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Summary Critical thinking is a cluster concept encompassing both the cognitive and meta-cognitive skills, practices and abilities, and the dispositions and character traits that make for reasonable, reflective, and self-aware judgment and decision-making. This double focus tends to produce inquiry along two general lines. One the one hand, there are inquiries that we might think of as falling broadly into applied epistemology (e.g. What are the signs of trustworthiness in a source of evidence? How can agents avoid having false beliefs about important matters? etc.). On the other, there are more normative inquiries that shade into the moral and quasi-moral (e.g. Why is it important to care about avoiding falsehoods in one’s beliefs? What practices are required for minimally responsible use of one’s rational faculties? etc.). Of key importance to the critical thinking endeavor is interest not only in settling these questions but in learning how to teach good epistemic habits and character traits to students. Questions here include what practices we ought to teach, given the limited time we have with students, how we should go about teaching it for maximally beneficial results, and how we should assess and evaluate those results to be sure that what we do is working. Predictably, it is here where critical thinking research becomes interdisciplinary in nature. There are long-standing, active bodies of research into critical thinking in education, psychology, medicine and business, just to name a few. Critical thinking researchers in philosophy have often (but by no means always) taken good work from well-constructed studies from across disciplinary lines seriously in their own work.
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  1. The Art of Critical Thinking. [REVIEW]E. J. A. - 1965 - Review of Metaphysics 19 (2):381-381.
  2. Arguing About Muslims : Reasonable Argumentation in Letters to the Editor.Atkin Albert & E. Richardson John - 2007 - Text and Talk 1 (27):1-25.
    This article analyses letters to the editor written on or about Muslims printed in a British broadsheet newspaper. The pragma-dialectical theory of argumentation is applied as a model for explaining and understanding the arguments employed in the sampled letters. Our presentation of pragma-dialectical theory focuses on argumentative reasonableness. More specifically, we introduce the four dialectical stages through which any argument must pass and explain the ten rules of critical discussion that participants must follow throughout if they are to resolve the (...)
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  3. Smart Thinking: Skills for Critical Understanding and Writing.Matthew Allen - 2004 - Oxford University Press.
    Smart Thinking: Skills for Critical Understanding and Writing 2E is a practical step-by-step guide to improving skills in analysis, critical thinking, and the effective communication of arguments and explanations. The book combines an accessible and straightforward style, with a strong foundation of knowledge. The text treats reasoning as an aspect of communication, not an abstract exercise in logic. The book not only provides detailed advice on how to practise analytical skills, but also demonstrates how these skills can be used in (...)
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  4. Techniques of Critical Reasoning.David B. Annis - 1974 - Columbus, Ohio, Merrill.
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  5. Moral Reasoning Development Programmes in Prison: Cognitive‐Developmental and Critical Reasoning Approaches.Jack Arbuthnot - 1984 - Journal of Moral Education 13 (2):112-123.
  6. Perfectly Irrational: The Unexpected Ways We Defy Logic at Work and at Home.Dan Ariely - 2010 - Harper.
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  7. Critical Reasoning.Karl Aschenbrenner - 1960 - Journal of Philosophy 57 (20/21):654-665.
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  8. Means-End Reciprocity and the Aims of Education Debate.Guy Axtell - manuscript
    In the centennial year of John Dewey’s classic, Democracy and Education (1916), this paper revisits his thesis of the reciprocity of means and ends, arguing that it remains of central importance for debate over the aims of education. The paper provides a Dewey-inspired rebuttal of arguments for an ‘ultimate aim,’ but balances this with a development of the strong overlaps between proponents of pragmatism, intellectual virtues education (Jason Baehr) and critical thinking education (Harvey Siegel). Siegel’s ‘Kantian’ justification of critical thinking (...)
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  9. Thinking Twice About Virtue and Vice: Philosophical Situationism and the Vicious Minds Hypothesis.Guy Axtell - 2017 - Logos and Episteme 8 (1):7-39.
    This paper provides an empirical defense of credit theories of knowing against Mark Alfano’s challenges to them based on his theses of inferential cognitive situationism and of epistemic situationism. In order to support the claim that credit theories can treat many cases of cognitive success through heuristic cognitive strategies as credit-conferring, the paper develops the compatibility between virtue epistemologies qua credit theories, and dual-process theories in cognitive psychology. It also a response to Lauren Olin and John Doris’ “vicious minds” thesis, (...)
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  10. Inquiry: A New Paradigm for Critical Thinking.Mark Battersby (ed.) - 2018 - Windsor, Canada: Windsor Studies in Argumentation.
    This volume reflects the development and theoretical foundation of a new paradigm for critical thinking based on inquiry. The field of critical thinking, as manifested in the Informal Logic movement, developed primarily as a response to the inadequacies of formalism to represent actual argumentative practice and to provide useful argumentative skills to students. Because of this, the primary focus of the field has been on informal arguments rather than formal reasoning. Yet the formalist history of the field is still evident (...)
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  11. Enhancing Rationality: Heuristics, Biases, and The Critical Thinking Project.Mark Battersby - 2016 - Informal Logic 36 (2):99-120.
    : This paper develops four related claims: 1. Critical thinking should focus more on decision making, 2. the heuristics and bias literature developed by cognitive psychologists and behavioral economists provides many insights into human irrationality which can be useful in critical thinking instruction, 3. unfortunately the “rational choice” norms used by behavioral economists to identify “biased” decision making narrowly equate rational decision making with the efficient pursuit of individual satisfaction; deviations from these norms should not be treated as an irrational (...)
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  12. Théories à processus duaux et théories de l’éducation : Le cas de l’enseignement de la pensée critique et de la logique.Guillaume Beaulac & Serge Robert - 2011 - Les ateliers de l'éthique/The Ethics Forum 6 (1):63-77.
    Many theories about the teaching of logic and critical thinking take for granted that theoretical learning, the learning of formal rules for example, and its practical application are sufficient to master the tools taught and to take the habit of using them. However, this way of teaching is not efficient, a conclusion supported by much work in cognitive science. Approaching cognition evolutionarily with dual-process theories allows for an explanation of these insufficiencies and offers clues on how we could teach critical (...)
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  13. The Fallacy Detective: Thirty-Six Lessons on How to Recognize Bad Reasoning.Nathaniel Bluedorn - 2003 - Christian Logic.
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  14. Galileo's Lessons on Critical Reasoning.Luciano Boschiero - 2012 - Metascience 21 (1):219-221.
    Galileo’s lessons on critical reasoning Content Type Journal Article Pages 1-3 DOI 10.1007/s11016-011-9541-5 Authors Luciano Boschiero, Campion College, PO Box 3052, Toongabbie East, NSW 2146, Australia Journal Metascience Online ISSN 1467-9981 Print ISSN 0815-0796.
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  15. Powers of the Mind.Robert James M. Boyles, Jeremiah Joven Joaquin & Mark Anthony Dacela - 2016 - In Elizabeth M. Nuncio (ed.), Personal Development. Anvil Publishing, Inc. pp. 61–81.
    This article is a general introduction to the psychology of reasoning. Specifically, it focuses on the dual process theory of human cognition. Proponents of the said two-system view hold that human cognition involves two processes (viz., System 1 and System 2). System 1 is an automatic, intuitive thinking process where judgments and reasoning rely on fast thinking and ready-to-hand data. On the other hand, System 2 is a slow, logical cognitive process where our judgments and reasoning rely on reflective, careful (...)
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  16. Teaching Modeling in Critical Thinking.Peter Bradley - 2010 - Teaching Philosophy 33 (2):123-147.
    Scientific reasoning has long been an integral part of critical thinking taxonomies. In practice, however, it is frequently limited to induction, hypothesis testing and experimental design, thereby neglecting the central importance of modeling to contemporary scientific reasoning. In this paper, I wish to establish that this neglect undermines the possibility of critical engagement with the public discourse surrounding scientific reasoning. As a step towards rectifying that disconnect, I present one resource that I have developed to teach modeling in an introductory (...)
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  17. Critical Reasoning, Understanding and Self-Knowledge.Jessica Brown - 2000 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 61 (3):659-676.
    Following Burge, many anti-individualists suppose that a subject can possess a concept even if she incompletely understands it. While agreeing that this is possible, I argue that there is a limit on the extent to which a subject can incompletely understand the set of concepts she thinks with. This limit derives from our conception of our ability to reflectively evaluate our own thoughts or, as Burge puts it, our ability to engage in critical reasoning. The paper extends Burge’s own work (...)
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  18. What for, Critical Thinking?Robert Bruno & Lynn Bruno - 1992 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 10 (4):7-8.
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  19. Integrating Critical Thinking Into Daily Life.Steve Cady - 2004 - Inquiry: Critical Thinking Across the Disciplines 23 (3):33-36.
    Learners who are first introduced to the process of critical thinking frequently experience a paradigm shift in their own thinking. However, such a major transition in one’s pattern of thinking may presentdifficulties when applying newly acquired critical thinking skills in social contexts. Learners may lack the confidence required for engaging in intellectual discourse, placing inhibitions on their using critical thinking. This article suggests several ways in which critical thinkers may more effectively and confidently use their skills in daily conversation.
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  20. Critical Reasoning Regarding War.Laurie Calhoun - 1999 - The Acorn 10 (1):5-26.
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  21. Critical Thinking and American People.José Mariá Calvo - 1991 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 7 (3):22-22.
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  22. The Art of Deception: An Introduction to Critical Thinking.Nicholas Capaldi - 2007 - Prometheus Books.
    Identifying arguments -- Formal analysis of arguments -- Presenting your case -- Attacking an argument -- Defending your case -- Cause-and-effect reasoning.
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  23. You've Got to Be Kidding!: How Jokes Can Help You Think.John Capps & Donald Capps - 2009 - Wiley-Blackwell.
    _You've Got to Be Kidding!: How Jokes Can Help You Think_ is a thoughtful and accessible analysis of the ways in which jokes illustrate how we think critically, and how the thinking process goes awry in everyday human situations Uses jokes to illustrate the various mistakes or fallacies that are typically identified and discussed in courses on critical reasoning Provides an effective way to learn critical thinking skills since jokes often describe real-life situations where it really matters whether a person (...)
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  24. Faculty Accessing Critical Thinking: FACT.Gerard Caracciolo & Allison Schumer - 1990 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 6 (2):16-18.
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  25. Probability Judgements About Indicative Conditionals: An Erotetic Theory.Sam Carter - 2016 - Logic Journal of the IGPL 24 (4).
    Research into the cognition of conditionals has predominantly focused on conditional reasoning, producing a range of theories which explain associated phenomena with considerable success. However, such theories have been less successful in accommodating experimental data concerning how agents assess the probability of indicative conditionals. Since an acceptable account of conditional reasoning should be compatible with evidence regarding how we evaluate conditionals’ likelihoods, this constitutes a failing of such theories. Section 1 introduces the most dominant established approach to conditional reasoning: mental (...)
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  26. Reasonable Responses: The Thought of Trudy Govier.Hundleby Catherine (ed.) - 2017 - Windsor: University of Windsor.
    This tribute to the breadth and influence of Trudy Govier’s philosophical work begins with her early scholarship in argumentation theory, paying special attention to its pedagogical expression. Most people first encounter Trudy Govier’s work and many people only encounter it through her textbooks, especially A Practical Study of Argument, published in many editions. In addition to the work on argumentation that has continued throughout her career, much of Govier’s later work addresses social philosophy and the problems of trust and response (...)
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  27. Critical Reasoning: Understanding and Criticizing Arguments and Theories.J. B. Cederblom - 2012 - Cengage.
    In this era of increased polarization of opinion and contentious disagreement, CRITICAL REASONING presents a cooperative approach to critical thinking and formation of beliefs. CRITICAL REASONING emphasizes the importance of developing and applying analytical skills in real life contexts. This book is unique in providing multiple, diverse examples of everyday arguments, both textual and visual, including hard to find long argument passages from real-life sources. The book provides clear, step-by-step procedures to help you decide for yourself what to believe--to be (...)
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  28. Forum Critical Thinking: Symposium on the Future of Universities: Introduction.Kelly Coate - 2010 - Arts and Humanities in Higher Education 9 (1):9-12.
  29. Critical Thinking Vs. Pure Thought.Orestes Coccia - 1995 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 15 (2):42-58.
  30. Critical Thinking: Step by Step.Robert Cogan - 1998 - Upa.
    This book is a comprehensive introduction to critical thinking skills and the philosophical and factual bases of critical thinking.
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  31. Critical Thinking Unleashed.Elliot D. Cohen - 2009 - Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    Demonstrating the practical relevance and import of many historically significant philosophers , Critical Thinking Unleashed presents a practical, non-technical, and comprehensive approach to critical thinking. In contrast to other treatments of practical reasoning, Elliot D. Cohen not only teaches students how to identify and refute irrational premises_he also teaches them how to construct rational antidotes to combat the personal, social, and political obstacles they confront in everyday life.
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  32. The Art of Logick; or, the Entire Body of Logick in English. Unfolding to the Meanest Capacity the Way to Dispute Well, and to Refute All Fallacies Whatsoever.Zachary Coke & John Streater - 1657 - Printed for John Streater, and Are to Be Sold by the Book-Sellers of London.
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  33. A Participatory Approach to the Teaching of Critical Reasoning.Rory J. Conces - 1995 - APA Newsletter on Teaching Philosophy 94 (2):114-116.
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  34. Critical Reasoning in Contemporary Culture.John J. Conley - 1994 - International Philosophical Quarterly 34 (1):132-134.
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  35. Critical Thinking and Educational Assent.John J. Conley - 1993 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 11 (2):1-1.
  36. C.A. Missimer, Good Arguments: An Introduction To Critical Thinking. [REVIEW]D. Crossley - 1986 - Philosophy in Review 6 (8):390-393.
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  37. Maurice A. Finocchiaro. 2010. Defending Copernicus and Galileo: Critical Reasoning in the Two Affairs.Scott Crothers - 2010 - Informal Logic 30 (4).
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  38. The Teaching of Critical Thinking.Edward D'angelo - 1971
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  39. Thinking About Thinking. [REVIEW]S. D. - 1956 - Review of Metaphysics 9 (4):712-712.
  40. "في التمييز بين النقد والانتقاد: فكر صادق جلال العظم أنموذجًا"، مجلة قلمون، العدد الأول، أيار/مايو 2017، ص 27-58.Housamedden Darwish - 2017 - Kalamoon مجلة قلمون 1 (1): 27-58.
    على الرغم من المحاولات الحثيثة أو المستمرة، في الفكر الغربي، كما في الفكر العربي، للتمييز بين النقد والانتقاد، ولتأكيد إيجابية النقد، لا سلبيته، ما زال الخلط أو اللبس بين النقد والانتقاد قائمًا وبارزًا، في كثيرٍ من الأحيان، حتى في بعض النصوص التي تتضمن محاولة القيام هذا التمييز¬، ولا زالت النظرة السلبية إلى النقد طاغيةً أو حاضرةً بقوةٍ، لدرجةٍ سمحت لفيصل دراج بالقول: «النقد في زماننا شبهة، ممارسة مشبوهة، فعل سيء الصيت.» وقبل مناقشة هذه النظرة السلبية للنقد، وربطها بالفكر النقدي عند (...)
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  41. في فهم فكر العظم: بين الفلسفوية والأيديولوجوية والعلموية.Housamedden Darwish - 2017 - مجلة أوراق Awraq 2 (8):57-71.
  42. "في النقد والتابو (الجنسي) عند صادق جلال العظم"، مؤسسة مؤمنون بلا حدود، 23/03/2017.Housamedden Darwish - 2017 - Mominoun Without Borders Institute مؤسسة مؤمنون بلا حدود 1:1-33.
    يتمحور البحث حول نقد صادق جلال العظم للتابوهات، عمومًا، وللتابو الجنسي، خصوصًا، وينطلق البحث من التشديد على أهمية النقد في فكر العظم، على مستويي؛ التنظير له، وممارسته في معظم أو جل أعماله، ليحاول، بعد ذلك، إبراز تلك الممارسة النقدية في ميدان التابوهات عمومًا، وتابو الجنس خصوصًا، وانطلاقًا من ذلك؛ تتمثل الأسئلة الأساسية التي يحاول البحث الإجابة عنها، في الآتي: ما أهمية النقد عمومًا، ونقد التابوهات خصوصًا، في فكر العظم؟ ما العلاقة بين النقد والتحريم، من منظور العظم؟ وإلى أي حدٍّ، وبأي (...)
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  43. "في بعض محفزات النقد عند العظم"، مجلة "نزوى"، العدد 82، نيسان/أبريل 2015.Housamedden Darwish - 2015 - Niywa نزوى (82):60-64.
    لا جدال في مركزية أو أهمية ممارسة النقد والتنظير له في فكر العظم. وللوصول إلى فهمٍ أوليٍّ لهذه الأهمية وتلك المركزية، سنعمل، في هذا النص، على إبراز الصلة الوثيقة لممارسة النقد والتنظير له، في فكر العظم، بخلفيته أو نزعاته العلمية أو العلموية والتنويرية واليسارية – الماركسية؛ ثم سنقوم بتوضيح أو تأكيد الارتباط الوجودي أو الضروري، لهذه الممارسة وذاك التنظير، بسمة أو بحالة «الأزمة» الملازمة للواقع والفكر العربيين المعاصرين.
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  44. Critical Thinking Faces the Challenge of Japan.B. Davidson - 1998 - Inquiry: Critical Thinking Across the Disciplines 14 (3):41-53.
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  45. Computer-Aided Argument Mapping and the Teaching of Critical Thinking (Part 2).Martin Davies - 2012 - Inquiry: Critical Thinking Across the Disciplines 27 (3):16-28.
    Part I of this paper outlined the three standard approaches to the teaching of critical thinking: the normative (or philosophical), cognitive psychology, and educational taxonomy approaches. The paper contrasted these with the visualisation approach; in particular, computer-aided argument mapping (CAAM), and presented a detailed account of the CAAM methodology and a theoretical justification for its use. This part develops further support for CAAM. A case is made that CAAM improves critical thinking because it minimises the cognitive burden of prose and (...)
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  46. Computer-Aided Argument Mapping and the Teaching of Critical Thinking (Part 1).Martin Davies - 2012 - Inquiry: Critical Thinking Across the Disciplines 27 (2):15-30.
    This paper is in two parts. Part I outlines three traditional approaches to the teaching of critical thinking: the normative, cognitive psychology, and educational approaches. Each of these approaches is discussed in relation to the influences of various methods of critical thinking instruction. The paper contrasts these approaches with what I call the “visualisation” approach. This approach is explained with reference to computer-aided argument mapping (CAAM) which uses dedicated computer software to represent inferences between premise and conclusions. The paper presents (...)
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  47. Which Critical Thinking is Ideal?Bernard Davis - 1993 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 11 (4):6-11.
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  48. Critical Thinking and Some Diesel Mechanics' Lifeworlds.Trevor Davison - 1997 - Inquiry: Critical Thinking Across the Disciplines 17 (2):88-100.
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  49. Fisher, Alec and Scriven, Michael (1997). Critical Thinking. Its Definition and Assessment.Kees de Glopper - 2002 - Argumentation 16 (2):247-251.
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  50. Critical Thinking and Improvisation.Elisa de la Roche - 1992 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 10 (1):16-17.
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