About this topic
Summary

Critical Theory refers to a form of self-reflexive social critique as well as a particular tradition associated with the Institute for Social Research (Institut für Sozialforschung), a.k.a. the Frankfurt School. Early Frankfurt School theorists combined a Hegelian Marxist social criticism with other emancipatory approaches, such as psychoanalysis and cultural critique, taking a genuinely anti-positivist and interdisciplinary approach. Critical theory was intended to contribute to the “intensification of the struggle with which the theory is connected,” wrote Horkheimer, becoming a material force in the “transformation of society as a whole” (219). Theorists associated with the early Frankfurt School include Theodor Adorno, Max Horkheimer, Herbert Marcuse, and Walter Benjamin, while contemporary figures such as Jürgen Habermas, Axel Honneth, Nancy Fraser, and Seyla Benhabib continue the tradition with non-Marxist forms of critique grounded in, for example, communicative reason and social recognition. Today, Critical Theory refers to a broader spectrum of social theorists in poststructuralist, feminist, queer, critical race, disability, and postcolonial theory, such as Michel Foucault, Judith Butler, Angela Davis, Paulo Freire, Frantz Fanon, Enrique Dussel, Gayatri Spivak, Giorgio Agamben, Jacque Rancière, and Slavoj Žižek.

Key works

Max Horkheimer’s 1937 essay “Traditional and Critical Theory” (in Horkheimer 1972) is a foundational text, outlining the Institute’s interdisciplinary methodology and critique of "traditional" theory. Other important works by early Frankfurt School theorists include Theodor Adorno and Max Horkheimer, Dialectic of Enlightenment; Theodor Adorno, Minima Moralia and Negative Dialectics; short works by Walter Benjamin in Illuminations and Reflections, particularly his essays “The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction” and “On Violence”; and Herbert Marcuse, One-Dimensional Man and Eros and Civilization. Jürgen Habermas’ two-volume work The Theory of Communicative Action represents a break from the earlier Marxist tendencies of the Institute, laying out a new normative foundation for critique in communicative reason. Axel Honneth, the current director of the Institute for Social Research, has alternatively reconstructed the Hegelian notion of social recognition in his critiques of social injustices and social pathologies in Struggle for Recognition and Freedom’s Right. Seyla Benhabib’s Critique, Norm, and Utopia and Nancy Fraser’s Unruly Practices are also important works in the Frankfurt School tradition. Seminal texts beyond this tradition include, for example, Frantz Fanon’s Wretched of the Earth, Paulo Freire’s Pedagogy of the Oppressed, Michel Foucault’s Discipline and Punish, Judith Butler’s Gender Trouble Enrique Dussel’s Ethics of Liberation, Gayatri Spivak’s “Can the Subaltern Speak?”, and Giorgio Agamben’s Homo Sacer.

Introductions

The best scholarly introductions to the Frankfurt School tradition in English are Jay 1973, Held 1980, and Wiggershaus 1994. Jay Bernstein has edited the six-volume collection: The Frankfurt School: Critical Assessment and the publications of the Institute’s journal Zeitscrift für Sozialforschung (1932-1941) are available in a nine-volume set. Notable anthologies on the Frankfurt School and critical theory more generally include Andrew Arato and Eike Gebhardt (eds.), The Essential Frankfurt School Reader, Stephen Eric Bronner and Douglas MacKay Kellner (eds.), Critical Theory and Society, David Rasmussen, The Handbook of Critical Theory, Benhabib, Butler, Cornell, and Fraser, Feminist Contentions; Seyla Benhabib and Drucilla Cornell (eds.), Feminism as Critique, William Rehg and James Bohman (eds), Pluralism and the Pragmatic Turn, Kimberlé Crenshaw, Neil Gotanda, et al. (eds.), Critical Race Theory, Philomena Essed and David Theo Goldberg (eds.), Race Critical Theories, Patrick Williams and Laura Chrisman (eds.), Colonial Discourse and Post-Colonial Theory, and two volumes on the “idea of communism”: Costas Douzinas and Slavoj Žižek (eds.),The Idea of Communism, and Slavoj Žižek (ed.), The Idea of Communism, Volume II.

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  1. Against the Extremes: Georg Simmel’s Social and Economic Pluralism.Johannes Steizinger - forthcoming - British Journal for the History of Philosophy.
    We live in times of an increasing polarization in which the margins of the political spectrum begin to dominate our social imagination again. While the neoliberal iteration of the capitalist project suggests an extreme individualism as the normative default position, the devastating impact of the globalized economy on many has reignited the pursuit of socialist alternatives. In this constellation, Simmel’s social theory of modernity can be a useful resource to undercut the return of the old battle between opposite economic systems. (...)
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  2. Introduction: American Philosophy and the Intellectual Migration.Sander Verhaegh - forthcoming - In American Philosophy and the Intellectual Migration: Pragmatism, Logical Empiricism, Phenomenology, Critical Theory. Berlin: De Gruyter.
  3. Reseña: Blom, Philipp. El gran teatro del mundo. Traducido por Daniel Najmías, Anagrama, 2023, 144 pp. [REVIEW]Jhon Acuña - 2024 - Perifrasis. Rev. Lit. Teor. Crit 15 (32):149-151.
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  4. Gender Dysphoria for Critical Theory.Penelope Haulotte - 2024 - Feminist Philosophy Quarterly 10 (1).
    Gender dysphoria is typically construed as a medical concept. This understanding of gender dysphoria reflects how cisgender people interpret trans experience. This essay proposes an alternative concept of gender dysphoria for critical theory: on this account, gender dysphoria is alienation from cisgender forms of life. If the medicalized concept of gender dysphoria tacitly takes for granted, identifies with, and thereby reinforces cisgender patriarchal society, a critical theory of gender dysphoria instead approaches the issue from the perspective of trans people, their (...)
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  5. Populism and critical theory: On Arato and Cohen.Patrick O’Mahony - 2024 - Philosophy and Social Criticism 50 (6):890-897.
    The book contains an extraordinary condensation of important themes regarding populism. It brings social and political science together with normative philosophy, something badly needed today in critical theory to advance its theoretical-empirical approach. But it is precisely the kind of interpretation of critical theory presented in the book that is the focus of these brief comments. In particular, I mainly ask about the relation to second-generation critical theory. In this context, the comments particularly address kinds and levels of cultural structure (...)
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  6. Against Negativism: Why Critical Theory Should Appeal to the Good.Luca Hemmerich - 2024 - Political Philosophy 1 (1):105-127.
    In this article, I argue against negativism in critical theory. Negativism holds that critical theory should avoid appealing to explicit positive normative standards (“the good”) in its social critique. I distinguish between two types of negativism prevalent in critical theory. While dialectical negativism claims that we can approach the good in a negative way, radical negativism rejects such appeals entirely. I then review three motivations for negativism: that appealing to the good is epistemically precarious, normatively inadequate, and unimportant for the (...)
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  7. Postscript to Traditional and Critical Theory.Max Horkheimer - 1968 - In . pp. 244-252.
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  8. Fortschritt und Regression.Rahel Jaeggi - 2018 - Berlin: Suhrkamp.
    Die Abschaffung der Sklaverei, die Einführung sozialer Sicherungssysteme, die Sanktionierung von Vergewaltigung in der Ehe gelten gemeinhin als gesellschaftlicher Fortschritt – als ein Wandel zum Besseren. Dennoch hat die Idee einer generellen Fortschrittsbewegung ihren alten Glanz verloren, ja, sie ruft sogar Skepsis hervor. In aller Munde ist hingegen die Diagnose der Regression. Sie wird diversen Zeiterscheinungen gestellt, vom rechtsautoritären Populismus bis zur Demokratiemüdigkeit. -/- Rahel Jaeggi verteidigt in ihrem Buch das Begriffspaar Fortschritt und Regression als unverzichtbares sozialphilosophisches Werkzeug für die (...)
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  9. Routledge Handbook of Poverty.David Ingram (ed.) - forthcoming
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  10. Critical Theory and the Political.David Ingram (ed.) - forthcoming - Manchester, UK: Manchester University.
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  11. The Role of the Law in Critical Theory: An Engagement with Hardt and Negri’s Commonwealth.Mikhaïl Xifaras - 2024 - Law and Critique 35 (1):19-62.
    This paper discusses the role of Law and Legal Thinking in Critical Theory with specific reference to the arguments that Michael Hardt and Antonio Negri offer in their book Commonwealth. The core idea is that Critical Theory is no less radical, but much more concrete, when it is performing not only an external, but also an internal critique of the Law. It shows that the role of the law in critical theory emerges as a problem when the latter claims that (...)
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  12. Contesting the Far Right: A Psychoanalytic and Feminist Critical Theory Approach.Claudia Leeb - 2024 - Columbia University Press.
    Why have so many people responded to the insecurity, exploitation, alienation, and isolation of precarity capitalism by supporting the far right? In this timely book, Claudia Leeb argues that psychoanalytic and feminist critical theory illuminates how economic and psychological factors interact to produce this extreme political shift. Contesting the Far Right examines right-wing recruitment tactics in the United States and Austria, where people discontented with the status quo have turned to far-right parties and movements that further cement capitalism’s adverse effects. (...)
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  13. Book Review: Toward a Critical Theory of Nature: Capital, Ecology and Dialectics. [REVIEW]Austin Cottrell - forthcoming - Philosophy and Social Criticism.
  14. The right-wing mirror of critical theory: studies of Schmitt, Oakeshott, Hayek, Strauss, and Rand.Charles A. Prusik - forthcoming - Contemporary Political Theory:1-4.
  15. 霍耐特选集 [Selected Works of Axel Honneth]; 阿克塞尔·霍耐特、雅克·朗西埃: 承认还是歧义? 一场辩论 [Axel Honneth, Jacques Rancière: Anerkennung oder Unvernehmen? Eine Debatte].Xie Yongkang 谢永康, David Bartosch & Hou Zhenwu 侯振武 (eds.) - 2024 - Shanghai 上海: Shanghai Renmin Chubanshe 上海人民出版社 Shanghai People’s Publishing House. Translated by Lan Jiang 蓝江 & Liu Lixia 刘利霞.
    [174 pages] This third book in the series 霍耐特选集 [Selected Works of Axel Honneth] is a Chinese translation of Axel Honneth’s and Jacques Rancière’s Anerkennung oder Unvernehmen? Eine Debatte directly from the German.
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  16. A decolonial critical theory of artificial intelligence.Nythamar H. de Oliveira - 2024 - Filosofia Unisinos 25 (1):1-18.
    In this paper, I argue for a normative reconstruction, from a decolonial perspective of critical theory in Brazil and Latin America, of a democratic ethos that despite its weaknesses and normative deficits is capable of fostering an increasingly deliberative, participatory, and egalitarian democracy by making extensive use of new digital technologies (comprising both AI systems and digital governance). Its argumentative core boils down to the promotion of intersectional egalitarianism (socio-economic, gender, racial-ethnic, environmental) through digital inclusion, which seems only feasible to (...)
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  17. The Bellwether of Oppression: Anger, Critique, and Resistance.Jasper Friedrich - forthcoming - Hypatia.
    Feminists have long argued that emotions have a rightful place in politics. Anger, specifically, is often said to play a crucial role in alerting people to oppression and motivating resistance. The task of this paper is to elaborate these claims and to outline a conception of the political value of anger. In doing so, I argue against the view that anger is valuable if and because it expresses a sound moral judgment. Instead, we should see rage, in the first place, (...)
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  18. On the Limitations of Michel Foucault’s Genealogy of Neoliberalism.Tim Christiaens - 2023 - Journal of French and Francophone Philosophy 31 (1/2):24-45.
    This essay highlights a methodological weakness in Foucault’s genealogy of neoliberalism often mistaken for a biographical shift in his philosophy. Naissance de la biopolitique is sometimes interpreted as evidence for Foucault’s conversion to neoliberalism, whereas its lack of critical acuity stems rather from its methodological limitations. Through a discussion of the “neoliberal conversion”-thesis, I highlight those limitations. Though Foucault’s appreciative tone in his neoliberalism lectures is surprising, his aim is mainly to defamiliarize readers from the dominant mode of neoliberal rationality (...)
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  19. "Preface to the New Edition (1967)" [of G. Lukács's History and Class Consciousness]: Introducing New Agendas II.Konstantin Baehrens - 2023 - Dissonância: Revista de Teoria Crítica 7 (Special Issue: 100 years of HCC):1-28.
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  20. "Preface (1922)" [to G. Lukács's History and Class Consciousness]: Introducing New Agendas I.Konstantin Baehrens - 2023 - Dissonância: Revista de Teoria Crítica 7 (Special Issue: 100 years of HCC):1-26.
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  21. Book review: Critique on the Couch: Why Critical Theory Needs Psychoanalysis. [REVIEW]Peter J. Verovšek - 2024 - Thesis Eleven 180 (1):149-154.
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  22. Meaning-Adequacy and Social Critique: Toward a Phenomenological Critical Theory.Alexis Gros - forthcoming - Human Studies:1-30.
    In the present paper, I analyze the complex relationship of tension between Critical Theory and phenomenology from a sociological-theoretical perspective. I start from two theses. The first one is that one of the primary reasons for the antagonism between these two paradigms lies in their ideal-typically opposed assessments of the role of ‘meaning-adequacy’ in social research. The second one is that in recent years, there has been a strong rapprochement of Critical Theory with (social) phenomenology. This shift, fundamentally embodied in (...)
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  23. Looping Nature. Recursivity, Epigenesis and Ideology.Florian Endres - 2024 - Technophany 3 (1).
    The following paper attempts to articulate a distinctly materialist notion of emergence and the formation of patterns by way of re-visiting two texts that have been considered oddities, if not embarrassments, by the subsequent developments of their respective disciplines: Freud’s Project for a Scientific Psychology and Engels’s Dialectic of Nature. Both texts are strikingly similar in their speculative engagement with the natural sciences and in their potential to inform a renewed engagement with the question of the relation between technology and (...)
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  24. Critical Theory from the Margins: Horizons of Possibility in the Age of Extremism.Saladdin Ahmed - 2023 - SUNY Press.
    Great critical theorists from Marx and Engels to Adorno and Horkheimer not only came from the margins but also stayed faithful to the plight of the marginalized. They refused to compromise about the struggle for equality and tried to universalize its emancipatory essence. From Marx to Benjamin, critical philosophers who showed fidelity to the cause were denied a career in European universities and made impoverished, stateless, and homeless. Marginalization and critical theory are inseparable; yet, today, Marxism is institutionalized, and the (...)
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  25. Critical theory and international relations: Knowledge, power and practice.Stephen Hobden - 2023 - Manchester University Press.
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  26. You Can't Spell Opinion without I: Toward a Hegelian Critical Theory of Opinion.Eric-John Russell - forthcoming - Hegel Bulletin:1-27.
    We naturally tend to think of our own opinions as akin to the coins we carry around in our pockets, transferable and yet inalienable. We may share or alter them, yet in form they remain fundamentally our own, sacrosanct as registers of our very sense of self. Hegel was aware of this relationship between opinion and subjectivity, and regarded such a bond as one of the great accomplishments of modernity itself. Yet for Hegel, excessive estimation of inwardness comes at a (...)
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  27. Concrete Critical Theory: Althusser's Marxism.William S. Lewis - 2022 - Chicago: Haymarket.
    Taking an analytic and historical approach, this work develops and defends Althusserian critical theory. This theory, it is argued, produces knowledge of how a particular class of people, in a particular time, in a particular place, is dominated, oppressed, or exploited. Moreover, without relying on a general notion of human emancipation, concrete critical theory can suggest political means for the alleviation of these conditions. Because it puts Althusser's ideas in dialogue with contemporary social science and philosophy, the book as a (...)
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  28. Art, Eros, and Liberation: Aesthetic Education between Pragmatism and Critical Theory.Richard Shusterman - 2024 - The Journal of Aesthetic Education 58 (1):1-24.
    After showing how pragmatist aesthetics and Marcuse's critical theory affirm aesthetic education as key to transforming society toward greater freedom, equality, pleasure, and fulfillment, I compare the ways these two approaches differently perceive the scope and role of aesthetics in such transformation. Whereas Marcuse identifies the aesthetic dimension with the realm of high art, pragmatism understands this dimension far more broadly to include the popular arts and somaesthetic arts of living. Because Marcuse identifies art's critical function through its oppositional transcendence (...)
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  29. Creolizing Critical Theory: New Voices in Caribbean Philosophy.Kris F. Sealey & Benjamin P. Davis (eds.) - 2024 - Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield.
    This book directs discussions of critical theory to the Caribbean as a key source in the theory and practice of freedom, liberation, and justice. In dialogue with Frankfurt School Critical Theory, while highlighting contributions of Caribbean theorists, the volume offers a wider archive of Marxism as well as of social critique and construction.
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  30. Normatività e potere. Per l'analisi degli ordini sociali di giustificazione.Rainer Forst - 2021 - Mimesis / Studi europei.
    Gli esseri umani sono esseri giustificanti: offrono, chiedono ed esigono giustificazioni. Le norme e le istituzioni che seguono si basano su narrazioni di giustificazione storicamente date che, nel loro insieme, costituiscono un ordine normativo, dinamico e ricco di tensioni. Superando l’alternativa tra teorie “ideali” e teorie “realiste”, Rainer Forst dimostra in questo libro come i concetti di normatività e potere siano strettamente correlati: il potere si basa, infatti, sulla capacità di influenzare, determinare ed eventualmente restringere lo spazio delle giustificazioni. Una (...)
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  31. The relevance of first-generation Critical Theory in the digital era of new social media.Mark Jacob Amiradakis - 2023 - South African Journal of Philosophy 42 (4):270-286.
    Is the first generation of Critical Theory still relevant to an analysis of the technocentric nature of contemporary society – particularly its digitally based mediums of interaction and communication? This paper will argue that it is. This will be achieved by examining the interdisciplinary methodological framework that guides Critical Theory. This approach offers the researcher fruitful insight. It allows for a broad, yet heuristically rich understanding of society which can extend to the technological and digital domains of the 21st century. (...)
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  32. Max Weber and the New Critical Theory of Hartmut Rosa: Updating the Classics.D. V. Kataev - 2020 - Sociology of Power 32 (4):146-166.
    The article discusses a key issue for Russian and international Max Weber Studies: the epistemological possibilities and place of Weberian sociology in modern social theory. Discussion articles by well-known Russian scientists — who sharply criticized the actualizing direction of Weberian studies in general, and the religious, cultural, and sociological orientation in particular — are contrasted with the re-actualization and rethinking of key Weberian themes in the “New Critical Theory” of the influential German sociologist Hartmut Rosa. Such a projection will make (...)
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  33. A Critique of Reductive-Individualist Revisionist Just War Theory and a Case for a Critical Theory of War.Regina Sibylle Surber - unknown
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  34. Political, moral, and critical theory : on the practical philosophy of the Frankfurt School.James Gordon Finlayson - 2007 - In Brian Leiter & Michael Rosen (eds.), The Oxford handbook of continental philosophy. New York: Oxford University Press.
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  35. Marx’s Critical Theory of Slavery.Beverley Best - forthcoming - Historical Materialism.
    Marx’s critical theory of slavery is the operational subtext throughout his critique of political economy. For Marx, the movement from modern slavery to capital represents a historical transition of significance, not only (or foremost) as an empirical transition but also as a transformation of social substance. Marx reveals why, in retrospect, production based on slavery, as logical configuration, must give way to the generalising logic of wage labour. Marx’s critical theory of slavery historicises wage labour (qua category) as the dissolution (...)
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  36. Phänomenologie als kritische Erfahrungs- und Gesellschaftstheorie.Vanessa Ossino - 2023 - In Marcus Hawel, Sara Khorshidi, Thomas Beineke, Antonia Gäbler, Jenny Kellner, Jakob Ole Lenz, Vanessa Ossino, Laura Rosengarten & Nina Schlosser (eds.), Work in Progress. Work on Progress. Beiträge kritischer Wissenschaft. Doktorand*innenjahrbuch 2023 der Rosa-Luxemburg-Stiftung. VSA Verlag. pp. 57–73.
    The text addresses the question of whether and to what extent a theorization of experience provides a basis for socio-critical theories. Following the ideology-critical diagnosis of an immediate involvement of lived experience in ideological constitutive structures, the argument is made that a critical and ›left‹ phenomenology in particular can address the manner in which experience as a ›mediated immediacy‹ manifests as a medial condition for ideological processes.
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  37. Social theory as critical theory: Horkheimer's program and its relevance today.Maeve Cooke - 2023 - Constellations 30 (4):384-389.
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  38. The animating impulses of critical theory.Peter E. Gordon - 2023 - Constellations 30 (4):378-383.
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  39. Critical theory's generational predicament.Samuel Moyn - 2023 - Constellations 30 (4):419-421.
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  40. Critical theory under the sign of Schopenhauer: A reconsideration of Horkheimer's interpretative debt.Loralea Michaelis - 2023 - Constellations 30 (4):431-444.
  41. The rational critique of social unreason. On critical theory in the Frankfurt tradition.Rainer Forst - 2023 - Constellations 30 (4):395-400.
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  42. Illusion and fetishism in critical theory: a study of Nietzsche, Benjamin, Castoriadis and the Situationists.Vasilis Grollios - 2023 - New York, NY: Routledge.
    An examination of the concept of illusion in the writings of Nietzsche, Benjamin, Castoriadis and the Situationists as viewed through the negative dialectics of Theodore Adorno.
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  43. Situating Krippendorff's Critical Cybernetics.Claudia Westermann - 2023 - Constructivist Foundations 19 (1):109-111.
    This Open Peer Commentary on “A Critical Cybernetics” by Klaus Krippendorff outlines that enacting alternative not-yet existing realities goes beyond discourse and can be considered design practice. A Critical Cybernetics for enacting alternative not-yet existing realities, such as Krippendorff proposed, would benefit from associating itself with the expertise in the technicity of society that has been central to cybernetics since its inception.
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  44. Aesthetics: a critical theory of art.Henry G. Hartman - 1919 - Columbus, O.,: R.G. Adams & co..
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  45. Marcien Towa, father of Cameroonian Critical Theory: A comparison with Max Horkheimer.Adoulou Bitang - 2023 - Acta Academica 55 (2):9-29.
    In this paper, I examine the extent to which Marcien Towa (1931-2014) can be considered the Father of Cameroonian Critical Theory. In this regard, I compare what can be called his social philosophy with the project of a critical theory of society, as outlined by Max Horkheimer (1895-1973). I specifically consider Marcien Towa’s idea of philosophy, which I confront with Horkheimer’s project from the perspectives offered by their sociopolitical premises, conceptual references, and progressive goals. On each of these aspects, I (...)
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  46. Culture Industry 2.0: Africa, Global South, World.Ewa Maria Latecka, Jean Du Toit, Mark Amiradakis & Gregory Morgan Swer - 2023 - Acta Academica 55 (2):1-8.
    It has been the better part of a century since the appearance of Dialectic of Enlightenment, and the technologies of mass communication that Adorno and Horkheimer placed at the centre of their analysis of mass culture have altered beyond recognition, and with them the culture itself. And this in turn raises the question of the continuing relevance of the ‘culture industry’ concept. Does the contemporary culture industry still operate along the same lines that Adorno and Horkheimer charted or has it (...)
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  47. Teoría Crítica en Confesión, novela de Martín Kohan. [REVIEW]Alan Matías Florito Mutton - 2021 - Kipus 50:193-197.
    Is it all politics? That literature that reigns supreme bestsellers deepen the processes of social reproduction. They are also political, but a special prototype of political writing that often goes innocently unnoticed. It is not neutral, nor is it pure, but it is presented that way in the sales houses and in the mass media. It is a writing of concealment. Let's make a brief analysis of the novel "Confesión" (2020) by Martín Kohan from the point of view of contemporary (...)
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  48. Decentring critical theory with the help of critical theory: Ecocide and the challenge of anthropocentricism.Maeve Cooke - forthcoming - Philosophy and Social Criticism.
    Our present situation of anthropogenic ecological disaster calls on Western philosophy in general, and Frankfurt School critical theory in particular, to reconsider some long-standing, entrenched assumptions concerning what it means to be a human agent and to relate to other agents. In my article, I take up the challenge in dialogue with the idea of critical theory articulated by Max Horkheimer in the 1930s. My overall concern is to contribute to on-going efforts to decentre Frankfurt School critical theory in multiple (...)
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  49. Carl Cassegard, Toward a Critical Theory of Nature, Capital, Ecology and Dialectics. London, New York, Oxford, New Delhi, Sydney, Bloomsbury Academic, 2021, viii-245 p. [REVIEW]Dominic Roulx - 2023 - Laval Théologique et Philosophique 79 (3):464-467.
  50. How Theoretical Can Critical Theory Be.Marcos Nobre - 2023 - Rue Descartes 103 (1):45-61.
    “In the ‘interdisciplinary materialism’ theorized by Max Horkheimer and practiced by the critical-theoretical consortium of the 1930s, the critique of political economy worked both as a more general model for the critique of available knowledge and as the focal point for different disciplinary approaches. In such a constellation, the internal connection between the critical attitude and the critique of political economy also meant that ‘theory’ was the result of ‘critique’, having the critique of political economy as its model. These two (...)
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