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Summary This section focuses on philosophy of conscious and nonconscious memory. With the advent of neuroimaging, there is flooding of data on the brain areas involved in the processing of aspects of conscious and nonconscious memory. These data could be used as an excellent base to formulate neural underpinnings of conscious experience. These data therefore can be used to initiate conversation between neuroscientists and philosophers. This conversation will help neuroscientists to expand their horrizon and design experiemnts that transcends biases in their scientific inquiries. It should also help philosophers propose novel ideas based on experimental data. Thus this section is intended to be a forum for formulation of novel pespective both in neuroscience and philosophy research.
Key works The relationship between neuroscience of memory and philosophy of human cognitiion has intrigued a number of cognitive scientists. A collection of articles of some of them can be found in Tulving 2000. For a relatively recent discussion Gifford 2011 is a good reading. Additional intersting work that make a connection between neurocience of memory and philosophical underpinnings of human congnition include: Schacter 1990, Schacter 1989, Badgaiyan 2005 and Badgaiyan 2012 Kihlstrom 1993 Moscovitch 1995 Moscovitch 1992
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  1. Yes, We Have Conscious Will.Mark Sharlow - 2007
    In this paper I examine Daniel M. Wegner's line of argument against the causal efficacy of conscious will, as presented in Wegner's book "The Illusion of Conscious Will" (Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 2002). I argue that most of the evidence adduced in the book can be interpreted in ways that do not threaten the efficacy of conscious will. Also, I argue that Wegner's view of conscious will is not an empirical thesis, and that certain views of consciousness and the (...)
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  2. Implicit and Explicit Processes in the Development of Cognitive Skills: A Theoretical Interpretation with Some Practical Implications for Science Education.Ron Sun, R. Mathews & and S. Lane - manuscript
    In: E. Vargios (ed.), Educational Psychology Research Focus, pp.1-26. Nova Science Publishers, Hauppauge, NY. 2007.
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  3. Attention and Awareness in Sequence Learning.Axel Cleeremans - forthcoming - Proceedings of the Fiftheenth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society:227-232.
    referred to as implicit learning (Reber, 1989). Implicit learning contrasts with explicit learning (exhibited for.
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  4. A Review of the Implicit Memory Research. [REVIEW]Peng Li - forthcoming - Science of Social Psychology.
    recent years,psychological researchers have focused on the implicit memory.We concluded two major experimental research paradigms in the implicit memory research:Task Dissociation Paradigm and Process Disso-ciation Paradigm.We summarized and estimated 4 main implicit memory models:threshold effect,activated perva-sion theory,multiple memory systems theory and transfer appropriate processing theory.And we elicited 4 major suggestions on the teaching on the basis of the implicit memory research outcomes.
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  5. Implicit Ve~ Uq Explicit Leaming Pursuit 毗 Hlg Panems.R. A. Magill & R. QaIk - forthcoming - Annual M∞ 6i1g 0f the North Ai 础 M Society the Psydl. 矗 0 0f Sp 咂 Ts Andn∞ Lactivity, D∞ 一 Vex, Co.
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  6. Chunking and Memory Capacity.G. Purdy, J. Markhan, C. Schwartz & C. Gordon - forthcoming - Journal of Experimental Psychology.
  7. From Transient Patterns to Persistent Structure: A Model of Episodic Memory Formation Via Cortico-Hippocampal Interactions.Lokendra Shastri - forthcoming - Behavioral and Brain Sciences.
  8. Evidence for an Implicit Influence of Memory on Future Thinking.Karl K. Szpunar - forthcoming - Memory and Cognition.
  9. The Inner World of Unaware Phenomena: Pathways to Brain, Behavior, and Implicit Memory.Bruce J. Diamond - 2023 - Lanham: Lexington Books.
    The authors argue that there is a world within us filled with memories, perceptions, tastes, preferences, biases, and beliefs that have been encoded and are expressed on an unaware, largely non-conscious level but, nevertheless, alter the quality, substance and trajectory of our lives.
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  10. Perception, Imagery, Memory and Consciousness.Magnus Johnsson - 2022 - Filozofia i Nauka. Studia Filozoficzne I Interdyscyplinarne 10:229-244.
    I propose and discuss some principles that I believe are substantial for perception, various kinds of memory, expectations and the capacity for imagination in the mammal brain, as well as for the design of a biologically inspired artificial cognitive architecture. I also suggest why these same principles could explain our ability to represent novel concepts and imagine non-existing and perhaps impossible objects, while there are still limits to what we can imagine and think about. Some ideas regarding how these principles (...)
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  11. Perception, Imagery, Memory and Consciousness.Magnus Johnsson - 2022 - Filozofia i Nauka 10:229-244.
    I propose and discuss some principles that I believe are substantial for perception, various kinds of memory, expectations and the capacity for imagination in the mammal brain, as well as for the design of a biologically inspired artificial cognitive architecture. I also suggest why these same principles could explain our ability to represent novel concepts and imagine non-existing and perhaps impossible objects, while there are still limits to what we can imagine and think about. Some ideas regarding how these principles (...)
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  12. Knowledge in Motion: How Procedural Control of Knowledge Usage Entails Selectivity and Bias.Ulrich Ansorge - 2021 - Journal of Knowledge Structures and Systems 2 (1):3-28.
    The use and acquisition of knowledge appears to be influenced by what humans pay attention to. Thus, looking at attention will tell us something about the mechanisms involved in knowledge (usage). According to the present review, attention reflects selectivity in information processing and it is not necessarily also reflected in a user’s consciousness, as it is rooted in skill memory or other implicit procedural memory forms–that is, attention is rooted in the necessity of human control of mental operations and actions. (...)
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  13. Locke on Memory.Vili Lähteenmäki - 2021 - In Jessica Gordon-Roth & Shelley Weinberg (eds.), The Lockean Mind. New York, NY, USA: pp. 138–148.
    This chapter charts Locke's commitments about memory and remembering through observing a range of phenomena of memory that Locke relies on in his discussion of the human mind. This chapter investigates Locke's notions of contemplation and implicit memory, the role of the first-person perspective, and conditions of possibility for veridical remembering.
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  14. The Impure Phenomenology of Episodic Memory.Alexandria Boyle - 2020 - Mind and Language 35 (5):641-660.
    Episodic memory has a distinctive phenomenology: it involves “mentally reliving” a past event. It has been suggested that characterising episodic memory in terms of this phenomenology makes it impossible to test for in animals, because “purely phenomenological features” cannot be detected in animal behaviour. Against this, I argue that episodic memory's phenomenological features are impure, having both subjective and objective aspects, and so can be behaviourally detected. Insisting on a phenomenological characterisation of episodic memory consequently does nothing to damage the (...)
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  15. Is Iconic Memory Iconic?Jake Quilty‐Dunn - 2020 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 101 (3):660-682.
    Short‐term memory in vision is typically thought to divide into at least two memory stores: a short, fragile, high‐capacity store known as iconic memory, and a longer, durable, capacity‐limited store known as visual working memory (VWM). This paper argues that iconic memory stores icons, i.e., image‐like perceptual representations. The iconicity of iconic memory has significant consequences for understanding consciousness, nonconceptual content, and the perception–cognition border. Steven Gross and Jonathan Flombaum have recently challenged the division between iconic memory and VWM by (...)
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  16. Reid’s View of Memorial Conception.Marina Folescu - 2018 - Journal of Scottish Philosophy 16 (3):211-226.
    Thomas Reid believed that the human mind is well equipped, from infancy, to acquire knowledge of the external world, with all its objects, persons and events. There are three main faculties that are involved in the acquisition of knowledge: (original) perception, memory, and imagination. It is thought that we cannot understand how exactly perception works, unless we have a good grasp on Reid’s notion of perceptual conception (i.e., of the conception employed in perception). The present paper argues that the same (...)
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  17. Memory and the Self: Phenomenology, Science and Autobiography. [REVIEW]Kourken Michaelian - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9:177.
  18. Saccadic Selection of Stabilized Items in Visuospatial Working Memory.Sven Ohl & Martin Rolfs - 2018 - Consciousness and Cognition 64:32-44.
  19. A Reading of Alexander Motyl’s Fall River Through the Lenses of Bordermemories.Tetiana Ostapchuk - 2018 - Kyiv-Mohyla Humanities Journal 5:83-95.
    This paper examines the concepts of borderlands, borderscapes, and bordermemories as cultural discursive practices that have been extensively presented and analyzed in an increasing number of theoretical works in Border Studies. Contemporary American Ukrainian writers have made attempts to introduce their hybrid experience and include it into American culture. One of them is Alexander J. Motyl, whose novel Fall River (2014) is analyzed as an example of border writing. The novel is based on the author’s narrative memory, rooted in his (...)
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  20. Can False Memory for Critical Lures Occur Without Conscious Awareness of List Words?Daniel D. Sadler, Sharon M. Sodmont & Lucas A. Keefer - 2018 - Consciousness and Cognition 58:136-157.
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  21. The Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of Memory.Sven Bernecker & Kourken Michaelian (eds.) - 2017 - Routledge.
    Memory occupies a fundamental place in philosophy, playing a central role not only in the history of philosophy but also in philosophy of mind, epistemology, and ethics. Yet the philosophy of memory has only recently emerged as an area of study and research in its own right. -/- The Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of Memory is an outstanding reference source on the key topics, problems and debates in this exciting area, and is the first philosophical collection of its kind. The (...)
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  22. Psychological Ownership: The Implicit Association Between Self and Already-Owned Versus Newly-Owned Objects.A. Nicole LeBarr & Judith M. Shedden - 2017 - Consciousness and Cognition 48:190-197.
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  23. Memory.Kourken Michaelian & John Sutton - 2017 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Remembering is one of the most characteristic and most puzzling of human activities. Personal memory, in particular - the ability mentally to travel back into the past, as leading psychologist Endel Tulving puts it - often has intense emotional or moral significance: it is perhaps the most striking manifestation of the peculiar way human beings are embedded in time, and of our limited but genuine freedom from our present environment and our immediate needs. Memory has been significant in the history (...)
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  24. Analogical Reminding and the Storage of Experience: The Paradox of Hofstadter-Sander.Stephen Robbins - 2017 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 16 (3):355-385.
    In their exhaustive study of the cognitive operation of analogy, Hofstadter and Sander arrive at a paradox: the creative and inexhaustible production of analogies in our thought must derive from a “reminding” operation based upon the availability of the detailed totality of our experience. Yet the authors see no way that our experience can be stored in the brain in such detail nor do they see how such detail could be accessed or retrieved such that the innumerable analogical remindings we (...)
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  25. Lost in Dissociation: The Main Paradigms in Unconscious Cognition.Luis M. Augusto - 2016 - Consciousness and Cognition 42:293-310.
    Contemporary studies in unconscious cognition are essentially founded on dissociation, i.e., on how it dissociates with respect to conscious mental processes and representations. This is claimed to be in so many and diverse ways that one is often lost in dissociation. In order to reduce this state of confusion we here carry out two major tasks: based on the central distinction between cognitive processes and representations, we identify and isolate the main dissociation paradigms; we then critically analyze their key tenets (...)
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  26. Implicit Attitudes and Implicit Prejudices.René Baston & Gottfried Vosgerau - 2016 - Philosophical Psychology 29 (6):889-903.
    In social psychology, the concept of implicit attitudes has given rise to ongoing discussions that are rather philosophical. The aim of this paper is to discuss the status of implicit prejudices from a philosophical point of view. Since implicit prejudices are a special case of implicit attitudes, the discussion will be framed by a short discussion of the most central aspects concerning implicit attitudes and indirect measures. In particular, the ontological conclusions that are implied by different conceptions of implicit attitudes (...)
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  27. Events, Narratives and Memory.Nazim Keven - 2016 - Synthese 193 (8).
    Whether non-human animals can have episodic memories remains the subject of extensive debate. A number of prominent memory researchers defend the view that animals do not have the same kind of episodic memory as humans do, whereas others argue that some animals have episodic-like memory—i.e., they can remember what, where and when an event happened. Defining what constitutes episodic memory has proven to be difficult. In this paper, I propose a dual systems account and provide evidence for a distinction between (...)
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  28. Skepticism: Genuine Unbelief or Implicit Beliefs in the Supernatural?Marjaana Lindeman, Annika M. Svedholm-Häkkinen & Tapani Riekki - 2016 - Consciousness and Cognition 42:216-228.
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  29. No Iconic Memory Without Attention.Arien Mack, Muge Erol, Jason Clarke & John Bert - 2016 - Consciousness and Cognition 40:1-8.
  30. The Effect of the Feeling of Resolution and Recognition Performance on the Revelation Effect.Hiroshi Miura & Yuji Itoh - 2016 - Consciousness and Cognition 45:100-108.
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  31. Vantage Perspective During Encoding: The Effects on Phenomenological Memory Characteristics.Nora Mooren, Julie Krans, Gérard W. B. Näring, Michelle L. Moulds & Agnes van Minnen - 2016 - Consciousness and Cognition 42:142-149.
  32. On the Alleged Memory-Undermining Effects of Daydreaming.Henry Otgaar, Colleen Cleere, Harald Merckelbach, Maarten Peters, Marko Jelicic & Steven Jay Lynn - 2016 - Consciousness and Cognition 39:8-17.
  33. Twin Memory.Syed Ismyl Mahmood Rizvi - 2016 - International Journal of Mind, Brain and Cognition 7 (1-2):147-163.
    In this article, I examine a new concept of “Twin Memory’ which has emerged in memory classification research of conscious and unconscious memory representations. It is to analyse the presence of twin memory among the various memory systems, and also to provide a platform for the twin memory “anatomy” in the field of cognitive science, neuropsychology and neuroscience.
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  34. Left Caloric Vestibular Stimulation as a Tool to Reveal Implicit and Explicit Parameters of Body Representation.A. Sedda, D. Tonin, G. Salvato, M. Gandola & G. Bottini - 2016 - Consciousness and Cognition 41:1-9.
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  35. Occlusions at Event Boundaries During Encoding Have a Negative Effect on Infant Memory.Trine Sonne, Osman S. Kingo & Peter Krøjgaard - 2016 - Consciousness and Cognition 41:72-82.
  36. How a High Working Memory Capacity Can Increase Proactive Interference.Merle A. Steinwascher & Thorsten Meiser - 2016 - Consciousness and Cognition 44:130-145.
  37. Mindful Learning Can Promote Connectedness to Nature: Implicit and Explicit Evidence.Xue Wang, Liuna Geng, Kexin Zhou, Lijuan Ye, Yinglin Ma & Shuhao Zhang - 2016 - Consciousness and Cognition 44:1-7.
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  38. A Matter of Focus: Detailed Memory in the Intentional Autobiographical Recall of Older and Younger Adults.Alaitz Aizpurua & Wilma Koutstaal - 2015 - Consciousness and Cognition 33:145-155.
  39. Comments on How Mack Et Al. See Iconic Memory.Talis Bachmann & Jaan Aru - 2015 - Consciousness and Cognition 34:73-74.
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  40. Learning General Phonological Rules From Distributional Information: A Computational Model.Shira Calamaro & Gaja Jarosz - 2015 - Cognitive Science 39 (3):647-666.
    Phonological rules create alternations in the phonetic realizations of related words. These rules must be learned by infants in order to identify the phonological inventory, the morphological structure, and the lexicon of a language. Recent work proposes a computational model for the learning of one kind of phonological alternation, allophony . This paper extends the model to account for learning of a broader set of phonological alternations and the formalization of these alternations as general rules. In Experiment 1, we apply (...)
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  41. The Centered Mind: What the Science of Working Memory Shows Us About the Nature of Human Thought.Peter Carruthers - 2015 - Oxford University Press UK.
    The Centered Mind offers a new view of the nature and causal determinants of both reflective thinking and, more generally, the stream of consciousness. Peter Carruthers argues that conscious thought is always sensory-based, relying on the resources of the working-memory system. This system enables sensory images to be sustained and manipulated through attentional signals directed at midlevel sensory areas of the brain. When abstract conceptual representations are bound into these images, we consciously experience ourselves as making judgments or arriving at (...)
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  42. Mutual Interferences Between Automatic Ongoing Spatial-Updating with Self-Motion and Source Recall.Mélanie Cerles, Eric Guinet & Stéphane Rousset - 2015 - Consciousness and Cognition 36:103-112.
  43. The Eye Movement Measure of Memory and its Relationship with Explicit Measures.Hsiang-Chun Chen & Yuh-Shiow Lee - 2015 - Consciousness and Cognition 33:354-363.
  44. Coherence Across Consciousness Levels: Symmetric Visual Displays Spare Working Memory Resources.Magda L. Dumitru - 2015 - Consciousness and Cognition 38:139-149.
  45. Cue Generation and Memory Construction in Direct and Generative Autobiographical Memory Retrieval.Celia B. Harris, Akira R. O’Connor & John Sutton - 2015 - Consciousness and Cognition 33:204-216.
    Theories of autobiographical memory emphasise effortful, generative search processes in memory retrieval. However recent research suggests that memories are often retrieved directly, without effortful search. We investigated whether direct and generative retrieval differed in the characteristics of memories recalled, or only in terms of retrieval latency. Participants recalled autobiographical memories in response to cue words. For each memory, they reported whether it was retrieved directly or generatively, rated its visuo-spatial perspective, and judged its accompanying recollective experience. Our results indicated that (...)
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  46. Explicit and Implicit Components of Visuo-Motor Adaptation: An Analysis of Individual Differences.Herbert Heuer & Mathias Hegele - 2015 - Consciousness and Cognition 33:156-169.
  47. Implicit Bias, Awareness and Imperfect Cognitions.Jules Holroyd - 2015 - Consciousness and Cognition 33:511-523.
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  48. A Process Model for Information Retrieval Context Learning and Knowledge Discovery.Harvey Hyman, Terry Sincich, Rick Will, Manish Agrawal, Balaji Padmanabhan & Warren Fridy - 2015 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 23 (2):103-132.
    In this paper we take a fresh look at the information retrieval problem of balancing recall with precision in electronic document extraction. We examine the IR constructs of uncertainty, context and relevance, proposing a new process model for context learning, and introducing a new IT artifact designed to support user driven learning by leveraging explicit knowledge to discover implicit knowledge within a corpus of documents. The IT artifact is a prototype designed to present a small set of extracted documents from (...)
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  49. The Relation Between Verbal and Visuospatial Memory and Autobiographical Memory.Steve M. J. Janssen, Gert Kristo, Romke Rouw & Jaap M. J. Murre - 2015 - Consciousness and Cognition 31:12-23.
  50. The Influence of Vertical Motor Responses on Explicit and Incidental Processing of Power Words.Tianjiao Jiang, Lining Sun & Lei Zhu - 2015 - Consciousness and Cognition 34:33-42.
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