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  1. N. D. B. (1961). Leviathan. Review of Metaphysics 15 (1):195-195.
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  2. Izabela Bondecka-Krzykowska (2012). Remarks on Ontology of Virtual Reality. Filozofia Nauki 20 (4).
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  3. Paul L. Borrill & Leigh Tesfatsion (2011). Agent-Based Modeling: The Right Mathematics for the Social Sciences? In J. B. Davis & D. W. Hands (eds.), Elgar Companion to Recent Economic Methodology. Edward Elgar Publishers. pp. 228.
    This study provides a basic introduction to agent-based modeling (ABM) as a powerful blend of classical and constructive mathematics, with a primary focus on its applicability for social science research. The typical goals of ABM social science researchers are discussed along with the culture-dish nature of their computer experiments. The applicability of ABM for science more generally is also considered, with special attention to physics. Finally, two distinct types of ABM applications are summarized in order to illustrate concretely the duality (...)
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  4. Michael Braund & Daniel Hambleton (2011). Dragonfly: An Ecological Approach to Digital Architectural Design. In J. M. Taron, V. Parlac, B. Kolarevic & J. S. Johnson (eds.), ACADIA: Integration through Computation.
    In his keynote address delivered to The American Society for Esthetics in 1976, James J. Gibson wrote, “Architecture and design do not have a satisfactory theoretical basis.” He then asked, “Can an ecological approach to the psychology of perception and behavior provide it?” (1976, p. 413) We believe that it can, at least in part. In this paper, we expand upon Gibson’s insights into the nature of perceptual experience by applying the concept of “affordances” to the design of architectural objects (...)
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  5. Malcolm Kirk Cecil, Simulation and the Digital Refiguring of Culture.
    This thesis elaborates on existing definitions and descriptions of simulation to develop an extended, inter-disciplinary concept of simulation that serves as an orienting model for the interpretation of culture. As cultural theory, simulation offers insights into the stabilization and propagation of cultural forms. Used descriptively, the metaphor of simulation throws into definition a cultural pattern of progressive formalization through increasingly sophisticated methods of abstraction. I find evidence of the pattern at many levels of analysis; metaphysical, social and micro-social, particularly at (...)
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  6. Roberto Diodato (2012). Interfacce virtuali. Aisthesis. Pratiche, Linguaggi E Saperi Dell’Estetico 5.
    The essay concerns the notion of interface. From theoretical point of view, interface is a virtual environment develops in the interaction with a user; in this context “virtual” means the dynamic configuration of forces which have the intrinsic tendency of being actualised in a form not entirely pre-existing. The virtual in this case has to do with Aesthetics and its present status as discipline, since it is a field of continuous formal invention and of a particular type of interaction author/user (...)
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  7. Alan Dorin, Virtual Animals in Virtual Environments.
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  8. Juan M. Durán (forthcoming). Computer Simulations as a Technological Singularity in the Empirical Sciences. In Jim Miller, Roman Yampolskiy, Stuart Armstrong & Vic Callaghan (eds.), The technological singularity: A pragmatic perspective.
  9. Juan M. Durán (forthcoming). Sobre la noción filosófica de simulación computacional. Argumentos de Razón Técnica.
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  10. Juan M. Durán (2013). A Brief Overview of the Philosophical Study of Computer Simulations. American Philosophical Association Newsletter on Philosophy and Computers 13 (1):38-46.
  11. Charles Ess & May Thorseth (eds.) (2011). Trust and Virtual Worlds. Peter Lang.
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  12. David M. Frisch, Proceduralizing Privilege: Designing Shakespeare in Virtual Reality and the Problem with the Canon.
    This thesis focuses on the development of the first project for FIU’s ICAVE, The Globe Experience, presented as part of the “First Folio! The Book That Gave Us Shakespeare” exhibit during February, 2016. The thesis is divided into two parts. The first part is the project itself: a virtual reality recreation of going to The Globe Theater to see a play by William Shakespeare. The second part examines the digital project and outlines how Walter Benjamin and postcolonial theorists influenced the (...)
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  13. Mark Halpern (2008). Paradox Lost: The Cost of a Virtual World. Ontology Studies: Cuadernos de Ontología:165-187.
    This paper touches on a number of seemingly disparate topics—Artificial Intelligence, Fuzzy Logic, String Theory, the search for extra-terrestrial intelligence, the Cantorian concept of infinite sets—in order to support the thesis that for a large part of the educated public in the Western world, the very concept of reality has been changing over the last few generations, and that the change is being accelerated by our increasing acceptance of the Virtual as a substitute for the traditional Real. This, as I (...)
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  14. Justin L. Harmon & Silvia Benso (eds.) (2013). Aesthetics of the Virtual. State University of New York Press.
    _Reconfigures classic aesthetic concepts in relation to the novelty introduced by virtual bodies._.
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  15. Justin L. Harmon & Silvia Benso (eds.) (2012). Aesthetics of the Virtual. State University of New York Press.
    _Reconfigures classic aesthetic concepts in relation to the novelty introduced by virtual bodies._.
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  16. Jesse Hunter, The Virtual Stage : Play, Drama, and Agency in Communications.
    This dissertation responds to a recent zeitgeist and climate of controversy surrounding issues of "virtuality" and "simulation" Such terms are treated as problematic and essentially contested when framed in reference to notions of a fixed observable "reality" rather than considered in terms of socially constructed facts, relationships and identities. The concept of the "virtual stage" advanced in this thesis, refers to the current historical moment in communications technology development as well as to the dramaturgical perspective which informs the theoretical approach (...)
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  17. Jeffrey Jacobson & Lynn Holden (2007). Virtual Heritage. Techné: Research in Philosophy and Technology 10 (3):55-61.
    Virtual Heritage is the use of electronic media to recreate or interpret culture and cultural artifacts as they are today or as they might have been in the past. By definition, VH applications employ some kind of three dimensional representation; the means used to display it range from still photos to immersive Virtual Reality. Virtual Heritage is a very active area of research and development in both the academic and the commercial realms.. Most VH applications are intended forsome kind of (...)
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  18. David Kirsh (1998). Adaptable Rooms, Virtual Collaboration and Cognitive Workflow. Cooperative Buildings - Integrating Information, Organization, and Architecture.
    This paper introduces the concept of Adaptive Rooms, which are virtual environments able to dynamically adapt to users’ needs, including ‘physical’ and cognitive workflow requirements, number of users, differing cognitive abilities and skills. Adaptive rooms are collections of virtual objects, many of them self-transforming objects, housed in an architecturally active room with information spaces and tools. An ontology of objects used in adap- tive rooms is presented. Virtual entities are classified as passive, reactive, ac- tive, and information entities, and their (...)
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  19. David Kirsh (1998). Adaptable Rooms, Virtual Collaboration and Cognitive Workflow. Lecture Notes in Computer Science.
    This paper introduces the concept of Adaptive Rooms, which are virtual environments able to dynamically adapt to users’ needs, including ‘physical’ and cognitive workflow requirements, number of users, differing cognitive abilities and skills. Adaptive rooms are collections of virtual objects, many of them self-transforming objects, housed in an architecturally active room with information spaces and tools. An ontology of objects used in adap- tive rooms is presented. Virtual entities are classified as passive, reactive, ac- tive, and information entities, and their (...)
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  20. David Kirsh, T. Elvins & D. Nadeau (1997). Worldlets, 3D Thumbnails for Wayfinding in Virtual Environments. UIST 97 ACM Press:21-30.
    Virtual environment landmarks are essential in wayfinding: they anchor routes through a region and provide memorable destinations to return to later. Current virtual environment browsers provide user interface menus that characterize available travel destinations via landmark textual descriptions or thumbnail images. Such characterizations lack the depth cues and context needed to reliably recognize 3D landmarks. This paper introduces a new user interface affordance that captures a 3D representation of a virtual environment landmark into a 3D thumbnail, called a worldlet. Each (...)
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  21. Mary Anderlik Majumder (2005). Cyberbanks and Other Virtual Research Repositories. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 33 (1):31-39.
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  22. Ilkka Maunu Niiniluoto (2011). Virtual Worlds, Fiction, and Reality. Discusiones Filosóficas 12 (19):13 - 28.
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  23. A. T. Nuyen, Faking the Real and Realizing the Fake: From Virtual Reality to Hyperreality.
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  24. Yukiko Okamoto (2008). Fundamental Problem of Digital Interaction. Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 35:37-42.
    The promised open space of cyber-interaction has its dark side hidden behind its brilliant rhetoric. The danger emerges within the very center of developing this technology (cyber-evolution). That is a more fundamental danger than this dark side seems to have. The possible replacement of our primary reality with virtual reality might erode the significance of our existential reality. This means also that the virtual reality might lose its own ground to be constructed. In order to clarify this fundamental problem at (...)
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  25. Matthew W. Parker (2009). Computing the Uncomputable; or, The Discrete Charm of Second-Order Simulacra. Synthese 169 (3):447-463.
    We examine a case in which non-computable behavior in a model is revealed by computer simulation. This is possible due to differing notions of computability for sets in a continuous space. The argument originally given for the validity of the simulation involves a simpler simulation of the simulation, still further simulations thereof, and a universality conjecture. There are difficulties with that argument, but there are other, heuristic arguments supporting the qualitative results. It is urged, using this example, that absolute validation, (...)
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  26. John L. Pollock (2008). What Am I? Virtual Machines and the Mind/Body Problem. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 76 (2):237–309.
    When your word processor or email program is running on your computer, this creates a "virtual machine” that manipulates windows, files, text, etc. What is this virtual machine, and what are the virtual objects it manipulates? Many standard arguments in the philosophy of mind have exact analogues for virtual machines and virtual objects, but we do not want to draw the wild metaphysical conclusions that have sometimes tempted philosophers in the philosophy of mind. A computer file is not made of (...)
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  27. P. Queau & B. McGeoch (1998). Virtual Multiplicities. Diogenes 46 (183):107-116.
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  28. K. J. Salsbery (2000). Philip Zhai, Get Real: A Philosophical Adventure in Virtual Reality. Philosophy in Review 20 (4):307-309.
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  29. Schnieder (1995). Virtual Environments and the Future of Human-Computer Interfaces: The Electronic Frontier in Social Context. Journal of Intelligent Systems 5 (2-4):111-124.
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  30. Rob Shields (2002). The Virtual. Routledge.
    This book looks at the origins and the many contemporary meanings of the virtual. Rob Shields shows how the construction of virtual worlds has a long history. He examines the many forms of faith and hysteria that have surrounded computer technologies in recent years. Moving beyond the technologies themselves he shows how the virtual plays a role in our daily lives at every level. The virtual is also an essential concept needed to manage innovation and risk. It is real but (...)
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  31. Barry Smith (2015). Towards a Science of Emerging Media. In J. E. Katz & J. Floyd (eds.), Philosophy of Emerging Media: Understanding, Appreciation and Application. Oxford University Press. pp. 29-48.
    If media studies are to become established as a genuine science, then it needs to be determined what the subject matter of this science is to be. I propose a specification of this subject matter as consisting in: 1. the new sorts of digital entities that have been added to social reality through the invention of the digital computer, and 2. the new sorts of interactions involving human beings which such entities make possible. I support this proposal by examining examples (...)
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  32. Christa Sommerer & Laurent Mignonneau (1997). Interacting with Artificial Life: A‐Volve: Linking Human Design and Interaction to the Virtual World. Complexity 2 (6):13-21.
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  33. Robert Scott Stewart & Roderick Nicholls (2002). Virtual Worlds, Travel, and the Picturesque Garden. Philosophy and Geography 5 (1):83 – 99.
    Debate concerning virtual reality is often drawn in terms of sharply defined dichotomies--for example, between "real" (or "actual") and "virtual," "authentic" and "inauthentic," and "natural" and "artificial." In this paper we offer an alternative approach by suggesting a conception of a virtual world that highlights a continuity and commonality with our sense of everyday reality. We accomplish this in part by an examination of the English picturesque garden as if it were a virtual world partially constructed out of ideas and (...)
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  34. John Strain (2007). Ethics in the Virtual World. Journal of Information, Communication and Ethics in Society 5 (1):4-6.
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  35. Nobuyoshi Terashima & John Tiffin (eds.) (2001). Hyperreality: Paradigm for the Third Millenium. Routledge.
    _'HyperReality is a technological capability like nanotechnology, human cloning and artificial intelligence. Like them, it does not as yet exist in the sense of being clearly demonstrable and publicly available. Like them, it is maturing in laboratories where the question "if" has been replaced by the question "when?" and like them, the implications of its appearance as a basic infrastructure technology are profound and merit careful consideration.'_ - _Nobuyoshi Terashima_ _What comes after the Internet?_ Imagine a world where it is (...)
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  36. Kurt Vanhoutte & Nele Wynants (2011). Performing Phenomenology: Negotiating Presence in Intermedial Theatre. [REVIEW] Foundations of Science 16 (2):275-284.
    This paper analyzes from a pragmatic postphenomenological point of view the performative practice of CREW, a multi-disciplinary team of artists and researchers. It is our argument that this company, in its use of new immersive technologies in the context of a live stage, gives rise to a dialectics between an embodied and a disembodied perspective towards the perceived world. We will focus on W (Double U), a collaborative interactive performance, where immersive technology is used for live exchange of vision. By (...)
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  37. Franck Varenne (2009). Simulation informatique et pluriformalisation des objets composites. Philosophia Scientae 13:135-154.
    A recent evolution of computer simulations has led to the emergence of complex computer simulations. In particular, the need to formalize composite objects (those objects that are composed of other objects) has led to what the author suggests calling pluriformalizations, i.e. formalizations that are based on distinct sub-models which are expressed in a variety of heterogeneous symbolic languages. With the help of four case-studies, he shows that such pluriformalizations enable to formalize distinctly but simultaneously either different aspects or different parts (...)
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  38. Benjamin Woolley (1992). Virtual Worlds: A Journey in Hype and Hyperreality. Blackwell.
    In Virtual Worlds, Benjamin Woolley examines the reality of virtual reality.
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  39. Eva Zackova (2011). Humans as Products of Artificial Experience? Filozofia 66 (5):469-474.
    The “immersion conception” concerned with the virtual reality was discussed and criticised mainly in the 1990's. However, there were anticipations of the impendent creation of the tools for reality simulation and of the following preference of such reality at the expense of “basic” reality. An individual was meant to be shaped by the artificial experience of virtual world. The “immersion conception” has been overcome due to new relationships between humans and computers and by different “augmentation” conceptions corresponding much more to (...)
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Simulation and Reality
  1. Marcus Arvan (2015). The Peer-to-Peer Simulation Hypothesis and a New Theory of Free Will. Scientia Salon.
  2. Uziel Awret (2012). Introduction to Singularity Edition of JCS. Journal of Consciousness Studies 19 (1-2):7-15.
  3. Alexey Bakhirev, MODELS AND LOGIC OF SUBJECTIVE REALITY. SUBJECTIVE WORLDS.
  4. Nick Bostrom (2003). Are We Living in a Computer Simulation? Philosophical Quarterly 53 (211):243 - 255.
    I argue that at least one of the following propositions is true: (1) the human species is very likely to become extinct before reaching a 'posthuman' stage; (2) any posthuman civilization is extremely unlikely to run a significant number of simulations of its evolutionary history (or variations thereof); (3) we are almost certainly living in a computer simulation. It follows that the belief that there is a significant chance that we shall one day become posthumans who run ancestor-simulations is false, (...)
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  5. Nuno David (2009). Validation and Verification in Social Simulation: Patterns and Clarification of Terminology. Epistemological Aspects of Computer Simulation in the Social Sciences, EPOS 2006, Revised Selected and Invited Papers, Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence, Squazzoni, Flaminio (Ed.) 5466:117-129.
    The terms ‘verification’ and ‘validation’ are widely used in science, both in the natural and the social sciences. They are extensively used in simulation, often associated with the need to evaluate models in different stages of the simulation development process. Frequently, terminological ambiguities arise when researchers conflate, along the simulation development process, the technical meanings of both terms with other meanings found in the philosophy of science and the social sciences. This article considers the problem of verification and validation in (...)
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  6. Nuno David, Jaime Sichman & Helder Coelho (2007). Simulation as Formal and Generative Social Science: The Very Idea. In Carlos Gershenson, Diederik Aerts & Bruce Edmonds (eds.), Worldviews, Science, and Us: Philosophy and Complexity. World Scientific. pp. 266--275.
    The formal and empirical-generative perspectives of computation are demonstrated to be inadequate to secure the goals of simulation in the social sciences. Simulation does not resemble formal demonstrations or generative mechanisms that deductively explain how certain models are sufficient to generate emergent macrostructures of interest. The description of scientific practice implies additional epistemic conceptions of scientific knowledge. Three kinds of knowledge that account for a comprehensive description of the discipline were identified: formal, empirical and intentional knowledge. The use of formal (...)
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  7. Nuno David, Jaime Sichman & Helder Coleho (2005). The Logic of the Method of Agent-Based Simulation in the Social Sciences: Empirical and Intentional Adequacy of Computer Programs. Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation 8 (4).
    The classical theory of computation does not represent an adequate model of reality for simulation in the social sciences. The aim of this paper is to construct a methodological perspective that is able to conciliate the formal and empirical logic of program verification in computer science, with the interpretative and multiparadigmatic logic of the social sciences. We attempt to evaluate whether social simulation implies an additional perspective about the way one can understand the concepts of program and computation. We demonstrate (...)
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  8. Roberto Di Letizia, What is It Like to Be an Avatar?
  9. Gordana Dodig-Crncovic & Raffaela Giovagnoli (2013). Computing Nature. Springer.
    The articles in this volume present a selection of works from the Symposium on Natu-ral/Unconventional Computing at AISB/IACAP (British Society for the Study of Artificial Intelligence and the Simulation of Behaviour and The International Association for Computing and Philosophy) World Congress 2012, held at the University of Birmingham, celebrating Turing centenary. This book is about nature considered as the totality of physical existence, the universe. By physical we mean all phenomena - objects and processes - that are possible to detect (...)
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  10. Woody Evans (2011). Information Dynamics in Virtual Worlds: Gaming and Beyond. Chandos.
    Presents a broad examination of the nature of virtual worlds and the potential they provide in managing and expressing information practices through that medium, grounding information professionals and students of new media in the fundamental elements of virtual worlds and online gaming. The book details the practical issues in finding and using information in virtual environments and presents a general theory of librarianship as it relates to virtual gaming worlds. It is encompassed by a set of best practice methods that (...)
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  11. Andrew A. Fingelkurts, Alexander A. Fingelkurts & Carlos F. H. Neves (2012). “Machine” Consciousness and “Artificial” Thought: An Operational Architectonics Model Guided Approach. Brain Research 1428:80-92.
    Instead of using low-level neurophysiology mimicking and exploratory programming methods commonly used in the machine consciousness field, the hierarchical Operational Architectonics (OA) framework of brain and mind functioning proposes an alternative conceptual-theoretical framework as a new direction in the area of model-driven machine (robot) consciousness engineering. The unified brain-mind theoretical OA model explicitly captures (though in an informal way) the basic essence of brain functional architecture, which indeed constitutes a theory of consciousness. The OA describes the neurophysiological basis of the (...)
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