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  1. Because You’Ll Find Out Anyway, Your Wife is Having an Affair - If and Because.Rani Lill Anjum - manuscript
    In an explanation ‘y because x’, because can be used to express an explanatory relation between an explanandum ‘y’ and an explanans ‘x’. But because can also be used to express the speaker’s reason for uttering ‘y’. This difference will be elucidated by connecting it with the distinction between the at-issue dimension and the speaker dimension of meaning. There are also internal relations between if and because that can help us find and analyse different uses of because, and thus also (...)
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  2. Three Dogmas of 'If'.Rani Lill Anjum - 2008 - In A. Leirfall & T. Sandmel (eds.), Enhet i Mangfold. Unipub.
    In this paper I argue that a truth functional account of conditional statements ‘if A then B’ not only is inadequate, but that it eliminates the very conditionality expressed by ‘if’. Focusing only on the truth-values of the statements ‘A’ and ‘B’ and different combinations of these, one is bound to miss out on the conditional relation expressed between them. But this is not a flaw only of truth functionality and the material conditional. All approaches that try to treat conditionals (...)
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  3. The Logic of `If' — or How to Philosophically Eliminate Conditional Relations.Rani Lill Anjum - 2007 - Sorites 19:51-57.
    In this paper I present some of Robert N. McLaughlin's critique of a truth functional approach to conditionals as it appears in his book On the Logic of Ordinary Conditionals. Based on his criticism I argue that the basic principles of logic together amount to epistemological and metaphysical implications that can only be accepted from a logical atomist perspective. Attempts to account for conditional relations within this philosophical framework will necessarily fail. I thus argue that it is not truth functionality (...)
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  4. Dispositions and Modals: A Short History.Alex Anthony - manuscript
    http://alexanthony.org/dispositions%20and%20modality.pdf.
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  5. C. B. Martin, Counterfactuals, Causality and Conditionals.David Malet Armstrong - 1989 - In J. Heil (ed.), Cause, Mind and Reality; Essays Honoring C. B. Martin. Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 7-15.
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  6. On the Tense Structure of Conditionals.Diane Barense - 1988 - Philosophy Research Archives 14:539-566.
    When philosophers and linguists theorize about the nature of conditionals, they tend to make a number of assumptions about the linguistic structure of these sentences. For example, they almost invariably assume that conditionals have “antecedents” and “consequents” and that these have the structure of independent clauses. With a few exceptions, they assume that conditionals are categorized according to whether they are in the “indicative” or the “subjunctive” “mood”. However, rarely do they formulate criteria for identifying these moods, or for distinguishing (...)
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  7. Hypotheticals: Conditionals and Theticals.John A. Barker - 1973 - Philosophical Quarterly 23 (93):335-345.
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  8. A Formal Analysis of Conditionals.John A. Barker - 1969 - [Carbondale, Southern Illinois University].
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  9. On the Semantics of Comparative Conditionals.Sigrid Beck - 1997 - Linguistics and Philosophy 20 (3):229-271.
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  10. A Philosophical Guide to Conditionals.Jonathan Bennett - 2003 - Oxford University Press.
    Conditional sentences are among the most intriguing and puzzling features of language, and analysis of their meaning and function has important implications for, and uses in, many areas of philosophy. Jonathan Bennett, one of the world's leading experts, distils many years' work and teaching into this Philosophical Guide to Conditionals, the fullest and most authoritative treatment of the subject. An ideal introduction for undergraduates with a philosophical grounding, it also offers a rich source of illumination and stimulation for graduate students (...)
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  11. Philosophical Guide to Conditionals.Jonathan Bennett - 2003 - Oxford University Press UK.
    Conditional sentences are among the most intriguing and puzzling features of language, and analysis of their meaning and function has important implications for, and uses in, many areas of philosophy. Jonathan Bennett, one of the world's leading experts, distils many years' work and teaching into this book, making it the fullest and most authoritative treatment of the subject.
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  12. Conditional Prospects in a Tenseless Language.Maria Bittner - manuscript
    DGfS workshop on Tense across Languages, Bamberg University, Germany. [handout].
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  13. Individuals and Possibilities (3): Notes on Issues Raised by Stone & Hardt (1997).Maria Bittner - manuscript
    This is the last of three lectures on anaphoric parallels between individuals and possibilities across languages (IMS, Stuttgart, 2000).
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  14. Time and Modality Without Tenses or Modals.Maria Bittner - 2011 - In Renate Musan & Monika Rathert (eds.), Tense across Languages. Niemeyer. pp. 147--188.
    In English, discourse reference to time involves grammatical tenses interpreted as temporal anaphors. Recently, it has been argued that conditionals involve modal discourse anaphora expressed by a parallel grammatical system of anaphoric modals. Based on evidence from Kalaallisut, this paper argues that temporal and modal anaphora can be just as precise in a language that does not have either grammatical category. Instead, temporal anaphora directly targets eventualities of verbs, without mediating tenses, while modal anaphora involves anaphoric moods and/or attitudinal verbs.
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  15. Topical Referents for Individuals and Possibilities.Maria Bittner - 2001 - In R. Hastings, B. Jackson & Z. Zvolensky (eds.), Proceedings from SALT XI. CLC.
    Partee (1973) noted anaphoric parallels between English tenses and pronouns. Since then these parallels have been analyzed in terms of type-neutral principles of discourse anaphora. Recently, Stone (1997) extended the anaphoric parallel to English modals. In this paper I extend the story to languages of other types. This evidence also shows that centering parallels are even more detailed than previously recognized. Based on this evidence, I propose a semantic representation language (Logic of Change with Centered Worlds), in which the observed (...)
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  16. Towards a Radically Pragmatic Theory of If-Conditionals.Gunnar Björnsson - 2011 - In K. P. Turner (ed.), Making Semantics Pragmatic (CRiSPI, Vol. 24). Emerald.
    It is generally agreed that constructions of the form “if P, Q” are capable of conveying a number of different relations between antecedent and consequent, with pragmatics playing a central role in determining these relations. Controversy concerns what the conventional contribution of the if-clause is, how it constrains the pragmatic processes, and what those processes are. In this essay, I begin to argue that the conventional contribution of if-clauses to semantics is exhausted by the fact that these clauses introduce a (...)
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  17. Comments on Lycan's ‘Conditional-Assertion Theories of Conditionals’.Gunnar Björnsson - 2007 - Philosophical Communications.
    The overall strategy of Lycan’s paper is to distinguish three kinds of conditional assertion theories, and then to show, in order, how they are variously afflicted by a set of problems. The three kinds of theory were the Quine-Rhinelander theory (or the Simple Illocutionary theory), The Semanticized Quine-Rhinelander, and the No Truth Value theory (or NTV). This strategy offers considerable clarity, but it comes at a cost, for what I take to be the best version of a conditional assertion theory (...)
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  18. A Philosophical Guide to Conditionals.John P. Burgess - 2004 - Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 10 (4):565-570.
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  19. Changing the Modal Context.John Cantwell - 2008 - Theoria 74 (4):331-351.
    Conditionals that contain a modality in the consequent give rise to a particular semantic phenomenon whereby the antecedent of the conditional blocks possibilities when interpreting the modality in the consequent. This explains the puzzling logical behaviour of constructions like "If you don't buy a lottery ticket, you can't win", "If you eat that poison, it is unlikely that you will survive the day" and "If you kill Harry, you ought to kill him gently". In this paper it is argued that (...)
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  20. Conditional Heresies.Fabrizio Cariani & Simon Goldstein - manuscript
    The principles of Conditional Excluded Middle (CEM) and Simplification of Disjunctive Antecedents (SDA) have received substantial attention in isolation. Both principles are plausible generalizations about natural language conditionals. There is however little or no discussion of their inter- action. This paper aims to remedy this gap and explore the significance of having both principles constrain the logic of the conditional. Our negative finding is that, together with elementary logical assumptions, CEM and SDA yield a variety of implausible consequences. Despite these (...)
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  21. Experimenting with (Conditional) Perfection.Fabrizio Cariani & Lance J. Rips - manuscript
    We present and discuss a series of experiments designed to test one of the most promising pragmatic accounts of conditional perfection—the phenomenon according to which conditionals can sometimes be strengthened to biconditionals. We test the idea that conditional perfection is a form of exhaustification triggered by the kind of question that the conditional is used to answer. We uncover evidence that conditional perfection is a form of exhaustification, but not that it is triggered by a relationship to a salient question.
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  22. Breaking de Morgan's Law in Counterfactual Antecedents.Lucas Champollion, Ivano Ciardelli & Linmin Zhang - manuscript
    The main goal of this paper is to investigate the relation between the meaning of a sentence and its truth conditions. We report on a comprehension experiment on counterfactual conditionals, based on a context in which a light is controlled by two switches. Our main finding is that the truth-conditionally equivalent clauses (i) "switch A or switch B is down" and (ii) "switch A and switch B are not both up" make different semantic contributions when embedded in a conditional antecedent. (...)
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  23. Conditional Preferences and Practical Conditionals.Nate Charlow - 2013 - Linguistics and Philosophy 36 (6):463-511.
    I argue that taking the Practical Conditionals Thesis seriously demands a new understanding of the semantics of such conditionals. Practical Conditionals Thesis: A practical conditional [if A][ought] expresses B’s conditional preferability given A Paul Weirich has argued that the conditional utility of a state of affairs B on A is to be identified as the degree to which it is desired under indicative supposition that A. Similarly, exploiting the PCT, I will argue that the proper analysis of indicative practical conditionals (...)
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  24. Investigation Into Certain Implication-Negation Fragments of Propositional Logic.Lung-ock Chung - unknown
    In this paper, we study the completeness property of some implication-negation fragments of propositional logics. By the phrase implication-negation fragment of a propositional logic, we understand the system consisting of all the theses which have implication and/or negation as their sole connectives in the said logic. This means, that we have to find a means to isolate, so to speak, all these theses and then axiomatize the resultant system. Our method of proof is by constructing a Gentzen type Sequenzen Kalkul (...)
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  25. Book Review:If P, Then Q: Conditionals and the Foundations of Reasoning David H. Sanford. [REVIEW]Daniel H. Cohen - 1992 - Philosophy of Science 59 (2):331-.
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  26. Conditionals: From Philosophy to Computer Science.G. Crocco, Luis Fariñas del Cerro & Andreas Herzig (eds.) - 1995 - Oxford University Press.
    This book looks at the ways in which conditionals, an integral part of philosophy and logic, can be of practical use in computer programming. It analyzes the different types of conditionals, including their applications and potential problems. Other topics include defeasible logics, the Ramsey test, and a unified view of consequence relation and belief revision. Its implications will be of interest to researchers in logic, philosophy, and computer science, particularly artificial intelligence.
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  27. Review: Conditionals in Context. [REVIEW]C. B. Cross - 2007 - Mind 116 (464):1119-1122.
    This is a review of Christopher Gauker, CONDITIONALS IN CONTEXT (Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 2005).
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  28. Lowe on Conditionals.Richard Davies - 1995 - Philosophical Quarterly 45 (181):477-486.
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  29. Grammar, Semantics and Conditionals.V. H. Dudman - 1990 - Analysis 50 (4):214 - 224.
    Any semantic theory is bound to presume some structure in the messages it analyses, and the success of the theory depends on getting this structure right. But discovering this structure is the business of grammar. Therefore grammar is a necessary preliminary to semantics. Semantic theories of conditionals vividly illustrate this. All presume a provably untenable ternary structure: antecedent, operator, consequent. And all can be shown committed as a result to a thoroughly unbelievable set of connections between sentences and their informational (...)
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  30. Antecedents and Consequents.V. H. Dudman - 1986 - Theoria 52 (3):168-199.
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  31. On Conditionals.Dorothy Edgington - 1995 - Mind 104 (414):235-329.
  32. A Unified Theory of Conditionals.Brian Ellis - 1978 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 7 (1):107 - 124.
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  33. The Metaphysical Consequences of Counterfactual Skepticism.Nina Emery - 2017 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 94 (2):399-432.
    A series of recent arguments purport to show that most counterfactuals of the form if A had happened then C would have happened are not true. These arguments pose a challenge to those of us who think that counterfactual discourse is a useful part of ordinary conversation, of philosophical reasoning, and of scientific inquiry. Either we find a way to revise the semantics for counterfactuals in order to avoid these arguments, or we find a way to ensure that the relevant (...)
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  34. If.Jonathan St B. T. Evans - 2004 - Oxford University Press.
    'IF' is one of the most important and interesting words in the English language, being used to express hypothetical thought. The use of conditionals such as 'if' also distinguishes human intelligence from that of all other animals. In this volume, Jonathan Evans and David Over present a new theoretical approach to understanding hypothetical thought. The book draws on studies from the psychology of judgement and decision making, as well as philosophical logic.
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  35. Review of Christopher Gauker, Conditionals in Context[REVIEW]Anthony Everett - 2006 - Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2006 (7).
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  36. Comic Relief for Anankastic Conditionals.Tim Fernando - manuscript
    Anankastic conditionals are analyzed in terms of events conceived as sequences of snapshots – roughly, comics. Quantification is applied not to worlds (sets of which are customarily identified with propositions) but to strings that record observations of actions. The account generalizes to other types of conditionals, sidestepping certain well-known problems that beset possible worlds treatments, such as logical omniscience and irrelevance. A refinement for anankastic conditionals is considered, incorporating action relations.
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  37. Austinian Ifs Revisited – And Squared Away with the Equivalence Thesis and the Theory of Conditional Elements.Joseph S. Fulda - 2012 - RASK 36:51-71.
    This paper deals with Austinian ifs of every stripe within classical logic. It is argued that they are truth-functional and the theory of conditional elements is used. Ellipsis is key. Corrects an error in Fulda (2010) in translation and therefore scope. -/- The PDF is made available gratis by the Publisher.
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  38. Rendering Conditionals in Mathematical Discourse with Conditional Elements.Joseph S. Fulda - 2009 - Journal of Pragmatics 41 (7):1435-1439.
    In "Material Implications" (1992), mathematical discourse was said to be different from ordinary discourse, with the discussion centering around conditionals. This paper shows how.
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  39. Reasoning with Imperatives Using Classical Logic.Joseph S. Fulda - 1995 - Sorites 3:7-11.
    As the journal is effectively defunct, I am uploading a full-text copy, but only of my abstract and article, and some journal front matter. -/- Note that the pagination in the PDF version differs from the official pagination because A4 and 8.5" x 11" differ. -/- Traditionally, imperatives have been handled with deontic logics, not the logic of propositions which bear truth values. Yet, an imperative is issued by the speaker to cause (stay) actions which change the state of affairs, (...)
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  40. Alpha Beta Pruning.Joseph S. Fulda - 1985 - SIGART Newsletter 94:26.
    Alpha-beta pruning is a technique for pruning trees in artificial intelligence game-playing. This note draws an analogy between the technique, which is, in essence, an application of many-valued logic to the cut-off of the evaluation of conditionals in computer programs (for efficiency).
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  41. A General Theory of the Conditional in Terms of a Ternary Operator.Dov M. Gabbay - 1972 - Theoria 38 (3):97-104.
  42. Conditionals in Context.Christopher Gauker - 2005 - MIT Press.
    "If you turn left at the next corner, you will see a blue house at the end of the street." That sentence -- a conditional -- might be true even though it is possible that you will not see a blue house at the end of the street when you turn left at the next corner. A moving van may block your view; the house may have been painted pink; a crow might swoop down and peck out your eyes. Still, (...)
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  43. Conditionals in Context.Christopher Gauker - 1987 - Erkenntnis 27 (3):293 - 321.
    This paper is obsolete. It is superseded by the book, Conditionals in Context, MIT Press, 2005.
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  44. Conditional Clauses: External and Internal Syntax.Liliane Haegeman - 2003 - Mind and Language 18 (4):317–339.
    The paper focuses on the difference between eventconditionals and premiseconditionals. An eventconditional contributes to event structure: it modifies the main clause event; a premiseconditional structures the discourse: it makes manifest a proposition that is the privileged context for the processing of the associated clause. The two types of conditional clauses will be shown to differ both in terms of their 'external syntax' and in terms of their 'internal syntax'. The peripheral structure of event conditionals will be shown to lack the (...)
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  45. Two Interpretations of Two Stoic Conditionals.Alan Hájek - 2014 - The Stoic Library.
    Controversy has surrounded the interpretation of the so-called 'Diodorean' and 'Chrysippean' conditionals of the Stoics. I critically evaluate and reject two interpretations of each of them: as expressing natural laws, and as strict conditionals. In doing so I engage with the work of authors such as Frede, Gould, Hurst, the Kneales, Mates, and Prior. I conclude by offering my own proposal for where these Stoic conditionals should be located on a 'ladder' of logical strength.
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  46. Stalnaker's Conditional and Bell's Problem.John F. Halpin - 1986 - Synthese 69 (3):325 - 340.
    In his (1981) paper, Stalnaker has revised his old theory of conditionals and has given the revision an interesting defense. Indeed, Stalnaker shows that this new theory meets the standard objections put to the old. However, I argue that the revision runs into difficulties in the context of quantum mechanics: If Stalnaker's theory of the conditional is assumed, then from plausible assumptions certain Bell-like conflicts with experiment can be derived. This result, I go on to argue, is a good reason (...)
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  47. Cause, Mind, and Reality: Essays Honoring C. B. Martin.John Heil (ed.) - 1989 - Norwell: Kluwer.
  48. Conditionals and Compositionality.James Higginbotham - 2003 - Philosophical Perspectives 17 (1):181–194.
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  49. What If? : An Enquiry Into the Semantics of Natural Language Conditionals.Guðmundur Andri Hjálmarsson - unknown
    This thesis is essentially a portfolio of four disjoint yet thematically related articles that deal with some semantic aspect or another of natural language conditionals. The thesis opens with a brief introductory chapter that offers a short yet opinionated historical overview and a theoretical background of several important semantic issues of conditionals. The second chapter then deals with the issue of truth values and conditions of indicative conditionals. So-called Gibbard Phenomenon cases have been used to argue that indicative conditionals construed (...)
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  50. When Structural Principles Hold Merely Locally.Ulf Hlobil - 2017 - In Pavel Arazim & Tomáš Lávička (eds.), The Logica Yearbook 2016. London: College Publications. pp. 53-67.
    In substructural logics, structural principles may hold in some fragments of a consequence relation without holding globally. I look at this phenomenon in my preferred substructural logic, in which Weakening and Cut fail but which is supra-intuitionistic. I introduce object language operators that keep track of the admissibility of Weakening and of intuitionistic implications. I end with some ideas about local transitivity.
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