “are aligned with those of the human race”? In this article I outline some distinctions that are useful for understanding the value alignment problem and then propose a solution: I argue that the methods currently applied by computer scientists for embedding moral values in autonomous systems can be improved by representing moral principles as conceptual spaces, i.e. as Voronoi tessellations of morally similar (...)
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  38. Ethical Challenges of Edtech, Big Data and Personalized Learning: Twenty-First Century Student Sorting and Tracking.Priscilla M. Regan & Jolene Jesse - 2019 - Ethics and Information Technology 21 (3):167-179.
    With the increase in the costs of providing education and concerns about financial responsibility, heightened consideration of accountability and results, elevated awareness of the range of teacher skills and student learning styles and needs, more focus is being placed on the promises offered by online software and educational technology. One of the most heavily marketed, exciting and controversial applications of edtech involves the varied educational programs to which different students are exposed based on how big data applications have evaluated their (...)
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  39. Serendipity as an Emerging Design Principle of the Infosphere: Challenges and Opportunities.Urbano Reviglio - 2019 - Ethics and Information Technology 21 (2):151-166.
    Underestimated for a long time, serendipity is an increasingly recognized design principle of the infosphere. Being influenced by environmental and human factors, the experience of serendipity encompasses fundamental phases of production, distribution and consumption of information. On the one hand, design information architectures for serendipity increases the diversity of information encountered as well as users’ control over information processes. On the other hand, serendipity is a capability. It helps individuals to internalize and adopt strategies that increase the chances of experiencing (...)
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  40. Agency Laundering and Algorithmic Decision Systems.Alan Rubel, Adam Pham & Clinton Castro - 2019 - In N. Taylor, C. Christian-Lamb, M. Martin & B. Nardi (eds.), Information in Contemporary Society (Lecture Notes in Computer Science) (Proceedings of the 2019 iConference). Springer Nature. pp. 590-598.
    This paper has two aims. The first is to explain a type of wrong that arises when agents obscure responsibility for their actions. Call it “agency laundering.” The second is to use the concept of agency laundering to understand the underlying moral issues in a number of recent cases involving algorithmic decision systems. From the Proceedings of the 14th International Conference, iConference 2019, Washington D.C., March 31-April 3, 2019.
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  41. Playing Around With Morality: Introducing the Special Issue on “Morality Play”.Malcolm Ryan, Paul Formosa & Rowan Tulloch - 2019 - Games and Culture 14 (4):299–305.
    This special issue of Games and Culture focuses on the intersection between video games and ethics. This introduction briefly sets out the key research questions in the research field and identifies trends in the articles included in this special issue.
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  42. Getting Away with Murder: Why Virtual Murder in MMORPGs Can Be Wrong on Kantian Grounds.Helen Ryland - 2019 - Ethics and Information Technology (2).
    Ali (Ethics and Information Technology 17:267–274, 2015) and McCormick (Ethics and Information Technology 3:277–287, 2001) claim that virtual murders are objectionable when they show inappropriate engagement with the game or bad sportsmanship. McCormick argues that such virtual murders cannot be wrong on Kantian grounds because virtual murders only violate indirect moral duties, and bad sportsmanship is shown across competitive sports in the same way. To condemn virtual murder on grounds of bad sportsmanship, we would need to also condemn other competitive (...)
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  43. Data Science Ethical Considerations: A Systematic Literature Review and Proposed Project Framework.Jeffrey S. Saltz & Neil Dewar - 2019 - Ethics and Information Technology 21 (3):197-208.
    Data science, and the related field of big data, is an emerging discipline involving the analysis of data to solve problems and develop insights. This rapidly growing domain promises many benefits to both consumers and businesses. However, the use of big data analytics can also introduce many ethical concerns, stemming from, for example, the possible loss of privacy or the harming of a sub-category of the population via a classification algorithm. To help address these potential ethical challenges, this paper maps (...)
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  44. Notice After Notice-and-Consent: Why Privacy Disclosures Are Valuable Even If Consent Frameworks Aren’T.Daniel Susser - 2019 - Journal of Information Policy 9:37-62.
    The dominant legal and regulatory approach to protecting information privacy is a form of mandated disclosure commonly known as “notice-and-consent.” Many have criticized this approach, arguing that privacy decisions are too complicated, and privacy disclosures too convoluted, for individuals to make meaningful consent decisions about privacy choices—decisions that often require us to waive important rights. While I agree with these criticisms, I argue that they only meaningfully call into question the “consent” part of notice-and-consent, and that they say little about (...)
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  45. Embedded Ethics: Some Technical and Ethical Challenges.Vincent Bonnemains, Claire Saurel & Catherine Tessier - 2018 - Ethics and Information Technology 20 (1):41-58.
    This paper pertains to research works aiming at linking ethics and automated reasoning in autonomous machines. It focuses on a formal approach that is intended to be the basis of an artificial agent’s reasoning that could be considered by a human observer as an ethical reasoning. The approach includes some formal tools to describe a situation and models of ethical principles that are designed to automatically compute a judgement on possible decisions that can be made in a given situation and (...)
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  46. Patiency is Not a Virtue: The Design of Intelligent Systems and Systems of Ethics.Joanna J. Bryson - 2018 - Ethics and Information Technology 20 (1):15-26.
    The question of whether AI systems such as robots can or should be afforded moral agency or patiency is not one amenable either to discovery or simple reasoning, because we as societies constantly reconstruct our artefacts, including our ethical systems. Consequently, the place of AI systems in society is a matter of normative, not descriptive ethics. Here I start from a functionalist assumption, that ethics is the set of behaviour that maintains a society. This assumption allows me to exploit the (...)
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  47. How to Describe and Evaluate “Deception” Phenomena: Recasting the Metaphysics, Ethics, and Politics of ICTs in Terms of Magic and Performance and Taking a Relational and Narrative Turn.Mark Coeckelbergh - 2018 - Ethics and Information Technology 20 (2):71-85.
    Contemporary ICTs such as speaking machines and computer games tend to create illusions. Is this ethically problematic? Is it deception? And what kind of “reality” do we presuppose when we talk about illusion in this context? Inspired by work on similarities between ICT design and the art of magic and illusion, responding to literature on deception in robot ethics and related fields, and briefly considering the issue in the context of the history of machines, this paper discusses these questions through (...)
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  48. Computer Simulations in Science and Engineering. Concept, Practices, Perspectives.Juan Manuel Durán - 2018 - Springer.
  49. From Dignity to Security Protocols: A Scientometric Analysis of Digital Ethics.René Mahieu, Nees Jan van Eck, David van Putten & Jeroen van den Hoven - 2018 - Ethics and Information Technology 20 (3):175-187.
    Our lives are increasingly intertwined with the digital realm, and with new technology, new ethical problems emerge. The academic field that addresses these problems—which we tentatively call ‘digital ethics’—can be an important intellectual resource for policy making and regulation. This is why it is important to understand how the new ethical challenges of a digital society are being met by academic research. We have undertaken a scientometric analysis to arrive at a better understanding of the nature, scope and dynamics of (...)
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  50. Зародження теорії і практики нових медіа: проекти Алана Кея і Теда Нельсона.Oleksandr Mandelina - 2018 - NaUKMA Research Papers. History and Theory of Culture 1:11-16.
    Мета статті – з’ясувати концептуальний контекст виникнення нових медіа. Задля цього здійснено огляд ключових для нових медіа ідей Алана Кея та Теда Нельсона, а саме: перетворення комп’ютера на персональний метамедіум за допомогою користувацького інферфейсу та ідеї гіпертексту. Підкреслено, що створення медіа на базі комп’ютерних технологій супроводжувалось впливом медіа-теорії Маклюена та поєднанням технічного і гуманітарного дискурсів. Від початку створення нових медіа осмислювалась їхня метапозиція щодо традиційних медіа через здатність перших до симуляції наявних медіа-форм та створення нових. Теоретичні підвалини нових медіа як (...)
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