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  1. The Provision of Family Planning Services in the Caribbean.Achanfuo Yeboah David - 2002 - Journal of Biosocial Science 34 (3):379-394.
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  2. Is Low Income a Constraint to Contraceptive Use Among the Pakistani Poor?Sohail Agha - 2000 - Journal of Biosocial Science 32 (2):161-175.
    This paper examines whether low income is a barrier to contraceptive use in Pakistan, a country in which economic conditions are deteriorating at a time when the private sector is becoming a more important supplier of contraception. Multivariate regression analysis performed using the Pakistan Contraceptive Demand Survey suggests that low income is a deterrent to modern contraceptive use in Pakistan. This is particularly the case for contraceptive methods supplied through the private sector. It is concluded that, if the aim of (...)
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  3. Contraception and Abortion: A Utilitarian View.Leslie Allan - manuscript
    Conservative and liberal approaches to the problem of abortion are oversimplified and deeply flawed. Accepting that the moral status of the conceptus changes during gestation, the author advances a more nuanced perspective. Through applying a form of rules in practice utilitarianism within the context of overall population policy, he provides a compelling ethical and legal framework for regulating contraception and abortion practices.
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  4. A Review Of: “Bryan Hilliard. The U.S. Supreme Court and Medical Ethics: From Contraception to Managed Health Care”. [REVIEW]George J. Annas - 2006 - American Journal of Bioethics 6 (1):50-51.
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  5. Public Goods and Procreation.Jonny Anomaly - 2014 - Monash Bioethics Review 32:172-188.
  6. Contraception and the Logical Structure of the Thomist Natural Law Theory.Richard H. Beis - 1965 - Ethics 75 (4):277-284.
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  7. Reproductive and Parental Autonomy: An Argument for Compulsory Parental Education.Lisa Bortolotti & Daniela Cutas - 2009 - Reproductive Biomedicine Online 19 (ethics suppl.):5-14.
    In this paper we argue that society should make available reliable information about parenting to everybody from an early age. The reason why parental education is important (when offered in a comprehensive and systematic way) is that it can help young people understand better the responsibilities associated with reproduction, and the skills required for parenting. This would allow them to make more informed life-choices about reproduction and parenting, and exercise their autonomy with respect to these choices. We do not believe (...)
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  8. Contraception and Anesthesia: A Reply to James DuBois.J. Boyle - 2008 - Christian Bioethics 14 (2):217-225.
    This is a response to James Dubois’ “Is anesthesia intrinsically wrong?” I do not address many of the claims in this article but only DuBois’ use of the moral evaluation of the medical use of anesthesia as a counter example to two lines of reasoning developed to defend the traditional Catholic prohibition of contraception. Elizabeth Anscombe's dialectical defense of this teaching does not imply that such a defense must logically apply to the use of anesthesia. John Finnis’ defense of this (...)
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  9. The Politics of Contraception: Birth Control in the Year 2001.J. Bury - 1982 - Journal of Medical Ethics 8 (4):208-209.
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  10. Conscientious Objection, Emergency Contraception, and Public Policy.Robert F. Card - 2011 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 36 (1):53-68.
    Defenders of medical professionals’ rights to conscientious objection (CO) regarding emergency contraception (EC) draw an analogy to CO in the military. Such professionals object to EC since it has the possibility of harming zygotic life, yet if we accept this analogy and utilize jurisprudence to frame the associated public policy, those who refuse to dispense EC would not have their objection honored. Legal precedent holds that one must consistently object to all forms of the relevant activity. In the case at (...)
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  11. Conscientious Objection and Emergency Contraception.Robert F. Card - 2007 - American Journal of Bioethics 7 (6):8 – 14.
    This article argues that practitioners have a professional ethical obligation to dispense emergency contraception, even given conscientious objection to this treatment. This recent controversy affects all medical professionals, including physicians as well as pharmacists. This article begins by analyzing the option of referring the patient to another willing provider. Objecting professionals may conscientiously refuse because they consider emergency contraception to be equivalent to abortion or because they believe contraception itself is immoral. This article critically evaluates these reasons and concludes that (...)
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  12. Response to Commentators on "Conscientious Objection and Emergency Contraception": Sex, Drugs and the Rocky Role of Levonorgestrel.Robert F. Card - 2007 - American Journal of Bioethics 7 (10):W4 – W6.
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  13. Humanae Vitae and Licit Contraception?Patrick J. Coffey - 1988 - Philosophy and Theology 3 (2):172-182.
    This paper critiques John Noonan’s recent attempt to show the compatibility of Humanae Vitae and contraception. Although Noonan’s arguments are rejected, an alternate approach for showing that sort of compatibility is explored.
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  14. Contraception and Altruistic Ethics.John M. Cooper - 1931 - International Journal of Ethics 41 (4):443-460.
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  15. Conscientious Objections in Pharmacy Practice in Great Britain.Zuzana Deans - 2013 - Bioethics 27 (1):48-57.
    Pharmacists who refuse to provide certain services or treatment for reasons of conscience have been criticized for failing to fulfil their professional obligations. Currently, individual pharmacists in Great Britain can withhold services or treatment for moral or religious reasons, provided they refer the patient to an alternative source. The most high-profile cases have concerned the refusal to supply emergency hormonal contraception, which will serve as an example in this article.I propose that the pharmacy profession's policy on conscientious objections should be (...)
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  16. Contraception and the Natural Law. Par Germain G. Grisez. Milwaukee, The Bruce Publishing Company, 1964, 245 P.Philippe Delhaye - 1965 - Dialogue 4 (3):412-415.
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  17. Abortion, Contraception, Infanticide.E. Devine Philip - 1983 - Philosophy 58 (226):513 - 520.
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  18. Contraception and Double Effect.Ezio Di Nucci - 2014 - American Journal of Bioethics 14 (7):42-43.
  19. Contraception, Copulation Domination, and the Theoretical Barrenness of Sex Education Literature.Joseph A. Diorio - 1985 - Educational Theory 35 (3):239-254.
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  20. Review of John P. Lizza, Ed., Potentiality: Metaphysical and Bioethical Dimensions. [REVIEW]Jake Earl - 2015 - American Journal of Bioethics 15 (8):10-12.
    Each of the 13 articles in this collection wrestles with intricate metaphysical and moral aspects of the widespread belief that a thing’s potential—what it could, would, might, or will be, but isn’t yet—matters for how we should treat that thing. As John Lizza explains in his lucid introduction, the articles are grouped into three parts according to their aims and theoretical constraints. In this review, I briefly summarize and offer some critical discussion of each part.
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  21. Contraception as a Test Case for the Development of Doctrine.M. John Farrelly - 2008 - Heythrop Journal 49 (3):453-472.
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  22. Conscientious Refusal and Access to Abortion and Contraception.Chloe Fitzgerald & Carolyn McLeod - forthcoming - In John Arras, Elizabeth Fenton & Rebecca Kukla (eds.), Routledge Companion to Bioethics. Routledge.
    An overview of the philosophical and bioethics literature on conscientious refusals by health care professionals to provide abortion and contraceptive services.
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  23. Eugenics, Contraception, Abortion and Ethics.R. Gillon - 1998 - Journal of Medical Ethics 24 (4):219-220.
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  24. Kant, Crimes Against Nature, and Contraception.Michael K. Green - 1983 - New Scholasticism 57 (4):501-516.
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  25. Privacy and Autonomy: From Warren and Brandeis to Roe and Cruzan.Thomas Halper - 1996 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 21 (2):121-135.
    Warren and Brandeis ' tort against invasion of privacy had chiefly a social goal: to enlist the courts to reinforce the norm of civility. Years later in Griswold v. Connecticut, the Supreme Court announced a constitutional right of privacy that was personal in focus. Here and in subsequent rulings on abortion and the " right to die," it became apparent that Warren and Brandeis ' Victorian " right to be let alone" had metamorphosed into a right to autonomy, whose amoeboid (...)
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  26. Antinatalism, Asymmetry, and an Ethic of Prima Facie Duties.Gerald K. Harrison - 2012 - South African Journal of Philosophy 31 (1):94-103.
    Benatar’s central argument for antinatalism develops an asymmetry between the pain and pleasure in a potential life. I am going to present an alternative route to the antinatalist conclusion. I argue that duties require victims and that as a result there is no duty to create the pleasures contained within a prospective life but a duty not to create any of its sufferings. My argument can supplement Benatar’s, but it also enjoys some advantages: it achieves a better fit with our (...)
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  27. Better Not to Have Children.Gerald K. Harrison & Julia Tanner - 2011 - Think, 10(27), 113-121 (27):113-121.
    Most people take it for granted that it's morally permissible to have children. They may raise questions about the number of children it's responsible to have or whether it's permissible to reproduce when there's a strong risk of serious disability. But in general, having children is considered a good thing to do, something that's morally permissible in most cases (perhaps even obligatory).
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  28. A Textual Emendation in a Fragment of Musonius Rufus: A Note on Contraception.Keith Hopkins - 1965 - Classical Quarterly 15 (01):72-.
    IN the fourth book of Stobaeus’ Anthologium, in a section entitled, ‘The Virtue of Having Children’, there is preserved a passage from the writings of the first-century Roman knight and Stoic, Musonius Rufus. This passage is headed: ‘Whether all children born should be raised’.
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  29. Conee and Marquis on Contraception.Russell L. Jacobs - 2002 - Southwest Philosophy Review 18 (2):101-105.
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  30. Contraception and the Natural Law.S. J. John L. Russell - 1969 - Heythrop Journal 10 (2):121–134.
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  31. Competing Needs and Pragmatic Decision-Making: Islam and Permanent Contraception in Northern Tanzania.Susi Krehbiel Keefe - 2008 - In Jonathan E. Brockopp & Thomas Eich (eds.), Muslim Medical Ethics: From Theory to Practice. University of South Carolina Press.
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  32. Emergency Contraception and Conscientious Objection.J. Paul Kelleher - 2010 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 27 (3):290-304.
    Emergency contraception — also known as the morning after pill — is marketed and sold, under various brand names, in over one hundred countries around the world. In some countries, customers can purchase the drug without a prescription. In others, a prescription must be presented to a licensed pharmacist. In virtually all of these countries, pharmacists are the last link in the chain of delivery. This article examines and ultimately rejects several standard moves in the bioethics literature on the right (...)
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  33. Intolerant Tolerance.George Khushf - 1994 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 19 (2):161-181.
    The Hyde Amendment and Roman Catholic attempts to put restrictions on Title X funding have been criticized for being intolerant. However, such criticism fails to appreciate that there are two competing notions of tolerance, one focusing on the limits of state force and accepting pluralism as unavoidable, and the other focusing on the limits of knowledge and advancing pluralism as a good. These two types of tolerance, illustrated in the writings of John Locke and J.S. Mill, each involve an intolerance. (...)
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  34. U.S. Pharmacists, Pharmacies, and Emergency Contraception.Waheeda Lillevik - 2006 - Business and Professional Ethics Journal 25 (1/4):39-66.
    This article addresses a set of exploratory questions related to emergency contraception and the right to refuse to dispense such drugs. The paper first addresses the roles of the pharmacist in American society, i.e., as professional, employee, and business owner, and the pharmacists’s identity and belief system; second, the paper reviews the status of state law and proposed legislation concerning patient/consumer access to emergency contraceptives; third, it offers an in-depth stakeholder analysis of the ethical and legal responsibilities of pharmacies to (...)
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  35. Contraception as a Test Case for the Development of Doctrine.Osb M. John Farrelly - 2008 - Heythrop Journal 49 (3):453–472.
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  36. Conscientious Refusals and Reason‐Giving.Jason Marsh - 2014 - Bioethics 28 (6):313-319.
    Some philosophers have argued for what I call the reason-giving requirement for conscientious refusal in reproductive healthcare. According to this requirement, healthcare practitioners who conscientiously object to administering standard forms of treatment must have arguments to back up their conscience, arguments that are purely public in character. I argue that such a requirement, though attractive in some ways, faces an overlooked epistemic problem: it is either too easy or too difficult to satisfy in standard cases. I close by briefly considering (...)
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  37. The Contralife Argument and the Principle of Double Effect.Lawrence Masek - 2011 - National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly 11 (1):83-97.
  38. On Some Proposals for Producing Human Stem Cells.Lawrence Masek - 2010 - National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly 10 (2):257-264.
  39. Improving the Analogies in Contralife Arguments.Lawrence Masek - 2008 - Heythrop Journal 49 (3):442-452.
  40. Treating Humanity as an Inviolable End.Lawrence Masek - 2008 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 33 (1):1-16.
    I argue that contraception is morally wrong but that periodic abstinence (or natural family planning) is not. Further, I argue that altered nuclear transfer—a proposed technique for creating human stem cells without destroying human embryos—is morally wrong for the same reason that contraception is. Contrary to what readers might expect, my argument assumes nothing about the morality of cloning or abortion and requires no premises about God or natural teleology. Instead, I argue that contraception and altered nuclear transfer are morally (...)
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  41. A Contralife Argument Against Altered Nuclear Transfer.Lawrence Masek - 2006 - National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly 6 (2):235-240.
  42. Providing Subsidies and Incentives for Norplant, Sterilization and Other Contraception: Allowing Economic Theory to Inform Ethical Analysis.Jane Gilbert Mauldon - 2003 - Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics 31 (3):351-364.
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  43. Harm or Mere Inconvenience? Denying Women Emergency Contraception.Carolyn Mcleod - 2010 - Hypatia 25 (1):11-30.
    This paper addresses the likely impact on women of being denied emergency contraception (EC) by pharmacists who conscientiously refuse to provide it. A common view—defended by Elizabeth Fenton and Loren Lomasky, among others—is that these refusals inconvenience rather than harm women so long as the women can easily get EC somewhere else nearby. I argue from a feminist perspective that the refusals harm women even when they can easily get EC somewhere else nearby.
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  44. La contraception chez les personnes handicapées mentalesCommentaire de l'avis du CCNE n∘ 19 du 3 avril 1996.G. Memeteau - 1998 - Médecine Et Droit 1998 (29):15-18.
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  45. When 'Emergency Contraception' is Neither.Timothy F. Murphy - 2007 - American Journal of Bioethics 7 (8):7-7.
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  46. Feminism, Social Policy, and Long-Acting Contraception.Hilde Lindemann Nelson & James Lindemann Nelson - 1995 - Hastings Center Report 25 (1):30-32.
  47. Insurance: Exclusion of Contraception Found Discriminatory by EEOC.Wendy Netter - 2001 - Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics 28 (s4):104-106.
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  48. Killing, Abortion, and Contraception: A Reply to Marquis.Alastair Norcross - 1990 - Journal of Philosophy 87 (5):268-277.
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  49. Contraception Confusion: Why Casey and Colleagues Have It Wrong.Andrew Dean Foley Ross - 2012 - American Journal of Bioethics 12 (7):40 - 41.
    The American Journal of Bioethics, Volume 12, Issue 7, Page 40-41, July 2012.
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  50. Contraception and the Natural Law.John L. Russell - 1969 - Heythrop Journal 10 (2):121-134.
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