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  1. Beyond the Borders of Society: Sex and Gender as Tropos in Maximus the Confessor's Theology and its Relevance to Contemporary Ethics.E. Brown Dewhurst - 2022 - Theology and Sexuality 1.
    Maximus the Confessor believed that human nature was originally genderless and sexless and that humans would have this sexless nature restored to them in the resurrection. This paper contextualises Maximus’ theology within a landscape of ascetic, gender ambiguity, and considers what relevance his thought could have for today, given his rising importance in theological ethics. In particular, I focus on teasing out the contemporary ethical implications of sex and gender belonging to tropos – a malleable mode of human expression and (...)
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  2. Modeling Gender as a Multidimensional Sorites Paradox.Rory W. Collins - 2021 - Hypatia 36 (2):302–320.
    Gender is both indeterminate and multifaceted: many individuals do not fit neatly into accepted gender categories, and a vast number of characteristics are relevant to determining a person's gender. This article demonstrates how these two features, taken together, enable gender to be modeled as a multidimensional sorites paradox. After discussing the diverse terminology used to describe gender, I extend Helen Daly's research into sex classifications in the Olympics and show how varying testosterone levels can be represented using a sorites argument. (...)
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  3. Escaping the Natural Attitude About Gender.Robin Dembroff - 2021 - Philosophical Studies 178 (3):983-1003.
    Alex Byrne’s article, “Are Women Adult Human Females?”, asks a question that Byrne treats as nearly rhetorical. Byrne’s answer is, ‘clearly, yes’. Moreover, Byrne claims, 'woman' is a biological category that does not admit of any interpretation as (also) a social category. It is important to respond to Byrne’s argument, but mostly because it is paradigmatic of a wider phenomenon. The slogan “women are adult human females” is a political slogan championed by anti-trans activists, appearing on billboards, pamphlets, and anti-trans (...)
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  4. Catholic Sexual Theology and Adolescent Girls. By Doris M. Kieser. Pp. X, 211, Waterloo, Ontario, Wilfrid Laurier University Press, 2015, £27.99. [REVIEW]Agneta Sutton - 2019 - Heythrop Journal 60 (4):645-646.
  5. The Necessity of Differences.Marilyn Frye - manuscript
    "The Necessity of Differences," a paper delivered as the Linda Singer Memorial Lecture at Miami University of Ohio, February 1994, and in a revised version, at the meeting of the Society for Women in Philosophy, Midwestern Division, Minneapolis, April 1994. A talk from this paper on a panel on "Feminist Community," sponsored by the Committee on the Status of Women at the May 1994 meetings of the American Philosophical Association, Central Division. A version of this material was delivered as the (...)
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  6. Are Sexes Natural Kinds?Muhammad Ali Khalidi - 2021 - In Shamik Dasgupta, Ravit Dotan & Brad Weslake (eds.), Current Controversies in Philosophy of Science. New York: Routledge. pp. 163-176.
    Asking whether the sexes are natural kinds amounts to asking whether the categories, female and male, identify real divisions in nature, like the distinctions between biological species, or whether they mark merely artificial or arbitrary distinctions. The distinction between females and males in the animal kingdom is based on the relative size of the gametes they produce, with females producing larger gametes (ova) and males producing smaller gametes (sperm). This chapter argues that the properties of producing relatively large and small (...)
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  7. L'erotisme.Arina Pismenny & Ronald De Sousa - 2018 - In Julien Deonna & Emma Tieffenbach (eds.), Petit Traité des Valeurs. Paris: pp. 132-139.
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  8. Plato’s Bedroom: Ancient Wisdom and Modern Love.Steven Berg - 2017 - Ancient Philosophy 37 (2):456-462.
  9. Sex.Jonathan Webber - 2009 - Philosophy 84 (2):233-250.
    The sexual domain is unified only by the phenomenal quality of the occurrence of the desires, activities, and pleasures it includes. There is no conceptual restriction on the range of intentional objects those desires, activities, and pleasures can take. Neither is there good conceptual reason to privilege any class of them as paradigmatic. Since the quality unifying the sexual is not morally significant, the morality of sexuality is no different from morality in general. The view that participant consent is morally (...)
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  10. Asymmetrical Genders: Phenomenological Reflections on Sexual Difference.Silvia Stoller & Camilla R. Nielsen - 2005 - Hypatia 20 (2):7-26.
    One of the most fundamental premises of feminist philosophy is the assumption of an invidious asymmetry between the genders that has to be overcome. Parallel to this negative account of asymmetry we also find a positive account, developed in particular within the context of so-called feminist philosophies of difference. I explore both notions of gender asymmetry. The goal is a clarification of the notion of asymmetry as it can presently be found in feminist philosophy. Drawing upon phenomenology as well as (...)
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  11. The Sexes Compared, and Other Essays.Edward Von Hartmann.J. Arthur Thomson - 1896 - International Journal of Ethics 6 (2):268-270.
  12. Man and Woman: A Study of Human Secondary Sexual Characters.Havelock Ellis.J. Arthur Thomson - 1895 - International Journal of Ethics 5 (3):386-390.
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  13. Man and Woman: A Study of Human Secondary Sexual Characters.Daniel G. Brinton - 1894 - Psychological Review 1 (5):532-534.
    Reviews the book, Man and Woman: A Study of Human Secondary Sexual Characters by Havelock Ellis (1894). There is a keen general interest in the problem with which this book is concerned--the real differences between the sexes, and the light thrown by them upon the possible future position of woman in social and political life. The author has had such questions distinctly in view through his long and conscientious study of his theme; but at its close he candidly acknowledges that (...)
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  14. Review: Claudia Honegger: Die Ordnung der Geschlechter. Die Wissenschaften vom Menschen und das Weib.Bettina Schmitz - 1991 - Die Philosophin 2 (4):73-77.
  15. Review: Geneviève Fraisse: Geschlechterdifferenz.Johanna Gisela Bechen - 1998 - Die Philosophin 9 (17):91-94.
  16. Simone de Beauvoir's Phenomenology of Sexual Difference.Sara Heinämaa - 1999 - Hypatia 14 (4):114-132.
    The paper argues that the philosophical starting point of Simone de Beauvoir's The Second Sex is the phenomenological understanding of the living body, developed by Edmund Husserl and Maurice Merleau-Ponty. It shows that Beauvoir's notion of philosophy stems from the phenomenological interpretation of Cartesianism which emphasizes the role of evidence, self-criticism, and dialogue.
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  17. The Sex of Nature: A Reinterpretation of Irigaray's Metaphysics and Political Thought.Alison Stone - 2003 - Hypatia 18 (3):60-84.
    I argue that Irigaray's recent work develops a theoretically cogent and politically radical form of realist essentialism. I suggest that she identifies sexual difference with a fundamental difference between the rhythms of percipient fluids constituting women's and men's bodies, supporting this with a philosophy of nature that she justifies phenomenologically and ethically. I explore the politics Irigaray derives from this philosophy, which affirms the sexes' rights to realize the possibilities of their rhythmically diverse bodies.
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  18. Sexual Difference, Animal Difference: Derrida and Difference “Worthy of Its Name”.Kelly Oliver - 2009 - Hypatia 24 (2):54-76.
    I challenge the age-old binary opposition between human and animal, not as philosophers sometimes do by claiming that humans are also animals, or that animals are capable of suffering or intelligence, but rather by questioning the very category of “the animal” itself. This category groups a nearly infinite variety of living beings into one concept measured in terms of humans—animals are those creatures that are not human. In addition, I argue that the binary opposition between human and animal is intimately (...)
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  19. The Descent of Man and the Evolution of Woman.Penelope Deutscher - 2004 - Hypatia 19 (2):35-55.
    This paper addresses the appropriation of theories of evolution by nineteenth-century feminists, focusing on the critical response to Darwin's The Descent of Man by Eliza Burt Gamble and Antoinette Brown Blackwell and Charlotte Perkins Gilman's social evolutionism. For Gilman, evolutionism was a revolutionary resource for feminism, one of its greatest hopes. Gamble and Blackwell revisit Darwin's data with the aim of locating, amidst his ostensive conclusions to the contrary, his implicit "defense" of either the equality or the superiority of women. (...)
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  20. Intersexuality and the Categories of Sex.Georgia Warnke - 2001 - Hypatia 16 (3):126-137.
    Operations on intersexuals indicate that the sex of a person is based on more than biology. Expectations about proper gender activities furnish the frameworks through which certain features and combinations of features are understood to be fundamental to bodies and to comprise their sex. Yet, we can ask whether this interpretation is either coherent or consistent with our fuller conceptions of ourselves. Is there a point to interpreting a person as a sex?
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  21. Transforming Sacrifice: Irigaray and the Politics of Sexual Difference.Anne Caldwell - 2002 - Hypatia 17 (4):16-38.
    This essay examines Irigaray's analysis of politics and the political implications of her critique of sacrificial orders that repress difference/matter. I suggest that her descriptions of a fluid “feminine” can be read as an alternative symbolic not dependent on repression. This idea is politically promising in opening a possibility for justice and a nonantagonistic intersubjectivity. I conclude by assessing Irigaray's concrete proposals for sexuate rights and a civil identity for women.
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  22. Simone de Beauvoiris Phenomenology of Sexual Difference.Sara Heinämaa - 1999 - Hypatia 14 (4):114-132.
    The paper argues that the philosophical starting point of Simone de Beauvoir's The Second Sex is the phenomenological understanding of the living body, developed by Edmund Husserl and Maurice Merleau-Ponty. It shows that Beauvoir's notion of philosophy stems from the phenomenological interpretation of Cartesianism which emphasizes the role of evidence, self-criticism, and dialogue.
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  23. Book Review: Jacquelyn N. Zita. Body Talk: Philosophical Reflections on Sex and Gender. New York: Columbia University Press, 1998. [REVIEW]Christa Davis Acampora - 2003 - Hypatia 18 (3):212-215.
  24. “Like a Maternal Body”: Emmanuel Levinas and the Motherhood of Moses.Lisa Guenther - 2006 - Hypatia 21 (1):119-136.
    Emmanuel Levinas compares ethical responsibility to a maternal body who bears the Other in the same without assimilation. In explicating this trope, he refers to a biblical passage in which Moses is like a "wet nurse" bearing Others whom he has "neither conceived nor given birth to". A close reading of this passage raises questions about ethics, maternity, and sexual difference, for both the concept of ethical substitution and the material practice of mothering.
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  25. Organotherapy and the Emergence of Reproductive Endocrinology.Merriley Borell - 1985 - Journal of the History of Biology 18 (1):1-30.
    Early scientific investigation of the reproductive process was neither a cause nor a direct result of changing social attitudes toward sex. It was instead part of the continuing search, initiated in the 1890s, to discover internal secretions that might be isolated and prove useful in therapy. Laboratory scientists, nonetheless, were among the many groups altering understanding of human sexual physiology in the first quarter of this century. The new data they generated regarding the dependence of human sexuality and fertility on (...)
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  26. Rousseau, Antifeminism, and Woman's Nature.Penny A. Weiss - 1987 - Political Theory 15 (1):81-98.
  27. Body Aesthetics.Sherri Irvin (ed.) - 2016 - Oxford University Press.
    The body is a rich object for aesthetic inquiry. We aesthetically assess both our own bodies and those of others, and our felt bodily experiences have aesthetic qualities. The body features centrally in aesthetic experiences of visual art, theatre, dance and sports. It is also deeply intertwined with one's identity and sense of self. Artistic and media representations shape how we see and engage with bodies, with consequences both personal and political. This volume contains sixteen original essays by contributors in (...)
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  28. The Gender/Science System: Or, Is Sex To Gender As Nature Is To Science?Evelyn Fox Keller - 1987 - Hypatia 2 (3):37-49.
    In this paper, I explore the problematic relation between sex and gender in parallel with the equally problematic relation between nature and science. I also offer a provisional analysis of the political dynamics that work to polarize both kinds of discourse, focusing especially on their intersection (i.e., on discussions of gender and science), and on that group most directly affected by all of the above considerations (i.e., women scientists).
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  29. Sex, Race, and Biopower: A Foucauldian Genealogy.Ladelle Mcwhorter - 2004 - Hypatia 19 (3):38-62.
    For many years feminists have asserted an "intersection" between sex and race. This paper, drawing heavily on the work of Michel Foucault, offers a genealogical account of the two concepts showing how they developed together and in relation to similar political forces in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Thus it attempts to give a concrete meaning to the claim that sex and race are intersecting phenomena.
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  30. “We Won't Know Who You Are”: Contesting Sex Designations in New York City Birth Certificates.Paisley Currah & Lisa Jean Moore - 2008 - Hypatia 24 (3):113-135.
    This article examines shifts in the legal, medical, and common-sense logics governing the designation of sex on birth certificates issued by the City of New York between 1965 and 2006. In the initial iteration, the stabilization of legal sex categories was organized around the notion of “fraud”; in the most recent iteration, “permanence” became the measure of authenticity. We frame these legal constructions of sex with theories about the “natural attitude” toward gender.
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  31. Philosophie der Geschlechterdifferenz in der Tschechoslowakei Und in Ungarn. 4.5.1991, Universität Wien.Herta Nagl-Docekal - 1991 - Die Philosophin 2 (4):108-108.
  32. Review: Sexuelle Differenz Made in Italy - Bemerkungen zu einem US-Imortversuch. Zu Graziella Parati and Rebecca West (eds.): Italian Feminist Theory and Practise: Equality and Sexual Difference.Christoph Holzhey - 2004 - Die Philosophin 15 (29):122-129.
  33. The Sex-Change Society: Feminised Britain and the Neutered Male.Melanie Phillips - 1999
  34. Rosalyn Diprose, The Bodies of Women: Ethics, Embodiment and Sexual Difference.M. Dhanda - 1996 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 13:327-328.
  35. Ist Sartre der Urheber von Das Andere Geschlecht?Margret A. Simons - 1999 - Die Philosophin 10 (20):31-40.
  36. Aristotle and Woman.Mary Anne Cline Horowitz - 1976 - Journal of the History of Biology 9 (2):183-213.
  37. Body and Gender Within the Stratifications of the Social Imaginary.Alice Pechriggl & Translated By Gertrude Postl - 2005 - Hypatia 20 (2):102-118.
    Using the notion of a transfiguration of sexed bodies, this text deals with the stratifications of the gender-specific imaginary. Starting from the figurative-thus creative-force of the psyche-soma, its interaction with the configurations of a collective body will be developed from the perspectives of social philosophy and philosophy of history. At the center of my discussion is the interdependence between the individual psyche-soma, the socialized individual, and a collective bodily imaginary, on the one hand, and the strata of a gender imaginary (...)
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  38. Sociobiology Sex and Science.Harmon R. Holcomb Iii & Douglas Allchin - 1997 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 19 (3):423.
    This book examines sociobiology’s validity and significance, using the sociobiological theory of the evolution of mating and parenting as an example. It identifies and discusses the array of factors that determine sociobiology’s effort to become a science, providing a rare, balanced account—more critical than that of its advocates and more constructive than that of its critics. It sees a role for sociobiology in changing the way we understand the goals of evolutionary biology, the proper way to evaluate emerging sciences, and (...)
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  39. Sex or No Sex, Reproduction is Not the Question.David Lesbarrères - 2011 - Bioessays 33 (11):818-818.
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  40. The Riddle of Sex: Biological Theories of Sexual Difference in the Early Twentieth-Century. [REVIEW]Nathan Q. Ha - 2011 - Journal of the History of Biology 44 (3):505 - 546.
    At the turn of the twentieth century, biologists such as Oscar Riddle, Thomas Hunt Morgan, Frank Lillie, and Richard Goldschmidt all puzzled over the question of sexual difference, the distinction between male and female. They all offered competing explanations for the biological cause of this difference, and engaged in a fierce debate over the primacy of their respective theories. Riddle propounded a metabolic theory of sex dating from the late-nineteenth century suggesting that metabolism lay at the heart of sexual difference. (...)
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  41. Body and Gender Within the Stratifications of the Social Imaginary.Alice Pechriggl & Gertrude Postl - 2005 - Hypatia 20 (2):102 - 118.
    Using the notion of a transfiguration of sexed bodies, this text deals with the stratifications of the gender-specific imaginary. Starting from the figurative-thus creative-force of the psyche-soma, its interaction with the configurations of a collective body will be developed from the perspectives of social philosophy and philosophy of history. At the center of my discussion is the interdependence between the individual psyche-soma, the socialized individual, and a collective bodily imaginary, on the one hand, and the strata of a gender imaginary (...)
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  42. Delusions of Gender: How Our Minds, Society, and Neurosexism Create Difference. By Cordelia Fine. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 2010. Brain Storm: The Flaws in the Science of Sex Differences. By Rebecca M. Jordan‐Young. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2010. [REVIEW]Letitia Meynell - 2013 - Hypatia 28 (3):684-689.
  43. “Benign Sexual Variation”: An Essay on the Late Thought of Merleau-Ponty.Leonard Lawlor - 2008 - Chiasmi International 10:47-56.
  44. Cluster: Contesting the Norms of Embodiment — Editors' Introduction.Debra Bergoffen & Gail Weiss - 2012 - Hypatia 27 (2):241-242.
  45. Confined Within the Margins : Representations of Masculinity, Femininity, and Gender Roles in Australia's Popular Magazines of the 1960's.Julie P. Ustinoff - unknown
  46. The Necessity of Differences: Constructing a Positive Category of Women.Marilyn Frye - 1996 - Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society 21 (3):991-1010.
  47. Aristotle and Woman.Maryanne Cline Horowitz - 1976 - Journal of the History of Biology 9 (2):183 - 213.
  48. Endocrinologists and the Conceptualization of Sex, 1920-1940.Nelly Oudshoorn - 1990 - Journal of the History of Biology 23 (2):163 - 186.
  49. In Excess: The Body and the Habit of Sexual Difference.Rosalyn Diprose - 1991 - Hypatia 6 (3):156 - 171.
    Through a re-reading of Antigone, I offer a critique of Hegel's use of the story to illustrate the unity which emerges from the representation of sexual difference in ethical life. Using Hegel's own account of habits, as the mechanism by which the body becomes a sign of the self, I argue that the pretense of social unity assumes the proper construction and representation of one body only. This critique is brought to bear upon contemporary moves towards a post-Hegelian ethics of (...)
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  50. Human Enhancement and Sexual Dimorphism.Rob Sparrow - 2012 - Bioethics 26 (9):464-475.
    I argue that the existence of sexual dimorphism poses a profound challenge to those philosophers who wish to deny the moral significance of the idea of ‘normal human capacities’ in debates about the ethics of human enhancement. The biological sex of a child will make a much greater difference to their life prospects than many of the genetic variations that the philosophical and bioethical literature has previously been concerned with. It seems, then, that bioethicists should have something to say about (...)
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