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  1. The Concept of Woman: The Aristotelian Revolution 750 BC-AD 1250.Allen Prudence - 1989 - Hypatia 4 (1):172-175.
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  2. Descartes, The Concept of Woman and the French Revolution.Allen Sr Prudence - 1990 - Social Philosophy Today 3:61-78.
  3. Representative Women: Slavery, Citizenship, and Feminist Theory in Du Bois's "Damnation of Women".Lawrie Balfour - 2005 - Hypatia 20 (3):127 - 148.
    In this essay, I contend that feminist theories of citizenship in the U.S. context must go beyond simply acknowledging the importance of race and grapple explicitly with the legacies of slavery. To sketch this case, I draw upon W.E.B. Du Bois's "The Damnation of Women," which explores the significance for all Americans of African American women's sexual, economic, and political lives under slavery and in its aftermath.
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  4. Spirit's Phoenix and History's Owl or the Incoherence of Dialectics in Hegel's Account of Women.B. R. Barber - 1988 - Political Theory 16 (1):5-28.
  5. Definition and the Question of “Woman”.Victoria Barker - 1997 - Hypatia 12 (2):185-215.
    Within recent feminist philosophy, controversy has developed over the desirability, and indeed, the possibility of defining the central terms of its analysis-"woman," "femininity," etc. The controversy results largely from the undertheorization of the notion of definition; feminists have uncritically adopted an Aristotelian treatment of definition as entailing metaphysical, rather than merely linguistic, commitments. A "discursive" approach to definition, by contrast, allows us to define our terms, while avoiding the dangers of essentialism and universalism.
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  6. Wounded Bodies, Recovered Bodies: Discourses Around Female Sexual Mutilations.T. Boni - 2010 - Diogenes 57 (1):15-29.
    This study reviews various discourses around female sexual mutilation from the perspective of the human and social sciences, and also current debates between supporters of the cultural argument and those defending the universality of human rights. An aside about the Dogon myth of world order recorded by Marcel Griaule in Dieu d’eau or Aristotle’s philosophical discourse in the Reproduction of Animals is required in order to widen the debate and see its importance as regards the dignity of the human person. (...)
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  7. The Concept of Woman, Vol. II.W. Norris Clarke - 2003 - International Philosophical Quarterly 43 (2):246-247.
  8. Autonomy and Authorship: Storytelling in Children's Picture Books.Louise Collins - 2010 - Hypatia 25 (1):174 - 195.
    Diana Tietjens Meyers and Margaret Urban Walker argue that women's autonomy is impaired by mainstream representations that offer us impovenshed resources to tell our own stories. Mainstream picture books apprentice young readers in norms of representation. Two popufor picture books about child storyteüers present competing views of a child's authority to tell his or her own story. Hence, they offer rival models of the development of autonomy: neoAiberal versus relational. Feminist critics should attend to such implicit models and the hidden (...)
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  9. The Nature of Woman.Margaret Urban Coyne - 1981 - International Philosophical Quarterly 21 (1):117-118.
  10. The New Feminine Emotional Codes in Hochschild.Madalena D.’Oliveira-Martins - 2012 - Cultura 9 (1):235-247.
    For some years now, amongst contemporary Western societies (where capitalism and globalization have a great influence), the presence and developmentof a well-defined and peculiar emotional culture has become clear. The appropriate use and management of emotions, support a system of relations and codes that draw new limits between public and private life and between people and their actions. Arlie Russell Hochschild has studied the dynamics of emotions, aiming to define their distinctive languages. Interactions between the public and the individual realm (...)
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  11. DESCRIPTION OF WOMAN: For a Philosophy of the Sexed Other.Gilles Deleuze - 2002 - Angelaki 7 (3):17 – 24.
  12. The Descent of Man and the Evolution of Woman.Penelope Deutscher - 2004 - Hypatia 19 (2):35-55.
    This paper addresses the appropriation of theories of evolution by nineteenth-century feminists, focusing on the critical response to Darwin's The Descent of Man by Eliza Burt Gamble and Antoinette Brown Blackwell and Charlotte Perkins Gilman's social evolutionism. For Gilman, evolutionism was a revolutionary resource for feminism, one of its greatest hopes. Gamble and Blackwell revisit Darwin's data with the aim of locating, amidst his ostensive conclusions to the contrary, his implicit "defense" of either the equality or the superiority of women. (...)
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  13. “The Only Diabolical Thing About Women…”: Luce Irigaray on Divinity.Penelope Deutscher - 1994 - Hypatia 9 (4):88-111.
    Luce Irigaray's argument that women need a feminine divine is placed in the context of her analyses of the interconnection between man's appropriation of woman as his "negative alter ego" and his identification with the impossible ego ideal represented by the figure of God. As an alternative, the "feminine divine" is conceived as a realm with which women would be continuous. It would allow mediation between humans, and interrupt cannibalizing appropriations of the other.
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  14. The Treatment of the 'Woman Question' in Radical Utopian Political Thought.Filio Diamanti - 2000 - Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 3 (2-3):116-139.
    (2000). The treatment of the ‘woman question’ in radical utopian political thought. Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy: Vol. 3, The Philosophy of Utopia, pp. 116-139.
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  15. From Voluptuous Woman to Porky Butterball: The Rise and Fall of the Voluptuous Woman Ideal.Julie Dinh - 2012 - Constellations (University of Alberta Student Journal) 3 (2).
    This paper examines the rise and fall of voluptuousness as a beauty ideal in mid- nineteenth century America. It argues that the rise and fall of the fuller figured woman can be traced to shifting economic, social, and medical beliefs that in turn, affected perceptions about fatness‟ relationship to class, morality, health, and beauty.
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  16. The History of Political Thought and the Category Woman.Jennifer Einspahr - 2013 - Political Theory 41 (3):499-504.
  17. Striving for God's Attention: Gendered Spaces and Piety.Saba Fatima - 2016 - Hypatia 31 (3):605-619.
    This article looks at the inadequacy of space available to women in the two most holy sites for all Muslims: Masjid al-Haram in Makkah and Masjid an-Nabawi in Madinah, Saudi Arabia. I argue that religious discourse, shaped by geopolitical factors, has framed piety for women primarily in terms of modesty, such that a woman is often considered a good Muslim if she is visible only within her female community but invisible to the larger society. Furthermore, I argue that the allocation (...)
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  18. Defending the Young: Female Aggression, Resources, Dominance, and the Emptiness of Patriarchy.Robin Fox - 1999 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (2):224-225.
    Points of criticism of the target include: the extreme violence of females in defence of young despite high potential cost, the reality of female dominance striving, differences in male and female ritualization of aggression, the real existence of institutionalized female instrumental aggression, and the uselessness of “patriarchy” as defined as a category for differential analysis. It is concluded that it may in fact be the decline of patriarchy in the strict sense that leads to the female use of exculpatory explanations (...)
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  19. Woman: Revealed Or Reveiled?Cynthia A. Freeland - 1986 - Hypatia 1 (2):49-70.
    My aim is to examine Lacan's views on women's sexuality and desire in general. I use Hawthorne's novel The Blithedale Romance to supply a concrete narrative context in which to understand Lacan's two modes of femininity: the "veiled lady" and the "phallic masquerader."I criticize Lacan for holding (like Hawthorne) an essentially Romantic picture of the Ideal Woman who achieves happiness or peace outside the male/phallic sphere of activity and strife.
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  20. “Patriarchal Colonialism” and Indigenism: Implications for Native Feminist Spirituality and Native Womanism.M. A. Jaimes Guerrero - 2003 - Hypatia 18 (2):58-69.
    This essay begins with a Native American women's perspective on Early Feminism which came about as a result of Euroamerican patriarchy in U. S. society. It is followed by the myth of "tribalism," regarding the language and laws of U. S. colonialism imposed upon Native American peoples and their respective cultures. This colonialism is well documented in Federal Indian law and public policy by the U. S. government, which includes the state as well as federal level. The paper proceeds to (...)
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  21. Are Lesbians Women?Jacob Hale - 1996 - Hypatia 11 (2):94 - 121.
    I argue that Monique Wittig's view that lesbians are not women neglects the complexities involved in the composition of the category "woman." I develop an articulation of the concept "woman" in the contemporary United States, with thirteen distinct defining characteristics, none of which are necessary nor sufficient. I argue that Wittig's emphasis on the material production of "woman" through the political regime of heterosexuality, however, is enormously fruitful for feminist and queer strategizing.
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  22. Reduce Ourselves to Zero?: Sabina Lovibond, Iris Murdoch, and Feminism.Nora Hämäläinen - 2015 - Hypatia 30 (4):743-759.
    In her book Iris Murdoch, Gender and Philosophy, Sabina Lovibond argues that Iris Murdoch's philosophical and literary work is covertly dedicated to an ideology of female subordination. The most central and interesting aspect of her multifaceted argument concerns Murdoch's focus on the individual person's moral self-scrutiny and transformation of consciousness. Lovibond suggests that this focus is antithetical to the kind of communal and structural criticism of society that has been essential for the advance of feminism. She further reads Murdoch's dismissal (...)
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  23. Nietzsche on Woman.Lawrence J. Hatab - 1981 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 19 (3):333-345.
  24. Nietzsche on Woman.Lawrence J. Hatab - 1981 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 19 (3):333-345.
  25. From Moll Flanders to Tess of the D'Urbervilles: Women, Autonomy and Criminal Responsibility in Eighteenth and Nineteenth Century England.Nicola Lacey - manuscript
    In the early 18th Century, Daniel Defoe found it natural to write a novel whose heroine was a sexually adventurous, socially marginal property offender. Only half a century later, this would have been next to unthinkable. In this paper, the disappearance of Moll Flanders, and her supercession in the annals of literary female offenders by heroines like Tess of the d'Urbervilles, serves as a metaphor for fundamental changes in ideas of selfhood, gender and social order in 18th and 19th Century (...)
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  26. Gender in the Mirror: Cultural Imagery and Women's Agency.Meyers Diana Tietjens - 2002 - Oup Usa.
    The cultural imagery of women is deeply ingrained in our consciousness. So deeply, in fact, that feminists see this as a fundamental threat to female autonomy because it enshrines procreative heterosexuality as well as the relations of domination and subordination between men and women. Diana Meyers' book is about this cultural imagery - and how, once it is internalized, it shapes perception, reflection, judgement, and desire. These intergral images have a deep impact not only on the individual psyche, but also (...)
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  27. Science Corrupted: Victorian Biologists Consider "The Woman Question".Susan Sleeth Mosedale - 1978 - Journal of the History of Biology 11 (1):1 - 55.
  28. Male and Female in Theophrastus's Botanical Works.Moshe Negbi - 1995 - Journal of the History of Biology 28 (2):317-332.
  29. Review: Friendship Across Generations. [REVIEW]Andrea Nye - 1996 - Hypatia 11 (3):154-160.
    Feminist Interpretations of Hannah Arendt, edited by Bonnie Honig, a collection of critical feminist essays on Hannah Arendt, illustrates both the disorientation and the insights that can result when feminist philosophers come to terms with a canonical figure who is a woman.
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  30. Book Review: Cressida J. Heyes. Line Drawings: Defining Women Through Feminist Practice. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2000. [REVIEW]Peg O'Connor - 2005 - Hypatia 20 (2):194-197.
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  31. Media Representations of Women and the “Iraq War”.Kelly Oliver - 2010 - Journal of Philosophy: A Cross-Disciplinary Inquiry 5 (12):14-22.
    This essay examines media images of women in recent conflicts in the Middle East. From the Abu Ghraib prison abuses to protests in Iran, women have become the public face of violence, carried out and suffered. Women’s bodies are figured as sexual and violent, a potent combination that stirs public imagination and feeds into stereotypes of women as femme fatales or “bombshells.”.
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  32. Motherhood, Sexuality, and Pregnant Embodiment: Twenty-Five Years of Gestation.Kelly Oliver - 2010 - Hypatia 25 (4):760-777.
    My essay is framed by Hypatia's first special issue on Motherhood and Sexuality at one end, and by the most recent special issue (as of this writing) on the work of Iris Young, whose work on pregnant embodiment has become canonical, at the other. The questions driving this essay are: When we look back over the last twenty-five years, what has changed in our conceptions of pregnancy and maternity, both in feminist theory and in popular culture? What aspects of feminist (...)
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  33. Women: The Secret Weapon of Modern Warfare?Kelly Oliver - 2008 - Hypatia 23 (2):pp. 1-16.
    The images from wars in the Middle East that haunt us are those of young women killing and torturing. Their media circulated stories share a sense of shock. They have both galvanized and confounded debates over feminism and women's equality. And, as Oliver argues in this essay, they share, perhaps subliminally, the problematic notion of women as both offensive and defensive weapons of war, a notion that is symptomatic of fears of women's "mysterious" powers.
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  34. Neo-Confucians and Zhu Xi on Family and Woman: Challenges and Potentials,”.Ann A. Pang-White - 2016 - In The Bloomsbury Research Handbook of Chinese Philosophy and Gender. pp. 69-88.
    In Chinese philosophy’s encounter with modernity and feminist discourse, Neo-Confucianism often suffered the most brutal attacks and criticisms. In “Neo-Confucians and Zhu Xi on Family and Woman: Challenges and Potentials,” Ann A. Pang-White investigates Song Neo-Confucians’ views (in particular, that of Zhu Xi) on women by examining the Classifi ed Conversations of Zhu Xi (Zhuzi Yulei), the Reflections on Things at Hand (Jinsi Lu), Further Reflections on Things at Hand (Xu Jinsi Lu), and other texts. Pang-White also takes a close (...)
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  35. Gender, Infertility, Motherhood, and Assisted Reproductive Technology in Turkey.Serap Sahinoglu & Nuket Buken - 2010 - Human Reproduction and Genetic Ethics 16 (2):218-232.
    In Turkey, as in many other countries, infertility is generally regarded as a negative phenomenon in a woman’s life and is associated with a lot of stigma by society. In other words, female infertility and having a baby using Assisted Reproductive Technologies have to be taken into consideration with respect to gender, motherhood, social factors, religion and law. Yet if a woman chooses to use ART she has to deal with the consequences of her decision, such as being ostracized by (...)
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  36. Women in Plato's Political Theory (Review).Arlene W. Saxonhouse - 2002 - Hypatia 17 (4):235-238.
  37. Eros and the Female in Greek Political Thought: An Interpretation of Plato's Symposium.Arlene W. Saxonhouse - 1984 - Political Theory 12 (1):5-27.
    They do not understand that being brought apart is carried back together with itself; it is a back-stretching harmony as of the bow and the lyre.Herakleitus, Frag. 51“Tell me, you, the heir of the argument,” I said, “what was it Simonides said about justice that you assert he said correctly?”“That it is just to give to each what is owed,” he said. “In saying this he said a fine thing, at least in my opinion.”Plato, Republic 331e (Bloom translation).
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  38. The Philosopher and the Female in the Political Thought of Plato.Arlene W. Saxonhouse - 1976 - Political Theory 4 (2):195-212.
  39. Beauvoir’s Minoritarian Philosophy.Linnell Secomb - 1999 - Hypatia 14 (4):96-113.
    : Drawing on Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari's elaborations of the project of philosophy and styles of minoritarian literature, it becomes possible to reveal new dimensions in Simone de Beauvoir's The Second Sex. In this work she uses a minoritarian philosophy, which is an accessible and collaborative mode of philosophizing, to create a concept of Woman as an incarnate-becoming. This concept overcomes the dichotomizing of transcendence and immanence, and revalues feminine existence within philosophical discourses.
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  40. Review: The Female Subject of Popular Culture. [REVIEW]Diane Shoos - 1992 - Hypatia 7 (2):215 - 226.
    This essay discusses the place of popular culture, especially visual representation, in theories of female subjectivity and examines two recent works on women and popular culture as representative of two primary critical and methodological approaches to the female subject. The essay considers the limitations and implications of both qualitative communication research and text-based feminist criticism and the need to construct a dialogue between them.
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  41. Subjectivity as Encounter: Feminine Ethics in the Work of Bracha Lichtenberg‐Ettinger and Anne Enright.Mariëlle Smith - 2013 - Hypatia 28 (3):633-645.
    The fragility of the subject is a recurring issue in the work of Anne Enright, one of Ireland's most remarkable and innovative writers. It is this specific interest, together with her attempt to make women into subjects, that inevitably links her work to Bracha Lichtenberg-Ettinger's theory of the matrixial borderspace, a feminine sphere that coexists with the Lacanian symbolic order and that, even before our entrance into this linguistic system, informs our subjectivity. By turning to a point in time before (...)
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  42. The Mystery Revealed—Intersectionality in the Black Box: An Analysis of Female Migrants' Employment Opportunities in Urban China.Yixuan Wang - 2015 - Hypatia 30 (4):862-880.
    Female migrant workers are doubly disadvantaged in China's urban labor market because of their doubly marginalized identities as both women and rural residents. This article takes a process-centered approach to explore how female migrants' two identity categories generate intersectional effects on their job-search experiences in cities. Data from in-depth interviews conducted in Xi'an city, China, in 2010 and 2011 reveal that three patterns of relationship explain the processes where the gender–hukou intersection affects female migrants. In the first pattern, a splintering (...)
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  43. Whores of Babylon: Catholicism, Gender and Seventeenth Century Print Culture. By Frances E. Dolan.Jonathan Wright - 2011 - Heythrop Journal 52 (5):870-871.
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Biological Conceptions of Womanhood
  1. Will Working Mothers' Brains Explode? The Popular New Genre of Neurosexism.Cordelia Fine - 2008 - Neuroethics 1 (1):69-72.
    A number of recent popular books about gender differences have drawn on the neuroscientific literature to support the claim that certain psychological differences between the sexes are ‘hard-wired’. This article highlights some of the ethical implications that arise from both factual and conceptual errors propagated by such books.
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  2. Stereotype Threat and Attributional Ambiguity for Trans Women.Rachel Mckinnon - 2014 - Hypatia 29 (1):857-872.
    In this paper I discuss the interrelated topics of stereotype threat and attributional ambiguity as they relate to gender and gender identity. The former has become an emerging topic in feminist philosophy and has spawned a tremendous amount of research in social psychology and elsewhere. But the discussion, at least in how it connects to gender, is incomplete: the focus is only on cisgender women and their experiences. By considering trans women's experiences of stereotype threat and attributional ambiguity, we gain (...)
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Womanhood as a Social Collective
  1. Science Fiction Double Feature: Trans Liberation on Twin Earth.B. R. George & R. A. Briggs - manuscript
    What is it to be a woman? What is it to be a man? We start by laying out desiderata for an analysis of 'woman' and 'man': descriptively, it should link these gender categories to sex biology without reducing them to sex biology, and politically, it should help us explain and combat traditional sexism while also allowing us to make sense of the activist view that gendering should be consensual. Using a Putnam-style 'Twin Earth' example, we argue that none of (...)
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  2. The Common Vernacular of Power Relations in Heavy Metal and Christian Fundamentalist Performances.Christine James - 2010 - In Rosemary Hill Karl Spracklen (ed.), Heavy Fundametalisms: Music, Metal and Politics. Inter-Disciplinary Press.
    Wittgenstein’s comment that what can be shown cannot be said has a special resonance with visual representations of power in both Heavy Metal and Fundamentalist Christian communities. Performances at metal shows, and performances of ‘religious theatre’, share an emphasis on violence and destruction. For example, groups like GWAR and Cannibal Corpse feature violent scenes in stage shows and album covers, scenes that depict gory results of unrestrained sexuality that are strikingly like Halloween ‘Hell House’ show presented by neo-Conservative, Fundamentalist Christian (...)
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  3. The Im-Possibility of a Feminist Subject.Claudia Leeb - 2009 - Social Philosophy Today 25:47-60.
    It is widely acknowledged that the notion of a stable feminist subject, which refers to the category “woman” as a shared identity for all women, has led to the exclusion of all those women who do not fit neatly into its boundaries. Against the giving up of the subject or the invoking of the feminist subject as a pragmatic strategy, as suggested by Judith Butler, this paper suggests that we need a feminist subject-in-outline for an emancipatory feminist politics. Such a (...)
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  4. Stereotype Threat and Attributional Ambiguity for Trans Women.Rachel Mckinnon - 2014 - Hypatia 29 (1):857-872.
    In this paper I discuss the interrelated topics of stereotype threat and attributional ambiguity as they relate to gender and gender identity. The former has become an emerging topic in feminist philosophy and has spawned a tremendous amount of research in social psychology and elsewhere. But the discussion, at least in how it connects to gender, is incomplete: the focus is only on cisgender women and their experiences. By considering trans women's experiences of stereotype threat and attributional ambiguity, we gain (...)
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  5. Elizabeth Spelman, Gender Realism, and Women.Mari Mikkola - 2006 - Hypatia 21 (4):77-96.
    : Elizabeth Spelman has famously argued against gender realism. By and large, feminist philosophers have embraced Spelman's arguments and deemed gender realist positions counterproductive. To the contrary, Mikkola shows that Spelman's arguments do not in actual fact give good reason to reject gender realism in general. She then suggests a way to understand gender realism that does not have the adverse consequences feminist philosophers commonly think gender realist positions have.
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