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Summary This section focuses on philosophy of conscious and nonconscious memory. With the advent of neuroimaging, there is flooding of data on the brain areas involved in the processing of aspects of conscious and nonconscious memory. These data could be used as an excellent base to formulate neural underpinnings of conscious experience. These data therefore can be used to initiate conversation between neuroscientists and philosophers. This conversation will help neuroscientists to expand their horrizon and design experiemnts that transcends biases in their scientific inquiries. It should also help philosophers propose novel ideas based on experimental data. Thus this section is intended to be a forum for formulation of novel pespective both in neuroscience and philosophy research.
Key works The relationship between neuroscience of memory and philosophy of human cognitiion has intrigued a number of cognitive scientists. A collection of articles of some of them can be found in Tulving 2000. For a relatively recent discussion Gifford 2011 is a good reading. Additional intersting work that make a connection between neurocience of memory and philosophical underpinnings of human congnition include: Schacter 1990, Schacter 1989, Badgaiyan 2005 and Badgaiyan 2012 Kihlstrom 1993 Moscovitch 1995 Moscovitch 1992
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  1. M. Abram, L. Picard, B. Navarro & P. Piolino (2014). Mechanisms of Remembering the Past and Imagining the Future – New Data From Autobiographical Memory Tasks in a Lifespan Approach. Consciousness and Cognition 29:76-89.
  2. John P. Aggleton & Malcolm W. Brown (1999). Thanks for the Memories: Extending the Hippocampal-Diencephalic Mnemonic System. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (3):471-479.
    The goal of our target article was to review a number of emerging facts about the effects of limbic damage on memory in humans and animals, and about divisions within recognition memory in humans. We then argued that this information can be synthesized to produce a new view of the substrates of episodic memory. The key pathway in this system is from the hippocampus to the anterior thalamic nuclei. There seems to be a general agreement that the importance of this (...)
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  3. A. R. Aitkenhead (1993). Conscious Awareness. In P. S. Sebel, B. Bonke & E. Winograd (eds.), Memory and Awareness in Anesthesia. Prentice-Hall.
  4. Daniel O. Aleshire (2010). Connecting, Learning, and Working. Colloquy 18 (2).
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  5. Martha Wagner Alibali & Kenneth R. Koedinger (1999). The Developmental Progression From Implicit to Explicit Knowledge: A Computational Approach. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (5):755-756.
    Dienes & Perner (D&P) argue that nondeclarative knowledge can take multiple forms. We provide empirical support for this from two related lines of research about the development of mathematical reasoning. We then describe how different forms of procedural and declarative knowledge can be effectively modeled in Anderson's ACT-R theory, contrasting this computational approach with D&P's logical approach. The computational approach suggests that the commonly observed developmental progression from more implicit to more explicit knowledge can be viewed as a consequence of (...)
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  6. Allen Esterson & Stephen J. Ceci (2006). Freud Did Not Anticipate Modern Reconstructive Memory Processes. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29 (5):517-518.
    In this commentary, we challenge the claim that Freud's thinking anticipated Bartlettian reconstructive theories of remembering. Erdelyi has ignored important divergences that demonstrate it is not the case that “The constructions and reconstructions of Freud and Bartlett are the same but for motive” (target article, sect. 5).
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  7. Arthur S. Reber Rhianon Allen (2000). Individual Differences in Implicit Learning Implications for the Evolution of Consciousness. In Robert G. Kunzendorf & Benjamin Wallace (eds.), Individual Differences in Conscious Experience. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. pp. 227.
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  8. Scott W. Allen & Lee R. Brooks (1991). Specializing the Operation of an Explicit Rule. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 120 (1):3-19.
  9. J. Allik (2000). Available and Accessible Information in Memory and Vision. In Endel Tulving (ed.), Memory, Consciousness, and the Brain: The Tallinn Conference. Psychology Press/Taylor & Francis.
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  10. D. A. Allport (1979). Conscious and Unconscious Cognition: A Computational Metaphor for the Mechanism of Attention and Integration. In L. Nilsson (ed.), Perspectives on Memory Research. pp. 61--89.
  11. Susan L. Ames, Ingmar Ha Franken & Kate Coronges (2006). Implicit Cognition and Drugs of Abuse. In Reinout W. Wiers & Alan W. Stacy (eds.), Handbook of Implicit Cognition and Addiction. Sage Publications.
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  12. Md Anderson & Pa Hornby (1990). Effects of Task Characteristics on Memory Strategy and Performance in College-Students. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 28 (6):493-493.
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  13. Nicole D. Anderson & Fregus Im Craik (2000). Memory in the Aging Brain. In Endel Tulving (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Memory. Oxford University Press.
  14. Richard C. Anderson (1971). Encoding Processes in the Storage and Retrieval of Sentences. Journal of Experimental Psychology 91 (2):338.
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  15. Jackie Andrade (2001). The Contribution of Working Memory to Conscious Experience. In Working Memory in Perspective. Psychology Press. pp. 60-78.
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  16. Jackie Andrade (1997). Investigations of Hypesthesia: Using Anesthetics to Explore Relationships Between Consciousness, Learning, and Memory. Consciousness and Cognition 5 (4):562-80.
    This paper discusses the ways in which anesthetic agents can be used to investigate the role of awareness in learning and memory. It reviews research into learning during light, subclinical anesthesia, termedhypesthesia.This research suggests that the effects of anesthetics on implicit and explicit memory are roughly comparable, although implicit memory for simple stimuli may resist the effects of very low doses of anesthetic. In addition, this paper reports experimental data demonstrating that long-term retention of information is prevented by doses of (...)
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  17. N. Andreasen (2000). Is Schizophrenia a Disorder of Memory or Consciousness? In Endel Tulving (ed.), Memory, Consciousness, and the Brain: The Tallinn Conference. Psychology Press/Taylor & Francis.
  18. Moshe Anisfeld & Margaret Knapp (1968). Association, Synonymity, and Directionality in False Recognition. Journal of Experimental Psychology 77 (2):171.
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  19. Anonymous (1969). Memory During Probability Learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 80 (1):52.
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  20. Linda J. Anooshian (1989). Effects of Attentive Encoding on Analytic and Nonanalytic Processing in Implicit and Explicit Retrieval Tasks. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 27 (1):5-8.
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  21. Lj Anooshian (1990). Generalization of Implicit Memory to Same-Name Pictures. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 28 (6):488-488.
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  22. John Antrobus, Toshiaki Kondo, Ruth Reinsel & George Fein (1995). Dreaming in the Late Morning: Summation of REM and Diurnal Cortical Activation. Consciousness and Cognition 4 (3):275-299.
    Since the discovery that the characteristics of dreaming sleep are far stronger in Stage 1 rapid eye movement sleep than in any other biological state, investigators have attempted to determine the relative responsibility of the tonic versus the phasic properties of REM sleep for the different characteristics of dreaming–features such as the amount of information in the dream report, the brightness and clarity of the visual images, shifts in thematic continuity, and incongruities of image and meaning. The present experiment is (...)
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  23. Manar Rouchdy Anwar (2013). The Implicit in the Writings of Jean d'Ormesson: The Tropes in La Douane de Mer. Human and Social Studies 2 (3):78-109.
    This article is a discourse analysis based on a theory of figures of speech advocated by Orecchionni that analyzes implicit not only as a mark of literality but also as trope of illocutionary type not lexical, lexical, metaphorical or semantic. It considers also the explicit information of the novel through four levels of competency: linguistic, encyclopedic, logical and pragmatic rhetorical and analyzes the romantic statement according to the maxims of quantity, quality, relation or relevance and modality. This study shows, through (...)
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  24. Adam Arico, Brian Fiala, Robert F. Goldberg & Shaun Nichols (2011). The Folk Psychology of Consciousness. Mind and Language 26 (3):327-352.
    This paper proposes the ‘AGENCY model’ of conscious state attribution, according to which an entity's displaying certain relatively simple features (e.g. eyes, distinctive motions, interactive behavior) automatically triggers a disposition to attribute conscious states to that entity. To test the model's predictions, participants completed a speeded object/attribution task, in which they responded positively or negatively to attributions of mental properties (including conscious and non-conscious states) to different sorts of entities (insects, plants, artifacts, etc.). As predicted, participants responded positively to conscious (...)
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  25. Hal R. Arkes & Philip E. Tetlock (2004). ""Attributions of Implicit Prejudice, or" Would Jesse Jackson 'Fail'the Implicit Association Test?", 15 Psychol. Inquiry 257:275.
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  26. Magda B. Arnold (1984). Memory and the Brain.
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  27. Arnoud Arntz, Corlijn de Groot & Merel Kindt (2005). Emotional Memory is Perceptual. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry 36:19-34.
    In two experiments it was investigated which aspects of memory are influenced by emotion. Using a framework proposed by Roediger (American Psychologist 45 (1990) 1043–1056), two dimensions relevant for memory were distinguished the implicit–explicit distinction, and the perceptual versus conceptual distinction. In week 1, subjects viewed a series of slides accompanied with a spoken story in either of the two versions, a neutral version, or a version with an emotional mid-phase. In week 2, memory performance for the slides and story (...)
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  28. Mark H. Ashcraft & Elizabeth P. Kirk (2001). The Relationships Among Working Memory, Math Anxiety, and Performance. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 130 (2):224.
  29. Luis M. Augusto (2016). Lost in Dissociation: The Main Paradigms in Unconscious Cognition. Consciousness and Cognition 42:293-310.
    Contemporary studies in unconscious cognition are essentially founded on dissociation, i.e., on how it dissociates with respect to conscious mental processes and representations. This is claimed to be in so many and diverse ways that one is often lost in dissociation. In order to reduce this state of confusion we here carry out two major tasks: based on the central distinction between cognitive processes and representations, we identify and isolate the main dissociation paradigms; we then critically analyze their key tenets (...)
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  30. Luis M. Augusto (2010). Unconscious Knowledge: A Survey. Advances in Cognitive Psychology 6:116-141.
    The concept of unconscious knowledge is fundamental for an understanding of human thought processes and mentation in general; however, the psychological community at large is not familiar with it. This paper offers a survey of the main psychological research currently being carried out into cognitive processes, and examines pathways that can be integrated into a discipline of unconscious knowledge. It shows that the field has already a defined history and discusses some of the features that all kinds of unconscious knowledge (...)
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  31. Lee Averell & Andrew Heathcote (2009). Long Term Implicit and Explicit Memory for Briefly Studied Words. In N. A. Taatgen & H. van Rijn (eds.), Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. pp. 978--0.
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  32. S. E. Avons, Geoff Ward & Riccardo Russo (2001). The Dangers of Taking Capacity Limits Too Literally. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (1):114-115.
    The empirical data do not unequivocally support a consistent fixed capacity of four chunks. We propose an alternative account whereby capacity is limited by the precision of specifying the temporal and spatial context in which items appear, that similar psychophysical constraints limit number estimation, and that short term memory (STM) is continuous with long term memory (LTM).
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  33. Badgaiyan RD Conscious Awareness & the Brain processingElements (2005). .
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  34. H. B., R. D. & J. M. (2003). Part-List Reexposure and Release of Retrieval Inhibition. Consciousness and Cognition 12 (3):354-375.
    In list-method directed forgetting, reexposure to forgotten List 1 items has been shown to reduce directed forgetting. proposed that reexposure to a few List 1 items only during a direct test of memory reinstates the entire List 1 episode. In the present experiments, part-list reexposure in the context of indirect as well as direct memory tests reduced directed forgetting. Directed forgetting was reduced when 50% or more of the items were reexposed, and was intact when only 25% were reexposed. Furthermore, (...)
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  35. Bernard J. Baars (2003). Working Memory Requires Conscious Processes, Not Vice Versa: A Global Workspace Account. In Naoyuki Osaka (ed.), Neural Basis of Consciousness. John Benjamins. pp. 49--11.
  36. Bernard J. Baars (2002). The Conscious Access Hypothesis: Origins and Recent Evidence. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 6 (1):47-52.
  37. Bernard J. Baars (2001). A Biocognitive Approach to the Conscious Core of Immediate Memory. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (1):115-116.
    The limited capacity of immediate memory “rides” on the even more limited capacity of consciousness, which reflects the dynamic activity of the thalamocortical core of the brain. Recent views of the conscious narrow-capacity component of the brain are explored with reference to global workspace theory (Baars 1988; 1993; 1998). The radical limits of immediate memory must be explained in terms of biocognitive brain architecture.
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  38. Bernard J. Baars (1997). Some Essential Differences Between Consciousness and Attention, Perception, and Working Memory. Consciousness and Cognition 6 (2-3):363-371.
    When “divided attention” methods were discovered in the 1950s their implications for conscious experience were not widely appreciated. Yet when people process competing streams of sensory input they show both selective processesandclear contrasts between conscious and unconscious events. This paper suggests that the term “attention” may be best applied to theselection and maintenanceof conscious contents and distinguished from consciousness itself. This is consistent with common usage. The operational criteria for selective attention, defined in this way, are entirely different from those (...)
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  39. Bernard J. Baars (1996). When Are Images Conscious? The Curious Disconnection Between Imagery and Consciousness in the Scientific Literature. Consciousness and Cognition 5 (3):261-264.
  40. Bernard J. Baars (1987). What is Conscious in the Control of Action? A Modern Ideomotor Theory of Voluntary Action. In D. Gorfein & Robert R. Hoffman (eds.), Learning and Memory: The Ebbinghaus Centennial Symposium. Lawrence Erlbaum.
  41. Bernard J. Baars & Stan Franklin (2003). How Conscious Experience and Working Memory Interact. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 7 (4):166-172.
  42. Mary J. Bach (1974). Implicit Response Frequency and Recognition Memory Over Time. Journal of Experimental Psychology 103 (4):675.
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  43. Talis Bachmann & Jaan Aru (2015). Comments on How Mack Et Al. See Iconic Memory. Consciousness and Cognition 34:73-74.
  44. Elisabeth Bacon, Nathalie Huet & Jean-Marie Danion (2011). Metamemory Knowledge and Beliefs in Patients with Schizophrenia and How These Relate to Objective Cognitive Abilities. Consciousness and Cognition 20 (4):1315-1326.
    Subjective reports and theories about memory may have an influence on other beliefs and behaviours. Patients with schizophrenia suffer a wide range of deficits affecting their awareness of daily life, including memory. With the Metamemory Inventory in Adulthood we ascertained patients’ memory knowledge and thoughts about their own cognitive capacities and about several aspects of cognitive functioning: personal capacities, knowledge of processes, use of strategies, perceived change with ageing, anxiety, motivation and mastery. The participants’ ratings were correlated with their intellectual, (...)
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  45. A. Baddeley (2000). The Episodic Buffer: A New Component of Working Memory? Trends in Cognitive Sciences 4 (11):417-423.
  46. A. BAddeley (1992). Consciousness and Working Memory. Consciousness and Cognition 1 (1):3-6.
  47. A. D. Baddeley (1993). Working Memory and Conscious Awareness. In A. Collins, S. Gathercole, Martin A. Conway & P. E. Morris (eds.), Theories of Memory. Lawrence Erlbaum.
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  48. A. D. Baddeley (1992). Implicit Memory and Errorless Learning: A Link Between Cognitive Theory and Neuropsychological Rehabilitation. In L. R. Squire & N. Butters (eds.), Neuropsychology of Memory. Guilford Press. pp. 2--309.
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  49. A. D. Baddeley, D. L. Schacter & E. Tulving (1994). Memory Systems. In Memory Systems. MIT Press.
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  50. Alan Baddeley, John P. Aggleton & Martin A. Conway (eds.) (2002). Episodic Memory: New Directions in Research. Oxford University Press.
    The term 'episodic memory' refers to our memory for unique, personal experiences, that we can date at some point in our past - our first day at school, the day we got married. It has again become a topic of great importance and interest to psychologists, neuroscientists, and philosophers. How are such memories stored in the brain, why do certain memories disappear (especially those from early in childhood), what causes false memories (memories of events we erroneously believe have really taken (...)
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