About this topic
Summary This section focuses on philosophy of conscious and nonconscious memory. With the advent of neuroimaging, there is flooding of data on the brain areas involved in the processing of aspects of conscious and nonconscious memory. These data could be used as an excellent base to formulate neural underpinnings of conscious experience. These data therefore can be used to initiate conversation between neuroscientists and philosophers. This conversation will help neuroscientists to expand their horrizon and design experiemnts that transcends biases in their scientific inquiries. It should also help philosophers propose novel ideas based on experimental data. Thus this section is intended to be a forum for formulation of novel pespective both in neuroscience and philosophy research.
Key works The relationship between neuroscience of memory and philosophy of human cognitiion has intrigued a number of cognitive scientists. A collection of articles of some of them can be found in Tulving 2000. For a relatively recent discussion Gifford 2011 is a good reading. Additional intersting work that make a connection between neurocience of memory and philosophical underpinnings of human congnition include: Schacter 1990, Schacter 1989, Badgaiyan 2005 and Badgaiyan 2012 Kihlstrom 1993 Moscovitch 1995 Moscovitch 1992
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  1. Mechanisms of Remembering the Past and Imagining the Future – New Data From Autobiographical Memory Tasks in a Lifespan Approach.M. Abram, L. Picard, B. Navarro & P. Piolino - 2014 - Consciousness and Cognition 29:76-89.
  2. Response Feedback and Verbal Retention.Jack A. Adams, John S. McIntyre & Howard I. Thorsheim - 1969 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 82 (2):290.
  3. Thanks for the Memories: Extending the Hippocampal-Diencephalic Mnemonic System.John P. Aggleton & Malcolm W. Brown - 1999 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (3):471-479.
    The goal of our target article was to review a number of emerging facts about the effects of limbic damage on memory in humans and animals, and about divisions within recognition memory in humans. We then argued that this information can be synthesized to produce a new view of the substrates of episodic memory. The key pathway in this system is from the hippocampus to the anterior thalamic nuclei. There seems to be a general agreement that the importance of this (...)
  4. Conscious Awareness.A. R. Aitkenhead - 1993 - In P. S. Sebel, B. Bonke & E. Winograd (eds.), Memory and Awareness in Anesthesia. Prentice-Hall.
  5. A Matter of Focus: Detailed Memory in the Intentional Autobiographical Recall of Older and Younger Adults.Alaitz Aizpurua & Wilma Koutstaal - 2015 - Consciousness and Cognition 33:145-155.
  6. The Developmental Progression From Implicit to Explicit Knowledge: A Computational Approach.Martha Wagner Alibali & Kenneth R. Koedinger - 1999 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (5):755-756.
    Dienes & Perner (D&P) argue that nondeclarative knowledge can take multiple forms. We provide empirical support for this from two related lines of research about the development of mathematical reasoning. We then describe how different forms of procedural and declarative knowledge can be effectively modeled in Anderson's ACT-R theory, contrasting this computational approach with D&P's logical approach. The computational approach suggests that the commonly observed developmental progression from more implicit to more explicit knowledge can be viewed as a consequence of (...)
  7. Individual Differences in Implicit Learning Implications for the Evolution of Consciousness.Arthur S. Reber Rhianon Allen - 2000 - In Robert G. Kunzendorf & Benjamin Wallace (eds.), Individual Differences in Conscious Experience. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. pp. 227.
  8. Rational Versus Associative Processes.Colin Allen - unknown
    It is widely accepted that many species of non-human animals appear to engage in transitive inference, producing appropriate responses to novel pairings of non-adjacent members of an ordered series without previous experience of these pairings. Some researchers have taken this capability as providing direct evidence that these animals reason. Others resist such declarations, favouring instead explanations in terms of associative conditioning. Associative accounts of transitive inference have been refined in application to a simple five-element learning task that is the main (...)
  9. Freud Did Not Anticipate Modern Reconstructive Memory Processes.Esterson Allen & J. Ceci Stephen - 2006 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29 (5):517-518.
    In this commentary, we challenge the claim that Freud's thinking anticipated Bartlettian reconstructive theories of remembering. Erdelyi has ignored important divergences that demonstrate it is not the case that “The constructions and reconstructions of Freud and Bartlett are the same but for motive” (target article, sect. 5).
  10. Cueing and Retrieval in Free Recall.Max M. Allen - 1969 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 81 (1):29.
  11. Specializing the Operation of an Explicit Rule.Scott W. Allen & Lee R. Brooks - 1991 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 120 (1):3-19.
  12. Available and Accessible Information in Memory and Vision.J. Allik - 2000 - In Endel Tulving (ed.), Memory, Consciousness, and the Brain: The Tallinn Conference. Psychology Press/Taylor & Francis.
  13. Conscious and Unconscious Cognition: A Computational Metaphor for the Mechanism of Attention and Integration.D. A. Allport - 1979 - In L. Nilsson (ed.), Perspectives on Memory Research. pp. 61--89.
  14. Implicit Cognition and Drugs of Abuse.Susan L. Ames, Ingmar Ha Franken & Kate Coronges - 2006 - In Reinout W. Wiers & Alan W. Stacy (eds.), Handbook of Implicit Cognition and Addiction. Sage Publications.
  15. Effects of Task Characteristics on Memory Strategy and Performance in College-Students.Md Anderson & Pa Hornby - 1990 - Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 28 (6):493-493.
  16. Poststimulus Cuing in Immediate Memory.Nancy S. Anderson - 1960 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 60 (4):216.
  17. Memory in the Aging Brain.Nicole D. Anderson & Fregus Im Craik - 2000 - In Endel Tulving (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Memory. Oxford University Press.
  18. Nonconscious Sensation and Inner Psychophysics.Norman H. Anderson - 1993 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16 (1):137.
  19. Encoding Processes in the Storage and Retrieval of Sentences.Richard C. Anderson - 1971 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 91 (2):338.
  20. The Contribution of Working Memory to Conscious Experience.Jackie Andrade - 2001 - In Working Memory in Perspective. Psychology Press. pp. 60-78.
  21. Investigations of Hypesthesia: Using Anesthetics to Explore Relationships Between Consciousness, Learning, and Memory.Jackie Andrade - 1997 - Consciousness and Cognition 5 (4):562-80.
    This paper discusses the ways in which anesthetic agents can be used to investigate the role of awareness in learning and memory. It reviews research into learning during light, subclinical anesthesia, termedhypesthesia.This research suggests that the effects of anesthetics on implicit and explicit memory are roughly comparable, although implicit memory for simple stimuli may resist the effects of very low doses of anesthetic. In addition, this paper reports experimental data demonstrating that long-term retention of information is prevented by doses of (...)
  22. Is Schizophrenia a Disorder of Memory or Consciousness?N. Andreasen - 2000 - In Endel Tulving (ed.), Memory, Consciousness, and the Brain: The Tallinn Conference. Psychology Press/Taylor & Francis.
  23. The Process-Dissociation Approach Two Decades Later: Convergence, Boundary Conditions, and New Directions.Larry L. Jacoby Andrew P. Yonelinas - 2012 - Memory and Cognition 40 (5):663-680.
    The process-dissociation procedure was developed to separate the controlled and automatic contributions of memory. It has spawned the development of a host of new measurement approaches and has been applied across a broad range of fields in the behavioral sciences, ranging from studies of memory and perception to neuroscience and social psychology. Although it has not been without its shortcomings or critics, its growing influence attests to its utility. In the present article, we briefly review the factors motivating its development, (...)
  24. Association, Synonymity, and Directionality in False Recognition.Moshe Anisfeld & Margaret Knapp - 1968 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 77 (2):171.
  25. Memory During Probability Learning. Anonymous - 1969 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 80 (1):52.
  26. Effects of Attentive Encoding on Analytic and Nonanalytic Processing in Implicit and Explicit Retrieval Tasks.Linda J. Anooshian - 1989 - Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 27 (1):5-8.
  27. Generalization of Implicit Memory to Same-Name Pictures.Lj Anooshian - 1990 - Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 28 (6):488-488.
  28. Dreaming in the Late Morning: Summation of REM and Diurnal Cortical Activation.John Antrobus, Toshiaki Kondo, Ruth Reinsel & George Fein - 1995 - Consciousness and Cognition 4 (3):275-299.
    Since the discovery that the characteristics of dreaming sleep are far stronger in Stage 1 rapid eye movement sleep than in any other biological state, investigators have attempted to determine the relative responsibility of the tonic versus the phasic properties of REM sleep for the different characteristics of dreaming–features such as the amount of information in the dream report, the brightness and clarity of the visual images, shifts in thematic continuity, and incongruities of image and meaning. The present experiment is (...)
  29. The Implicit in the Writings of Jean d'Ormesson: The Tropes in La Douane de Mer.Manar Rouchdy Anwar - 2013 - Human and Social Studies 2 (3):78-109.
    This article is a discourse analysis based on a theory of figures of speech advocated by Orecchionni that analyzes implicit not only as a mark of literality but also as trope of illocutionary type not lexical, lexical, metaphorical or semantic. It considers also the explicit information of the novel through four levels of competency: linguistic, encyclopedic, logical and pragmatic rhetorical and analyzes the romantic statement according to the maxims of quantity, quality, relation or relevance and modality. This study shows, through (...)
  30. Cue-Dependent Forgetting in Paired-Associate Learning.Tannis Y. Arbuckle - 1974 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 103 (1):124.
  31. The Folk Psychology of Consciousness.Adam Arico, Brian Fiala, Robert F. Goldberg & Shaun Nichols - 2011 - Mind and Language 26 (3):327-352.
    This paper proposes the ‘AGENCY model’ of conscious state attribution, according to which an entity's displaying certain relatively simple features (e.g. eyes, distinctive motions, interactive behavior) automatically triggers a disposition to attribute conscious states to that entity. To test the model's predictions, participants completed a speeded object/attribution task, in which they responded positively or negatively to attributions of mental properties (including conscious and non-conscious states) to different sorts of entities (insects, plants, artifacts, etc.). As predicted, participants responded positively to conscious (...)
  32. Attributions of Implicit Prejudice, or "Would Jesse Jackson 'Fail' the Implicit Association Test?".Hal R. Arkes & Philip E. Tetlock - 2004 - Psychological Inquiry 15 (4):257-78.
  33. Memory and the Brain.M. B. ARNOLD - 1984 - Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
  34. Emotional Memory is Perceptual.Arnoud Arntz, Corlijn de Groot & Merel Kindt - 2005 - Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry 36:19-34.
    In two experiments it was investigated which aspects of memory are influenced by emotion. Using a framework proposed by Roediger (American Psychologist 45 (1990) 1043–1056), two dimensions relevant for memory were distinguished the implicit–explicit distinction, and the perceptual versus conceptual distinction. In week 1, subjects viewed a series of slides accompanied with a spoken story in either of the two versions, a neutral version, or a version with an emotional mid-phase. In week 2, memory performance for the slides and story (...)
  35. Organization in Normal and Retarded Children: Temporal Aspects of Storage and Retrieval.Mark H. Ashcraft & George Kellas - 1974 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 103 (3):502.
  36. The Relationships Among Working Memory, Math Anxiety, and Performance.Mark H. Ashcraft & Elizabeth P. Kirk - 2001 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 130 (2):224.
  37. Lost in Dissociation: The Main Paradigms in Unconscious Cognition.Luis M. Augusto - 2016 - Consciousness and Cognition 42:293-310.
    Contemporary studies in unconscious cognition are essentially founded on dissociation, i.e., on how it dissociates with respect to conscious mental processes and representations. This is claimed to be in so many and diverse ways that one is often lost in dissociation. In order to reduce this state of confusion we here carry out two major tasks: based on the central distinction between cognitive processes and representations, we identify and isolate the main dissociation paradigms; we then critically analyze their key tenets (...)
  38. Unconscious Knowledge: A Survey.Luis M. Augusto - 2010 - Advances in Cognitive Psychology 6:116-141.
    The concept of unconscious knowledge is fundamental for an understanding of human thought processes and mentation in general; however, the psychological community at large is not familiar with it. This paper offers a survey of the main psychological research currently being carried out into cognitive processes, and examines pathways that can be integrated into a discipline of unconscious knowledge. It shows that the field has already a defined history and discusses some of the features that all kinds of unconscious knowledge (...)
  39. Autobiographical Memory and Survey Methodology: Furthering the Bridge Between Two Disciplines.Nadia Auriat - 1992 - In Martin A. Conway, David C. Rubin, H. Spinnler & W. Wagenaar (eds.), Theoretical Perspectives on Autobiographical Memory. Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 295--312.
  40. Variability in the Storage and Use of Newborn Dried Bloodspots in Canada: Is It Time for National Standards?Denise Avard, Hilary Vallance, Cheryl Greenberg, Claude Laberge & Linda Kharaboyan - 2006 - Genomics, Society and Policy 2 (3):80-95.
    Storage and secondary use of bloodspots collected for newborn screening raises controversies because of the particularly sensitive nature of the information that can be derived from them and the lack of national standards and consistent provincial policies that can serve to guide storage facilities. This report, derived through a review of Canadian and provincial policy statements, a survey of provincial newborn screening laboratory directors and program directors, as well as through a consultative workshop, illustrates the social, ethical and legal issues (...)
  41. Long Term Implicit and Explicit Memory for Briefly Studied Words.Lee Averell & Andrew Heathcote - 2009 - In N. A. Taatgen & H. van Rijn (eds.), Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. pp. 978--0.
  42. The Dangers of Taking Capacity Limits Too Literally.S. E. Avons, Geoff Ward & Riccardo Russo - 2001 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (1):114-115.
    The empirical data do not unequivocally support a consistent fixed capacity of four chunks. We propose an alternative account whereby capacity is limited by the precision of specifying the temporal and spatial context in which items appear, that similar psychophysical constraints limit number estimation, and that short term memory (STM) is continuous with long term memory (LTM).
  43. .Badgaiyan RD Conscious Awareness & the Brain processingElements - 2005
  44. The Correlates of Manifest Anxiety in Stylus Maze Learning.Howard S. Axelrod, Emory L. Cowen & Fred Heilizer - 1956 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 51 (2):131.
  45. List of Contrlbutors.Murat Aydede, Kent Bach & Rod Bertolet - 1997 - In Dunja Jutronic (ed.), The Maribor Papers in Naturalized Semantics. Maribor. pp. 415.
  46. Part-List Reexposure and Release of Retrieval Inhibition.H. B., R. D. & J. M. - 2003 - Consciousness and Cognition 12 (3):354-375.
    In list-method directed forgetting, reexposure to forgotten List 1 items has been shown to reduce directed forgetting. proposed that reexposure to a few List 1 items only during a direct test of memory reinstates the entire List 1 episode. In the present experiments, part-list reexposure in the context of indirect as well as direct memory tests reduced directed forgetting. Directed forgetting was reduced when 50% or more of the items were reexposed, and was intact when only 25% were reexposed. Furthermore, (...)
  47. Working Memory Requires Conscious Processes, Not Vice Versa: A Global Workspace Account.Bernard J. Baars - 2003 - In Naoyuki Osaka (ed.), Neural Basis of Consciousness. John Benjamins. pp. 49--11.
  48. The Conscious Access Hypothesis: Origins and Recent Evidence.Bernard J. Baars - 2002 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 6 (1):47-52.
  49. A Biocognitive Approach to the Conscious Core of Immediate Memory.Bernard J. Baars - 2001 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (1):115-116.
    The limited capacity of immediate memory “rides” on the even more limited capacity of consciousness, which reflects the dynamic activity of the thalamocortical core of the brain. Recent views of the conscious narrow-capacity component of the brain are explored with reference to global workspace theory (Baars 1988; 1993; 1998). The radical limits of immediate memory must be explained in terms of biocognitive brain architecture.
  50. Some Essential Differences Between Consciousness and Attention, Perception, and Working Memory.Bernard J. Baars - 1997 - Consciousness and Cognition 6 (2-3):363-371.
    When “divided attention” methods were discovered in the 1950s their implications for conscious experience were not widely appreciated. Yet when people process competing streams of sensory input they show both selective processesandclear contrasts between conscious and unconscious events. This paper suggests that the term “attention” may be best applied to theselection and maintenanceof conscious contents and distinguished from consciousness itself. This is consistent with common usage. The operational criteria for selective attention, defined in this way, are entirely different from those (...)
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