About this topic
Summary The term 'information' has become ubiquitous. In fact the notion of information is arguably amongst the most important of our `Information Age'. But just what exactly is information? This is a question without a straightforward response, particularly as information is a polysemantic concept, applied to a range of phenomena across a range of disciplines. Some of the most common formulation developed in the 20th century include: Fisher information, Shannon information, Kolmogorov complexity, quantum information, information as a state of an agent, and semantic information.  Some notions of information are associated with central concerns of philosophy and have been used in various ways. Dealings with information from within philosophy include work on conceptions and analyses of information, the application of information to philosophical topics such as epistemology and logic and information ethics. Further to this, conceptions of information within other disciplines such as biology and physics can be and have been of interest within philosophy. Two conceptions of information of particular interest to philosophers are semantic information and environmental information, which can be seen as roughly correlating to the Gricean notions of non-natural and natural meaning respectively.
Key works Floridi 2011 Floridi 2002 Dretske 1981 Bar-Hillel & Carnap 1953 Adriaans & van Benthem 2008
Introductions Floridi 2010, Floridi 2011
Related categories

505 found
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  1. Deliberation Digitized: Designing Disagreement Space Through Communication-Information Services.Mark Aakhus - 2013 - Journal of Argumentation in Context 2 (1):101-126.
  2. Inequalities in the Information Age: Farmers' Differential Adoption and Use of Four Information Technologies. [REVIEW]Eric A. Abbott & J. Paul Yarbrough - 1992 - Agriculture and Human Values 9 (2):67-79.
    New communication technologies such as the microcomputer, videotex/teletext systems, the videocassette recorder, and satellite receiving dishes have been available to farmers since the early 1980s. This longitudinal study examines ethical issues associated with the impact that differential patterns of adoption and use of these technologies have had on inequalities among farmers from 1982 to 1989. The results demonstrate a strong adoption and use bias toward larger scale farmers who already have well-developed skills for handling information. This bias is especially strong (...)
  3. Intellectual Foundations for Information Professionals.Herbert K. Achleitner - 1987
  4. The Use of Information and Communication Technologies for Providing Access to HIV/AIDS Information Management in a Resource-Poor Country.Adedayo O. Adeyemi & M. H. Ayegboyin - 2005 - International Corporate Responsibility Series 2:393-400.
    We investigate the growing use of information and communication technology in Nigeria and its potential as a tool to combat the HIV/AIDS epidemic through information management. Potential applications include data gathering for research and disease tracking, knowledge sharing, and dissemination of information on research findings, prevention methods, available care and support, and patient rights. The research is based on 1450 responses to a widely distributed questionnaire.
  5. Hilosophy of Information.P. Adriaans & J. van Benthem (eds.) - 2008 - MIT Press.
  6. Information.Pieter Adriaans - 2012 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  7. A Critical Analysis of Floridi’s Theory of Semantic Information.Pieter Adriaans - 2010 - Knowledge, Technology & Policy 23 (1-2):41-56.
    n various publications over the past years, Floridi has developed a theory of semantic information as well-formed, meaningful, and truthful data. This theory is more or less orthogonal to the standard entropy-based notions of information known from physics, information theory, and computer science that all define the amount of information in a certain system as a scalar value without any direct semantic implication. In this context the question rises what the exact relation between these various conceptions of information is and (...)
  8. A Critical Analysis of Floridi’s Theory of Semantic Information.Pieter Adriaans - 2010 - Knowledge, Technology and Policy 23 (1-2):41-56.
  9. Interdisciplinary Structure of Information Science.Sharokh Afsharpanah - 1984 - University Microfilms International.
  10. Contributor Information.Anthony Alessandrini, Selwyn Cudjoe, Lewis Gordon & Paget Henry - 1997 - Philosophy 154 (1):217-218.
  11. Exploring the Contexts of Information Behaviour Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Reseach in Information Needs, Seeking and Use in Different Contexts, 13/15 August 1998, Sheffield, Uk. [REVIEW]David K. Allen & Thomas D. Wilson - 1999
  12. A Constructionist Philosophy of Logic.Patrick Allo - 2017 - Minds and Machines 27 (3):545-564.
    This paper develops and refines the suggestion that logical systems are conceptual artefacts that are the outcome of a design-process by exploring how a constructionist epistemology and meta-philosophy can be integrated within the philosophy of logic.
  13. Relevant Information and Relevant Questions: Comment on Floridi's “Understanding Epistemic Relevance”. [REVIEW]Patrick Allo - 2014 - Minds and Machines 24 (1):71-83.
    Floridi’s chapter on relevant information bridges the analysis of “being informed” with the analysis of knowledge as “relevant information that is accounted for” by analysing subjective or epistemic relevance in terms of the questions that an agent might ask in certain circumstances. In this paper, I scrutinise this analysis, identify a number of problems with it, and finally propose an improvement. By way of epilogue, I offer some more general remarks on the relation between (bounded) rationality, the need to ask (...)
  14. Information and Logical Discrimination.Patrick Allo - 2012 - In S. Barry Cooper (ed.), How the World Computes. pp. 17--28.
    Informational conceptions of logic are barely novel. We find them in the work of John Corcoran, in several papers on substructural and constructive logics by Heinrich Wansing, and in the interpretation of the Routley-Meyer semantics for relevant logics in terms of Barwises and Perrys theory of situations. Allo & Mares [2] present an informational account of logical consequence that is based on the content-nonexpantion platitude, but that also relies on a double inversion of the standard direction of explanation (in- formation (...)
  15. The Logic of 'Being Informed' Revisited and Revised.Patrick Allo - 2011 - Philosophical Studies 153 (3):417-434.
    The logic of ‘being informed’ gives a formal analysis of a cognitive state that does not coincide with either belief, or knowledge. To Floridi, who first proposed the formal analysis, the latter is supported by the fact that unlike knowledge or belief, being informed is a factive, but not a reflective state. This paper takes a closer look at the formal analysis itself, provides a pure and an applied semantics for the logic of being informed, and tries to find out (...)
  16. Putting Information First: Luciano Floridi and the Philosophy of Information.Patrick Allo - 2010 - Metaphilosophy 41 (3):247-254.
    Abstract: The core aim of this special issue is to present the philosophy of information as a way of doing philosophy, to focus on the contributions of Luciano Floridi to that area, and most important, to stimulate the debate on the most distinctive and controversial views he has defended in that context. This introduction contains a description of the philosophy of information, a discussion of two common misconceptions about the scope and the ambition of the philosophy of information, and a (...)
  17. Reasoning About Data and Information.Patrick Allo - 2009 - Synthese 167 (2):231-249.
    Cognitive states as well as cognitive commodities play central though distinct roles in our epistemological theories. By being attentive to how a difference in their roles affects our way of referring to them, we can undoubtedly accrue our understanding of the structure and functioning of our main epistemological theories. In this paper we propose an analysis of the dichotomy between states and commodities in terms of the method of abstraction, and more specifically by means of infomorphisms between different ways to (...)
  18. Formalising the 'No Information Without Data-Representation' Principle.Patrick Allo - 2008 - In P. Brey, A. Briggle & K. Waelbers (eds.), Current Issues in Computing and Philosophy. IOS Press.
    One of the basic principles of the general definition of information is its rejection of dataless information, which is reflected in its endorsement of an ontological neutrality. In general, this principles states that “there can be no information without physical implementation” (Floridi (2005)). Though this is standardly considered a commonsensical assumption, many questions arise with regard to its generalised application. In this paper a combined logic for data and information is elaborated, and specifically used to investigate the consequences of restricted (...)
  19. Contact Information of the Authors.Christina Alm-Arvius, Margarita Alonso Ramos, Goranka Antunovic, Teresa Cadierno, Bert Cappelle, Anna Cieslicka, Alejandro Cur ado Fuentes, Maria Carmelita Dias & Hannele Dufva - 2007 - In Marja Nenonen & Sinikka Niemi (eds.), Collocations and Idioms 1: Papers From the First Nordic Conference on Syntactic Freezes, Joensuu, May 19-20, 2006. Joensuun Yliopisto. pp. 394.
  20. The Validity of Subjective Information as a Formal Concept Applied to Empirical Analysis.Klaus Anderseck - 1974 - Theory and Decision 5 (1):23.
  21. Information Management Support for International Negotiations.Stephen J. Andriole - 1993 - Theory and Decision 34 (3):313-328.
  22. The Philosophy of Information.Staffan Angere - unknown
  23. Information Und Hominisation Grenzlinien der Entwicklung : Vorstudie Zu Einer Paläologie der Information = Information and the Emergence of Man : Boundaries in Evolution : Preliminary Study for a Palaeology of Information.Helmut Arntz - 1983
  24. Le Concept ?Information Et Ľinformatique.Jacques J. Arsac - 1971 - Dialectica 25 (3‐4):207-219.
  25. Ontological Aspects of Information Modeling.Robert L. Ashenhurst - 1996 - Minds and Machines 6 (3):287-394.
    Information modeling (also known as conceptual modeling or semantic data modeling) may be characterized as the formulation of a model in which information aspects of objective and subjective reality are presented (the application), independent of datasets and processes by which they may be realized (the system).A methodology for information modeling should incorporate a number of concepts which have appeared in the literature, but should also be formulated in terms of constructs which are understandable to and expressible by the system user (...)
  26. Editorial and Publication Information.[No Author Name Available] - 2008 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 34 (3):CO2.
  27. Processing Information.Arnon Avron - unknown
    We introduce a general framework for solving the problem of a computer collecting and combining information from various sources. Unlike previous approaches to this problem, in our framework the sources are allowed to provide information about complex formulae too. This is enabled by the use of a new tool — non-deterministic logical matrices. We also consider several alternative plausible assumptions concerning the framework. These assumptions lead to various logics. We provide strongly sound and complete proof systems for all the basic (...)
  28. Formal Ontology and Information Systems.C. Welty B. Smith (ed.) - 2001 - ACM Press.
  29. Feedback Loops: A Fundamental Ingredient of Information Processing.Paul Baird - 2015 - Springer Lecture Notes in Computer Science 8951:24-38.
    In order to acquire meaning, information has to be processed. But how do we define meaning and what does processing consist of? Examples show that information processing involves feedback, and that this is a fundamental driver of change. Change is the physical quality of information, whereas meaning comes from observer-participancy. Furthermore, change can come about by the processing of potential information, whose realization reflects quantum behaviour at a macroscopic level.
  30. Une Ou des « Sociétés de l'Information »?Serge Théophile Balima - 2004 - Hermes 40:205.
    La société de l'information est devenue la nouvelle valeur du XXI siècle. Elle a la prétention de réunir les continents dans un même village. Dans la réalité, des facteurs socio-économiques et culturels imposent à l'humanité plusieurs sociétés de l'information dont les performances sont liées au niveau de maîtrise de ces nouvelles technologies de l'information et de la communication.The IT world has become the new reference value of the 21st century. It claims to unite all the continents in a global village (...)
  31. Philosophy of Data and its Importance to the Discipline of Information Systems.Brian Ballsun-Stanton & Deborah Bunker - unknown
    In this document, we explore the Philosophy of Data and its roots amongst other disciplines. The Philosophy of Data seeks to understand the nature of data through experimental philosophy. In order to understand the many different ontologies of data, information, and knowledge out there, this paper will describe part of the problem space in terms of other disciplines and make an argument for the establishment of this new philosophical field. Furthermore, we will show how the PoD is very important to (...)
  32. An Examination of Information Theory.Yehoshua Bar-Hillel - 1955 - Philosophy of Science 22 (2):86-105.
  33. Semantic Information.Yehoshua Bar-Hillel & Rudolf Carnap - 1953 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 4 (14):147-157.
  34. From Big Data to Important Information.Yaneer Bar-Yam - 2016 - Complexity 21 (S2):73-98.
  35. Mutations des frontières de la connaissance à l'heure du Web 2.0.Lionel Barbe - 2012 - Hermès: La Revue Cognition, communication, politique 63 (2):, [ p.].
    Depuis une dizaine d'années, des centaines des millions d'internautes ont donné naissance à des édifices informationnels novateurs. Ces dispositifs dits Web 2.0 constituent de nouveaux modèles éditoriaux. Ces changements,qui s'inscrivent dans la continuité de l'histoire des techniques et des usages, accélèrent considérablement les processus historiques en cours. Par la métaphore des frontières, cet article analyse les profondes mutations intervenues dans le domaine des savoirs : question de l'accès, enjeux de la mémoire collective, transformation de la nature des savoirs.
  36. What is Information?Marcello Barbieri - 2012 - Biosemiotics 5 (2):147-152.
  37. An Experiment to Enhance Awareness of the Power of Information.Shifra Baruchson‐Arbib & Vicky Horenstein - 2007 - Journal of Information, Communication and Ethics in Society 5 (2/3):79-97.
  38. Mining Data, Gathering Variables and Recombining Information: The Flexible Architecture of Epidemiological Studies.Susanne Bauer - 2008 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 39 (4):415-428.
    Since the second half of the twentieth century, biomedical research has made increasing use of epidemiological methods to establish empirical evidence on a population level. This paper is about practices with data in epidemiological research, based on a case study in Denmark. I propose an epistemology of record linkage that invites exploration of epidemiological studies as heterogeneous assemblages. Focusing on data collecting, sampling and linkage, I examine how data organisation and processing become productive beyond the context of their collection. The (...)
  39. On Time, Information and Life1.O. Costa Beauregard - 1968 - Dialectica 22 (3‐4):187-205.
  40. Historicizing Floridi.Anthony F. Beavers - 2011 - Etica and Politica / Ethics and Politics (2):255-275.
  41. Philosophical Aspects of Information Systems.I. A. Beeson, S. K. Probert & R. Winder - 1997
  42. The Limits of Information.Jacob D. Bekenstein - 2001 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 32 (4):511-524.
  43. Gathering Information and Casuistic Analysis.Athena Beldecos & Robert M. Arnold - 1992 - Journal of Clinical Ethics 4 (3):241-245.
  44. Twenty Questions: An Information Analysis.A. W. Bendig - 1953 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 46 (5):345.
  45. Editorial Information Sciences.van Jfak Benthem - 1991 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 1 (3):1-4.
  46. Intergovernmental Administration and Information Systems.H. Bentrup - 1989 - Acm Sigcas Computers and Society 19 (4):13-26.
  47. IFIP; Social Informatics: An Information Society for All? In Remembrance of Rob Kling Vol 223.Jacques Berleur, Markku I. Nurminen & John Impagliazzo (eds.) - 2006 - Springer.
  48. Automation and the Information Society: Informatics for Development.F. A. Bernasconi - 1984 - World Futures 19 (3):305-315.
  49. Tragedy of the Anticommons? Intellectual Property and the Sharing of Scientific Information.Justin B. Biddle - 2012 - Philosophy of Science 79 (5):821-832.
    Many philosophers argue that the emphasis on commercializing scientific research---and particularly on patenting the results of research---is both epistemically and socially detrimental, in part because it inhibits the flow of information. One of the most important of these criticisms is the ``tragedy of the anticommons'' thesis. Some have attempted to test this thesis empirically, and many have argued that these empirical tests effectively falsify the thesis. I argue that they neither falsify nor disconfirm the thesis because they do not actually (...)
  50. Spatial Information Theory. Foundations of Geographic Information Science.Thomas Bittner - 2001 - Lecture Notes in Computer Science 2205.
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