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1 — 50 / 158
  1. added 2019-01-15
    “Saving Lives or Saving Stones?” The Ethics of Cultural Heritage Protection in War.Erich Hatala Matthes - 2018 - Public Affairs Quarterly 32 (1):67-84.
    In discussion surrounding the destruction of cultural heritage in armed conflict, one often hears two important claims in support of intervention to safeguard heritage. The first is that the protection of people and the protection of heritage are two sides of the same coin. The second is that the cultural heritage of any people is part of the common heritage of all humankind. In this article, I examine both of these claims, and consider the extent to which they align with (...)
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  2. added 2019-01-15
    Proportionality and Time.Jeff McMahan - 2015 - Ethics 125 (3):696-719.
    Proportionality in the resort to war determines a limit to the amount of harm it can be permissible to cause for the sake of achieving a just cause. It seems to follow that if a war has caused harm up to that limit but has not achieved the just cause, it should be terminated. I argue, however, that this is a mistake. Judgments of proportionality are entirely prospective and harms suffered or inflicted in the past should in general be ignored. (...)
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  3. added 2019-01-15
    The Deaths of Others: The Fate of Civilians in America's Wars.John Tirman - 2011 - Oxford University Press USA.
    Americans are greatly concerned about the number of our troops killed in battle--100,000 dead in World War I; 300,000 in World War II; 33,000 in the Korean War; 58,000 in Vietnam; 4,500 in Iraq; over 1,000 in Afghanistan--and rightly so. But why are we so indifferent, often oblivious, to the far greater number of casualties suffered by those we fight and those we fight for? This is the compelling, largely unasked question John Tirman answers in The Deaths of Others. Between (...)
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  4. added 2019-01-15
    Remembering in Vain: The Klaus Barbie Trial and Crimes Against Humanity.Willa Z. Silverman, Alain Finkielkraut, Roxanne Lapidus & Sima Godfrey - 1995 - Substance 24 (1/2):196.
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  5. added 2019-01-15
    Guerrilla and Counter-Guerrilla Warfare.William J. Pomeroy & Wilfred G. Burchett - 1965 - Science and Society 29 (4):469-472.
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  6. added 2018-09-18
    Ethical Responsibilities in Military-Related Work: The Case of Napalm.Stephen Contakes & Taylor Jashinsky - 2016 - Hyle: International Journal for Philosophy of Chemistry 1 (22):31-53.
    Two case studies are presented illustrating how leaders of chemical enterprises addressed ethical questions posed by the incendiary napalm. The first one examines how the chemist Louis Fieser grappled with the ethical questions posed by his development of the napalm incendiaries used against military and civilian targets in the Second World War. The second involves the Dow Napalm Controversy, in which Dow Chemical engaged protests over its role as a supplier of napalm to the American military in Vietnam. Dow weighted (...)
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  7. added 2018-09-04
    ONT Vol 5.Paul Bali - manuscript
    contents -/- i. for Shakespeare's Richard the Third -/- ii. the truth is i pass over so many words -/- iii. the boori nazar / nadhar -/- iv. i've awe for jihaad -/- v. short review: Hail, Caesar! -/- vi. a minute of Nothing, gone from YouTube -/- vii. we were rivalrous friends, again -/- viii. my bardo pdf -/- ix. within i'm a weak old mandarin .
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  8. added 2018-07-07
    Weighing Lives in War- Foreign Vs. Domestic.Saba Bazargan-Forward - 2018 - In Larry May (ed.), Cambridge Handbook on the Just War. pp. 186-198.
    I argue that the lives of domestic and enemy civilians should not receive equal weight in our proportionality calculations. Rather, the lives of enemy civilians ought to be “partially discounted” relative to the lives of domestic civilians. We ought to partially discount the lives of enemy civilians for the following reason (or so I argue). When our military wages a just war, we as civilians vest our right to self-defense in our military. This permits our military to weigh our lives (...)
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  9. added 2018-06-07
    Sharing the Costs of Fighting Justly.Sara Van Goozen - forthcoming - Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy:1-21.
    Combatants who attempt to obey the laws of war often have to take considerable risks in order to effectively discriminate between legitimate and illegitimate targets. Sometimes this task is made even more complicated by systemic factors which influence their ability to discriminate effectively without unduly risking their lives or the mission. If they fail to do so, civilians often pay the price. In this paper, I argue that to the extent that non-combatants benefit from the attempt to fight justly, and (...)
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  10. added 2018-03-05
    Proporcjonalność w etyce wojny. O ograniczaniu całkowitej liczby ofiar konfliktów zbrojnych.Tomasz Żuradzki - 2014 - Ethos(misc.) 106 (2):279-298.
    Przemocy jest coraz mniej – zarówno w czasie pokoju, jak i podczas wojen. Na przykładzie trzech konfliktów zbrojnych z ostatnich lat zastanawiam się, czy decydenci powinni prowadzić działania zbrojne w taki sposób, by zminimalizować całkowitą liczbę ofiar. Pokazuję, że ani obowiązujące obecnie normy prawa międzynarodowego, ani osądy moralne na temat dopuszczalności stosowania przemocy nie wymagają od decydentów ograniczania całkowitej liczby ofiar konfliktów zbrojnych w każdym przypadku.
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  11. added 2018-02-17
    Harming Civilians and the Associative Duties of Soldiers.Sara Van Goozen - 2018 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 35 (3):584-600.
    According to International Humanitarian Law and many writing on just war theory, combatants who foresee that their actions will harm or kill innocent non-combatants are required to take some steps to reduce these merely foreseen harms. However, because often reducing merely foreseen harms place burdens on combatants – including risk to their lives – this requirement has been criticised for requiring too much of combatants. One reason why this might be the case is that combatants have duties to each other (...)
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  12. added 2018-01-15
    Pro Mundo Mori? The Problem of Cosmopolitan Motivation in War.Lior Erez - 2017 - Ethics and International Affairs 31 (2):143-165.
    This article presents a new understanding of the problem of cosmopolitan motivation in war, comparing it to the motivational critique of social justice cosmopolitanism. The problem of cosmopolitanism’s “motivational gap” is best interpreted as a political one, not a meta-ethical or ethical one. That is, the salient issue is not whether an individual soldier is able to be motivated by cosmopolitan concerns, nor is it whether being motivated by cosmopolitanism would be too demanding. Rather, given considerations of legitimacy in the (...)
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  13. added 2017-12-13
    Terrorism, Jus Post Bellum and the Prospect of Peace.Anne Schwenkenbecher - 2017 - In Florian Demont-Biaggi (ed.), The Nature of Peace and the Morality of Armed Conflict. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 123-140.
    Just war scholars are increasingly focusing on the importance of jus post bellum – justice after war – for the legitimacy of military campaigns. Should something akin to jus post bellum standards apply to terrorist campaigns? Assuming that at least some terrorist actors pursue legitimate goals or just causes, do such actors have greater difficulty satisfying the prospect-of-success criterion of Just War Theory than military actors? Further, may the use of the terrorist method as such – state or non-state – (...)
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  14. added 2017-11-22
    Compensation and Proportionality in War.Saba Bazargan-Forward - 2017 - In Claire Finkelstein, Larry Larry & Jens David Ohlin (eds.), Weighing Lives in War. Oxford University Press).
    Even in just wars we infringe the rights of countless civilians whose ruination enables us to protect our own rights. These civilians are owed compensation, even in cases where the collateral harms they suffer satisfy the proportionality constraint. I argue that those who authorize or commit the infringements and who also benefit from those harms will bear that compensatory duty, even if the unjust aggressor cannot or will not discharge that duty. I argue further that if we suspect antecedently that (...)
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  15. added 2017-11-22
    Varieties of Contingent Pacifism in War.Saba Bazargan-Forward - 2014 - In Helen Frowe & Gerald Lang (eds.), How We Fight. Oxford University Press. pp. 1-17.
    The destruction wrought by even just wars lends undeniable appeal to radical pacifism, according to which all wars are unjust. Yet radical pacifism is fundamentally flawed. In the past decade, a moderate and more defensible form of pacifism has emerged. According to what has been called ‘contingent pacifism’, it is very unlikely that it is morally permissible to wage any given war. This chapter develops the doctrine of contingent pacifism by distinguishing and developing various versions of it, and by assessing (...)
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  16. added 2017-11-22
    Proportionality, Territorial Occupation, and Enabled Terrorism.Saba Bazargan - 2013 - Law and Philosophy 32 (4):435-457.
    Some collateral harms affecting enemy civilians during a war are agentially mediated – for example, the US-led invasion of Iraq in 2003 sparked an insurgency which killed thousands of Iraqi civilians. I call these ‘collaterally enabled harms.’ Intuitively, we ought to discount the weight that these harms receive in the ‘costs’ column of our ad bellum proportionality calculation. But I argue that an occupying military force with de facto political authority has a special obligation to provide minimal protection to the (...)
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  17. added 2017-02-20
    Risks and Robots – Some Ethical Issues.Peter Olsthoorn & Lambèr Royakkers - 2011 - Archive International Society for Military Ethics, 2011.
    While in many countries the use of unmanned systems is still in its infancy, other countries, most notably the US and Israel, are much ahead. Most of the systems in operation today are unarmed and are mainly used for reconnaissance and clearing improvised explosive devices. But over the last years the deployment of armed military robots is also on the increase, especially in the air. This might make unethical behavior less likely to happen, seeing that unmanned systems are immune to (...)
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  18. added 2017-02-09
    Rethinking the Military Paradigm.John McMurtry - 1991 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 34 (4):415-432.
    The article begins with an overview of the historic moment of ?the end of the Cold War?, and of the paradoxically deepening moral, social, and environmental problems posed by the military system. It demonstrates that historical and contemporary analyses of defence and war have dogmatically presupposed the military paradigm, and have therefore failed to recognize the self?reproducing structure of covert premisses and inferences upon which it rests. In laying bare this underlying system of unreason, the analysis demonstrates that the military (...)
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  19. added 2017-02-03
    From Central America to Iraq.Noam Chomsky - unknown
    Just last month, for example, John Negroponte went to Baghdad as US ambassador to Iraq, heading the world's largest diplomatic mission, with the task of handing over sovereignty to Iraqis to fulfil Bush's 'messianic mission' to graft democracy to the Middle East and the world, or so we are solemnly informed.
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  20. added 2017-02-03
    Leave No Oil Reserves Behind, Including Iraq's: The Geopolitics of American Imperialism.Edmund F. Byrne - 2006 - Radical Philosophy Today 2006:39-54.
    Just war theory needs to become a real-time critique of government war propaganda in order to facilitate peace advocacy ante bellum. This involves countering asserted justificatory reasons with demonstrable facts that reveal other motives, thereby yielding reflective understanding which can be collectivized via electronic media. As a case in point, I compare here the publicly declared reasons for the U.S./U.K. invasion of Iraq in 2003 with reasons discussed internally months and even years before in government and think-tank documents. These sources (...)
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  21. added 2017-01-16
    Cyberattacks as Casus Belli: A Sovereignty‐Based Account.Patrick Taylor Smith - 2015 - Journal of Applied Philosophy:222-241.
    Since cyberattacks are nonphysical, standard theories of casus belli — which typically rely on the violent and forceful nature of military means — appear inapplicable. Yet, some theorists have argued that cyberattacks nonetheless can constitute just causes for war — generating a unilateral right to defensive military action — when they cause significant physical damage through the disruption of the target's computer systems. I show that this view suffers from a serious drawback: it is too permissive concerning the types of (...)
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  22. added 2017-01-16
    Honor Among Thieves.John T. Sanders - 1993 - Professional Ethics, a Multidisciplinary Journal 2 (3):83-103.
    As complicated an affair as it may be to give a fully acceptable general characterization of professional codes of ethics that will capture every nuance, one theme that has attracted widespread attention portrays them as contrivances whose primary function is to secure certain obligations of professionals to clients, or to the external community. In contrast to such an "externalist" characterization of professional codes, it has occasionally been contended that, first and foremost, they should be understood as internal conventions, adopted among (...)
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  23. added 2017-01-12
    Just War Theory: What Is It Good For?Shawn Kaplan - 2012 - Philosophy in the Contemporary World 19 (2):4-14.
    The usefulness of Just War Theory (JWT) has been called into question in recent years for two key reasons. First, military conflicts today less frequently fit the model traditionally assumed by JWT of interstate wars between regular armies. Second, there is a perception that JWT has lost its critical edge after its categories and principles have been co-opted by bellicose political leaders. This paper critically examines two responses to these concerns which shift the locus of responsibility for wars towards either (...)
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  24. added 2016-12-12
    War: Essays in Political Philosophy.Larry May (ed.) - 2008 - Cambridge University Press.
    War has been a key topic of speculation and theorising ever since the invention of philosophy in classical antiquity. This anthology brings together the work of distinguished contemporary political philosophers and theorists who address the leading normative and conceptual issues concerning war. The book is divided into three parts: initiating war, waging war, and ending war. The contributors aim to provide a comprehensive introduction to each of these main areas of dispute concerning war. Each essay is an original contribution to (...)
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  25. added 2016-12-08
    Human Shields.Banu Bargu - 2013 - Contemporary Political Theory 12 (4):277-295.
    In recent decades, we have witnessed the emergence of new forms of warfare, which are characterized by asymmetry, irregularity and the cybernetization of weaponry. Waged from a distance, these wars have created the impression of decorporealization and low risk, at least for one of the contending parties. In contrast, the same asymmetric conflicts have been sites in which the human body has been utilized as a novel and lethal weapon. Although much scholarly attention has been paid to suicide attackers who (...)
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  26. added 2016-12-08
    Stephen Nathanson, Terrorism and the Ethics of War.C. A. J. Coady - 2012 - Social Theory and Practice 38 (3):560-567.
  27. added 2016-12-08
    New Wars and New Soldiers: Military Ethics in the Contemporary World.Paolo Tripodi & Jessica Wolfendale (eds.) - 2011 - Ashgate.
  28. added 2016-12-08
    Fugitive Reconciliation: The Agonistics of Respect, Resentment and Responsibility in Post-Conflict Society.Alexander Keller Hirsch - 2011 - Contemporary Political Theory 10 (2):166-189.
    Traditionally, transitional justice has referred to that field of theoretical scholarship that proffers recuperative strategies for political societies divided by a history of violence. Through the establishment of truth commissions, public confessionals and reparative measures, transitional justice regimes have sought to establish restorative conditions that might help reconcile historical antagonists both to each other and to the trauma of their shared past. Because of some of the theoretical lapses in this scholarship some have turned recently to the field of radical (...)
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  29. added 2016-12-08
    Moral Machines: Teaching Robots Right From Wrong.Wendell Wallach & Colin Allen - 2008 - Oxford University Press.
    Computers are already approving financial transactions, controlling electrical supplies, and driving trains. Soon, service robots will be taking care of the elderly in their homes, and military robots will have their own targeting and firing protocols. Colin Allen and Wendell Wallach argue that as robots take on more and more responsibility, they must be programmed with moral decision-making abilities, for our own safety. Taking a fast paced tour through the latest thinking about philosophical ethics and artificial intelligence, the authors argue (...)
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  30. added 2016-12-08
    Proportionality in the Morality of War.Thomas Hurka - 2005 - Philosophy and Public Affairs 33 (1):34-66.
  31. added 2016-12-05
    Against War: Views From the Underside of Modernity.Nelson Maldonado-Torres - 2008 - Duke University Press.
    Nelson Maldonado-Torres argues that European modernity has become inextricable from the experience of the warrior and conqueror. In _Against War_, he develops a powerful critique of modernity, and he offers a critical response combining ethics, political theory, and ideas rooted in Christian and Jewish thought. Maldonado-Torres focuses on the perspectives of those who inhabit the underside of western modernity, particularly Jewish, black, and Latin American theorists. He analyzes the works of the Jewish Lithuanian-French philosopher and religious thinker Emmanuel Levinas, the (...)
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  32. added 2016-11-21
    Just War, Noncombatant Immunity, and the Concept of Supreme Emergency.David K. Chan - 2012 - Journal of Military Ethics 11 (4):273-286.
    The supreme emergency exemption proposed by Michael Walzer has engendered controversy because it permits violations of the jus in bello principle of discrimination when a state is faced with imminent defeat at the hands of a very evil enemy. Traditionalists among just war theorists believe that noncombatants should never be deliberately targeted in war whether or not there is a supreme emergency. Pacifists on the other hand reject war as immoral even in a supreme emergency. Unlike Walzer, neither just war (...)
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  33. added 2016-11-21
    Editor's Introduction: War, Peace, and Ethics.David K. Chan - 2012 - Philosophy in the Contemporary World 19 (2):1-3.
    This is an introduction to a special volume of the journal, Philosophy in the Contemporary World, on "War, Peace, and Ethics" which contains ten original essays on a wide range of topics.
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  34. added 2016-11-21
    How War Affects People: Lessons From Euripides.David K. Chan - 2006 - Philosophy in the Contemporary World 13 (1):1-5.
    What do philosophers have to say about war beyond appeal to the just war doctrine? I suggest that they should concern themselves with the harmful consequences of war for the people who experience it. The ancient Greek tragedian Euripides was a moral philosopher of his time who wrote the plays Hecuba and The Trojan Women from the perspective of the losers in the Trojan War. There are striking parallels to the U.S. war in Iraq that began in 2003. Lessons that (...)
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  35. added 2016-11-20
    Moral Reasoning and Decisions on the Ground.David K. Chan - 2012 - Philosophy in the Contemporary World 19 (2):15-25.
    In this paper, I examine the difference between decision-making by soldiers and commanders, compared with leaders of the nation. Decision-making in the armed forces is prudential reasoning concerned with the best means to achieve given military objectives. I argue that those in the military cannot rationally make the moral choice to risk the lives of their own soldiers or jeopardize their mission in order to protect the lives of enemy civilians. This does not vindicate the realists who deny that morality (...)
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  36. added 2016-09-06
    Complicity, Collectives, and Killing in War.Seth Lazar - 2016 - Law and Philosophy 35 (4):365-389.
    Recent work on the ethics of war has struggled to simultaneously justify two central tenets of international law: the Permission to kill enemy combatants, and the Prohibition on targeting enemy noncombatants. Recently, just war theorists have turned to collectivist considerations as a way out of this problem. In this paper, I reject the argument that all and only unjust combatants are liable to be killed in virtue of their complicity in the wrongful war fought by their side, and that noncombatants (...)
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  37. added 2016-09-06
    Authorization and The Morality of War.Seth Lazar - 2016 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 94 (2):211-226.
    Why does it matter that those who fight wars be authorized by the communities on whose behalf they claim to fight? I argue that lacking authorization generates a moral cost, which counts against a war's proportionality, and that having authorization allows the transfer of reasons from the members of the community to those who fight, which makes the war more likely to be proportionate. If democratic states are better able than non-democratic states and sub-state groups to gain their community's authorization, (...)
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  38. added 2016-09-06
    Sparing Civilians.Seth Lazar - 2015 - Oxford University Press UK.
    Killing civilians is worse than killing soldiers. If any moral principle commands near universal assent, this one does. Few moral principles have been more widely and more viscerally affirmed. And yet, in recent years it has faced a rising tide of dissent. Political and military leaders seeking to slip the constraints of the laws of war have cavilled and qualified. Their complaints have been unwittingly aided by philosophers who, rebuilding just war theory from its foundations, have concluded that this principle (...)
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  39. added 2016-09-06
    Risky Killing and the Ethics of War.Seth Lazar - 2015 - Ethics 126 (1):91-117.
    Killing civilians is worse than killing soldiers. Although this principle is widely affirmed, recent military practice and contemporary just war theory have undermined it. This article argues that killing an innocent person is worse the likelier it was, when you acted, that he would be innocent: riskier killings are worse than less risky killings. In war, killing innocent civilians is almost always riskier than killing innocent soldiers. So killing innocent civilians is worse than killing innocent soldiers. Since almost all civilians (...)
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  40. added 2016-08-26
    The Nature of Peace & the Morality of Armed Conflict.F. Demont-Biaggi (ed.) - forthcoming - Palgrave.
  41. added 2016-06-14
    A Critique of the Right Intention Condition as an Element of Jus Ad Bellum.Greg Janzen - 2016 - Journal of Military Ethics 15 (1):36-57.
    According to just war theory, a resort to war is justified only if it satisfies the right intention condition. This article offers a critical examination of this condition, defending the thesis that, despite its venerable history as part of the just war tradition, it ought to be jettisoned. When properly understood, it turns out to be an unnecessary element of jus ad bellum, adding nothing essential to our assessments of the justice of armed conflict.
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  42. added 2016-04-26
    Assembling an Army: Considerations for Just War Theory.Nathan P. Stout - 2016 - Journal of Global Ethics 12 (2):204-221.
    ABSTRACTThe aim of this paper is to draw attention to an issue which has been largely overlooked in contemporary just war theory – namely the impact that the conditions under which an army is assembled are liable to have on the judgments that are made with respect to traditional principles of jus ad bellum and jus in bello. I argue that the way in which an army is assembled can significantly alter judgments regarding the justice of a war. In doing (...)
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  43. added 2015-08-31
    Peter A. French, War and Moral Dissonance. [REVIEW]Saba Bazargan - 2013 - Journal of Moral Philosophy 10 (1):116-119.
  44. added 2015-08-31
    Book Reviews:Just and Unjust Warriors: The Moral and Legal Status of Soldiers. [REVIEW]Saba Bazargan - 2009 - Ethics 119 (3):602-606.
    Book Reviews:Just and Unjust Warriors: The Moral and Legal Status of Soldiers.
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  45. added 2015-08-19
    War and Moral Responsibility: A "Philosophy and Public Affairs" Reader.Marshall Cohen (ed.) - 1974 - Princeton University Press.
    This remarkably rich collection of articles focuses on moral questions about war.
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  46. added 2015-08-04
    Targeted Killings: Legal and Ethical Justifications.Tomasz Zuradzki - 2015 - In Marcelo Galuppo (ed.), Human Rights, Rule of Law and the Contemporary Social Challenges in Complex Societies. pp. 2909-2923.
    The purpose of this paper is the analysis of both legal and ethical ways of justifying targeted killings. I compare two legal models: the law enforcement model vs the rules of armed conflicts; and two ethical ones: retribution vs the right of self-defence. I argue that, if the targeted killing is to be either legally or ethically justified, it would be so due to fulfilling of some criteria common for all acceptable forms of killing, and not because terrorist activity is (...)
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  47. added 2015-06-23
    Implementing Ethical Control of Weapons: An International Initiative.Roderick O'Brien - 2003 - Australian Journal of Professional and Applied Ethics 5 (1):59-69.
  48. added 2015-05-16
    Terrorism, Moral Conceptions, and Moral Innocence.Thomas J. Donahue - 2013 - Philosophical Forum 44 (4):413-435.
  49. added 2015-05-05
    Legislative Attack.E. Weizman - 2010 - Theory, Culture and Society 27 (6):11-32.
    Israel’s 22-day attack on Gaza in December 2008—January 2009 exposed a paradox: the attack was not only one of the most violent and destructive of Israel’s recent wars on the Palestinians and the one most strongly opposed by its critics, but also the one in which Israeli experts in international humanitarian law — the area of the law that regulates the conduct of war — were most closely involved. The article demonstrates how these facts are connected.
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  50. added 2015-05-05
    Civilian Immunity in the Precision-Guidance Age.Hugh White - 2010 - In Igor Primoratz (ed.), Civilian Immunity in War. Oxford University Press.
1 — 50 / 158