About this topic
Summary Critical thinking is a cluster concept encompassing both the cognitive and meta-cognitive skills, practices and abilities, and the dispositions and character traits that make for reasonable, reflective, and self-aware judgment and decision-making. This double focus tends to produce inquiry along two general lines. One the one hand, there are inquiries that we might think of as falling broadly into applied epistemology (e.g. What are the signs of trustworthiness in a source of evidence? How can agents avoid having false beliefs about important matters? etc.). On the other, there are more normative inquiries that shade into the moral and quasi-moral (e.g. Why is it important to care about avoiding falsehoods in one’s beliefs? What practices are required for minimally responsible use of one’s rational faculties? etc.). Of key importance to the critical thinking endeavor is interest not only in settling these questions but in learning how to teach good epistemic habits and character traits to students. Questions here include what practices we ought to teach, given the limited time we have with students, how we should go about teaching it for maximally beneficial results, and how we should assess and evaluate those results to be sure that what we do is working. Predictably, it is here where critical thinking research becomes interdisciplinary in nature. There are long-standing, active bodies of research into critical thinking in education, psychology, medicine and business, just to name a few. Critical thinking researchers in philosophy have often (but by no means always) taken good work from well-constructed studies from across disciplinary lines seriously in their own work.
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  1. Problems of Religious Luck, Ch. 4: "We Are All of the Common Herd: Montaigne and the Psychology of Our 'Importunate Presumptions'".Guy Axtell - forthcoming - In Problems of Religious Luck: Assessing the Limits of Reasonable Religious Disagreement.
    As we have seen in the transition form Part I to Part II of this book, the inductive riskiness of doxastic methods applied in testimonial uptake or prescribed as exemplary of religious faith, helpfully operationalizes the broader social scientific, philosophical, moral, and theological interest that people may have with problems of religious luck. Accordingly, we will now speak less about luck, but more about the manner in which highly risky cognitive strategies are correlated with psychological studies of bias studies and (...)
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  2. Fake News and Epistemic Vice: Combating a Uniquely Noxious Market.Megan Fritts & Frank Cabrera - forthcoming - Journal of the American Philosophical Association.
    The topic of fake news has received increased attention from philosophers since the term became a favorite of politicians (Habgood-Coote 2016; Dentith 2016). Notably missing from the conversation, however, is a discussion of fake news and conspiracy theory media as a market. This paper will take as its starting point the account of noxious markets put forward by Debra Satz (2010), and will argue that there is a pro tanto moral reason to restrict the market for fake news. Specifically, we (...)
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  3. Using Computer-Assisted Argument Mapping to Teach Reasoning to Students.Martin Davies, Ashley Barnett & Tim van Gelder - 2021 - In J. Anthony Blair (ed.), Studies in Critical Thinking (2nd Edition). Windsor, ON, Canada: Windsor Studies in Argumentation. pp. 115-152.
    Argument mapping is a way of diagramming the logical structure of an argument to explicitly and concisely represent reasoning. The use of argument mapping in critical thinking instruction has increased dramatically in recent decades. This paper overviews the innovation and provides a procedural approach for new teaches wanting to use argument mapping in the classroom. A brief history of argument mapping is provided at the end of this paper.
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  4. We Owe It to Others to Think for Ourselves.Finnur Dellsén - 2021 - In Jonathan Matheson & Kirk Lougheed (eds.), Epistemic Autonomy. Routledge.
    We are often urged to figure things out for ourselves rather than to rely on other people’s say-so, and thus be ‘epistemically autonomous’ in one sense of the term. But why? For almost any important question, there will be someone around you who is at least as well placed to answer it correctly. So why bother making up your own mind at all? I consider, and then reject, two ‘egoistic’ answers to this question according to which thinking for oneself is (...)
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  5. Susan Stebbing’s Logical Interventionism.Alexander X. Douglas & Jonathan Nassim - 2021 - History and Philosophy of Logic 42 (2):101-117.
    We examine a contribution L. Susan Stebbing made to the understanding of critical thinking and its relation to formal logic. Stebbing took expertise in formal logic to authorise logical intervention in public debate, specifically in assessing of the validity of everyday reasoning. She held, however, that formal logic is purely the study of logical form. Given the problems of ascertaining logical form in any particular instance, and that logical form does not always track informal validity, it is difficult to see (...)
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  6. Una propuesta de objetivismo ético para contrarrestar la posverdad en la era de la cuarta revolución industrial.Julio C. Silva - 2021 - Futuro Hoy 1 (2):25-27.
    El relativismo moral es una tesis convincente para muchas personas. En este ensayo presentaremos la argumentación general del relativismo moral y, después, mostraremos que esta argumentación es inválida. Luego, defenderemos la idea de que los conflictos morales surgen por discrepancias entre creencias fácticas y no por una disensión entre creencias morales, pues es necesario que existan un conjunto de normas morales universales. Finalmente, defenderemos una propuesta de objetivismo ético que se fundamenta en la ética naturalizada.
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  7. Faşizm.Özgür Yalçın (ed.) - 2021 - Ankara: Dipnot Yayınları.
  8. Düşünmenin Alfabesi.Yasin Ramazan Basaran - 2020 - İstanbul, Turkey: Babil Kitap.
    Yaşadığımız çağ bize emsalsiz miktarda bilgi, bir o kadar da karmaşa getiriyor. Düşüncelerimizi sağlıklı biçimde kurmak, safsatalara düşmekten kaçınmak hiç olmadığı kadar zor. Eleştirel düşünce başlı başına bir disipline dönüşmüş durumda. Yasin Ramazan, tüm bu keşmekeş içinde yolunu kaybetmeden tutarlı düşünceler üretmeye çalışan okura rehberlik etmeyi hedefliyor. Düşünmenin Alfabesi nasıl mantıklı düşüneceğinizi öğretmeyi hedeflese de bir mantık kitabı değil. Teorikten ziyade pratik, anlayarak yola koyulmayı teşvik eden bir metin. Sadece başkalarının düşüncelerini kritik etmeyi değil, kendi öğrenme ve düşünme serüvenimizi de (...)
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  9. Rigour and Reason : Essays in Honour of Hans Vilhelm Hansen.John Anthony Blair & Christopher Tindale (eds.) - 2020 - Windsor: Windsor Studies in Argumentation.
    Built in the centre of Copenhagen, and noted for its equestrian stairway, the Rundetaarn (Round Tower), was intended as an astronomical observatory. Part of a complex of buildings that once included a university library, it affords expansive views of the city in every direction, towering above what surrounds it. The metaphor of the towering figure, who sees what others might not, whose vantage point allows him to visualize how things fit together, and who has an earned-stature of respect and authority, (...)
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  10. Criticism. Destructive and Constructive.Mario Bunge - 2020 - Mεtascience 1:online.
    In the scientific communities most criticisms are constructive, while they are destructive in the humanistic circles. Indeed, scientists circulate their drafts among colleagues and students, hoping to elicit their comments and suggestions before submitting their work to publication. In contrast, philosophers and political thinkers attack their rivals, without sparing arguments ad hominem or even insults. The reason for this difference is that scientists are after the truth, whereas most humanists fight for more or less noble causes, from swelling their own (...)
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  11. Critique. Destructive et constructive.Mario Bunge - 2020 - Mεtascience 1:223-226.
    Chez les scientifiques, la plupart des critiques sont constructives, alors qu’elles sont destructrices chez les humanistes. En effet, les scientifiques font circuler leurs brouillons entre collègues et étudiants, dans l’espoir de recueillir leurs commentaires et suggestions avant de soumettre leurs travaux à la publication. En revanche, les philosophes et les penseurs politiques attaquent leurs rivaux à coup d’arguments ad hominem et d’insultes. La raison de cette différence est que les scientifiques recherchent la vérité, alors que la plupart des humanistes se (...)
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  12. On One Case of Condensation.Andrej Poleev - 2020 - Enzymes 18.
  13. Znaczenie znaczenia w argumentacji. Zarys argumentów semantycznych.Jakub Pruś - 2020 - In Ewa Szkudlarek-Śmiechowicz, Wierzbicka, Agnieszka & Elwira Olejniczak (eds.), Słowo. Znaczenie – struktura – kontekst. Łódź, Polska: pp. 53–67.
    Jeśli można mówić o modzie w badaniach naukowych, to semantyka jest od prawie wieku niewątpliwie jedną z bardziej modnych dziedzin w nauce. Badają ją nie tylko logicy i filozofowie języka, lecz także kulturoznawcy, antropologowie, filologowie, kognitywiści czy informatycy. Niniejszy artykuł ma na celu zbadanie roli, jaką odgrywa semantyka w teorii argumentacji, a dokładniej — zarysowanie pewnego modelu argumentacji, który modyfikuje znaczenia terminów dla celów argumentacyjnych. Najpierw przedstawię kilka przykładowych argumentów semantycznych, analizując każdy z nich na tyle, aby wydobyć pewne subtelności (...)
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  14. Studies in Critical Thinking.John Anthony Blair (ed.) - 2019 - Windsor: University of Windsor.
    Critical thinking deserves both imaginative teaching and serious theoretical attention. Studies in Critical Thinking assembles an all-star cast to serve both.
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  15. Reasons: A Digital Argument Mapping Library for Modern Browsers.Dave Kinkead, Deborah Brown, Peter Ellerton & Claudio Mazzola - 2019 - Journal of Open Source Software 4 (37):1044.
    Reasons.js is an open-source, loosely-coupled, web-based argument mapping library that can be integrated into a range of online coursewares and websites. The javascript library can be embedded into any HTML page and allows users to create, edit, share, and export argument maps . The API is designed to permit the integration of the three stages of informal logical analysis — identification of truth claims within arguments, the analysis of logical structure, and synthesis of logical structure into written form.
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  16. Educating for Intellectual Virtue: A Critique From Action Guidance.Ben Kotzee, J. Adam Carter & Harvey Siegel - 2019 - Episteme:1-23.
    Virtue epistemology is among the dominant influences in mainstream epistemology today. An important commitment of one strand of virtue epistemology – responsibilist virtue epistemology (e.g., Montmarquet 1993; Zagzebski 1996; Battaly 2006; Baehr 2011) – is that it must provide regulative normative guidance for good thinking. Recently, a number of virtue epistemologists (most notably Baehr, 2013) have held that virtue epistemology not only can provide regulative normative guidance, but moreover that we should reconceive the primary epistemic aim of all education as (...)
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  17. Reason Better: An Interdisciplinary Guide to Critical Thinking.David Manley - 2019 - Toronto, ON, Canada: Tophat Monocle.
    This book is the result of rethinking the standard playbook for critical thinking courses, to include only the most useful skills from the toolkits of philosophy, cognitive psychology, and behavioral economics. -/- The text focuses on: -/- - a mindset that avoids systematic error, more than the ability to persuade others - the logic of probability and decisions, more than than the logic of deductive arguments - a unified treatment of evidence, covering statistical, causal, and best-explanation inferences -/- The unified (...)
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  18. How to Think Critically About the Common Past? On the Feeling of Communism Nostalgia in Post-Revolutionary Romania.Lavinia Marin - 2019 - The Annals of the University of Bucharest - Philosophy Series 68 (2):57-71.
    This article proposes a phenomenological interpretation of nostalgia for communism, a collective feeling expressed typically in most Eastern European countries after the official fall of the communist regimes. While nostalgia for communism may seem like a paradoxical feeling, a sort of Stockholm syndrome at a collective level, this article proposes a different angle of interpretation: nostalgia for communism has nothing to do with communism as such, it is not essentially a political statement, nor the signal of a deep value tension (...)
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  19. Структурно-онтологическая матрица: приступаем к идентификации сегментов.Vitalii Shymko - 2019 - Pro|Stranstvo.
    Публикация (#5) из научно-популярного цикла: "Структурная онтология познания с доктором Шимко".
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  20. Outro retrato dos desenhos animados da mente dos metafísicos reducionistas – uma revisão de Peter Carruthers ' A Opacidade da Mente ' (The Opacity of Mind) (2011) (revisão revisada 2019).Michael Richard Starks - 2019 - In Delírios Utópicos Suicidas no Século XXI Filosofia, Natureza Humana e o Colapso de Civilization- Artigos e Comentários 2006-2019 5ª edição. Las Vegas, NV USA: Reality Press. pp. 129-154.
    Materialismo, reducionismo, behaviorismo, funcionalismo, teoria dos sistemas dinâmicos e computacionalismo são visões populares, mas eles foram mostrados por Wittgenstein para ser incoerente. O estudo do comportamento abrange toda a vida humana, mas o comportamento é em grande parte automático e inconsciente e até mesmo a parte consciente, principalmente expressa em linguagem (que Wittgenstein equivale com a mente), não é perspicaz, por isso é fundamental ter um quadro que Searle chama a estrutura lógica da racionalidade (LSR) e eu chamo a psicologia (...)
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  21. Critical Thinking and its Impact on Therapeutic Treatment Outcomes: A Critical Examination.I. L. Williams & David E. Wright - 2019 - British Journal of Guidance and Counselling 2 (13):1-14.
    The literature on critical thinking (CT) in counselling and therapy generally posits higher quality outcomes when CT is applied in therapeutic treatment. We critically examine support for the claim that CT improves clinical outcomes. The purported effects of CT are first identified by arguments in favour of using CT in therapeutic treatment, both in terms of its general efficacy and with regard to its applicability in professional counselling. We then underscore limitations in the current literature, highlighting mainly a gap between (...)
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  22. Inquiry: A New Paradigm for Critical Thinking.Mark Battersby (ed.) - 2018 - Windsor, Canada: Windsor Studies in Argumentation.
    This volume reflects the development and theoretical foundation of a new paradigm for critical thinking based on inquiry. The field of critical thinking, as manifested in the Informal Logic movement, developed primarily as a response to the inadequacies of formalism to represent actual argumentative practice and to provide useful argumentative skills to students. Because of this, the primary focus of the field has been on informal arguments rather than formal reasoning. Yet the formalist history of the field is still evident (...)
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  23. An Introduction to Critical Thinking and Symbolic Logic Volume 2: Informal Reasoning Assignments.Rebeka Ferreira & Anthony Ferrucci - 2018 - Open Educational Resource: OpenStax-CNX and Canvas Commons.
    This textbook is not a textbook in the traditional sense. Here, what we have attempted is compile a set of assignments and exercise that may be used in critical thinking courses. To that end, we have tried to make these assignments as diverse as possible while leaving flexibility in their application within the classroom. Of course these assignments and exercises could certainly be used in other classes as well. Our view is that critical thinking courses work best when they are (...)
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  24. Self‐Knowledge and Rational Agency: A Defense of Empiricism.Brie Gertler - 2018 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 96 (1):91-109.
    How does one know one's own beliefs, intentions, and other attitudes? Many responses to this question are broadly empiricist, in that they take self-knowledge to be epistemically based in empirical justification or warrant. Empiricism about self-knowledge faces an influential objection: that it portrays us as mere observers of a passing cognitive show, and neglects the fact that believing and intending are things we do, for reasons. According to the competing, agentialist conception of self-knowledge, our capacity for self-knowledge derives from our (...)
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  25. Problems in Argument Analysis and Evaluation.Trudy Gover - 2018 - Windsor: University of Windsor.
    We are pleased to publish this WSIA edition of Trudy’s Govier’s seminal volume, Problems in Argument Analysis and Evaluation. Originally published in 1987 by Foris Publications, this was a pioneering work that played a major role in establishing argumentation theory as a discipline. Today, it is as relevant to the field as when it first appeared, with discussions of questions and issues that remain central to the study of argument. It has defined the main approaches to many of those issues (...)
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  26. Two Modes of Non-Thinking. On the Dialectic Stupidity-Thinking and the Public Duty to Think.Lavinia Marin - 2018 - Revue Roumaine de Philosophie 62 (1):65-80.
    This article brings forth a new perspective concerning the relation between stupidity and thinking by proposing to conceptualise the state of non-thinking in two different ways, situated at the opposite ends of the spectrum of thinking. Two conceptualisations of stupidity are discussed, one critical which follows a French line of continental thinkers, and the other one which will be called educational or ascetic, following the work of Agamben. The critical approach is conceptualised in terms of seriality of thinking, or thinking (...)
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  27. О бедном мышлении замолвите слово, или Зачем нужна системология?Vitalii Shymko - 2018 - Pro|Stranstvo.
    Публикация (#1) из научно-популярного цикла: "Структурная онтология познания с доктором Шимко".
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  28. Системный подход, экзистенциальная депрессия и структурированная галлюцинация – есть ли связь?Vitalii Shymko - 2018 - Pro|Stranstvo.
    Публикация (#2) из научно-популярного цикла: "Структурная онтология познания с доктором Шимко".
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  29. Fascism.Özgür Yalçın - 2018 - Krisis 2:63-66.
  30. Reasonable Responses: The Thought of Trudy Govier.Hundleby Catherine (ed.) - 2017 - Windsor: University of Windsor.
    This tribute to the breadth and influence of Trudy Govier’s philosophical work begins with her early scholarship in argumentation theory, paying special attention to its pedagogical expression. Most people first encounter Trudy Govier’s work and many people only encounter it through her textbooks, especially A Practical Study of Argument, published in many editions. In addition to the work on argumentation that has continued throughout her career, much of Govier’s later work addresses social philosophy and the problems of trust and response (...)
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  31. في فهم فكر العظم: بين الفلسفوية والأيديولوجوية والعلموية.Housamedden Darwish - 2017 - مجلة أوراق Awraq 2 (8):57-71.
  32. "في النقد والتابو (الجنسي) عند صادق جلال العظم"، مؤسسة مؤمنون بلا حدود، 23/03/2017.Housamedden Darwish - 2017 - Mominoun Without Borders Institute مؤسسة مؤمنون بلا حدود 1:1-33.
    يتمحور البحث حول نقد صادق جلال العظم للتابوهات، عمومًا، وللتابو الجنسي، خصوصًا، وينطلق البحث من التشديد على أهمية النقد في فكر العظم، على مستويي؛ التنظير له، وممارسته في معظم أو جل أعماله، ليحاول، بعد ذلك، إبراز تلك الممارسة النقدية في ميدان التابوهات عمومًا، وتابو الجنس خصوصًا، وانطلاقًا من ذلك؛ تتمثل الأسئلة الأساسية التي يحاول البحث الإجابة عنها، في الآتي: ما أهمية النقد عمومًا، ونقد التابوهات خصوصًا، في فكر العظم؟ ما العلاقة بين النقد والتحريم، من منظور العظم؟ وإلى أي حدٍّ، وبأي (...)
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  33. "في التمييز بين النقد والانتقاد: فكر صادق جلال العظم أنموذجًا"، مجلة قلمون، العدد الأول، أيار/مايو 2017، ص 27-58.Housamedden Darwish - 2017 - Kalamoon مجلة قلمون 1 (1): 27-58.
    على الرغم من المحاولات الحثيثة أو المستمرة، في الفكر الغربي، كما في الفكر العربي، للتمييز بين النقد والانتقاد، ولتأكيد إيجابية النقد، لا سلبيته، ما زال الخلط أو اللبس بين النقد والانتقاد قائمًا وبارزًا، في كثيرٍ من الأحيان، حتى في بعض النصوص التي تتضمن محاولة القيام هذا التمييز¬، ولا زالت النظرة السلبية إلى النقد طاغيةً أو حاضرةً بقوةٍ، لدرجةٍ سمحت لفيصل دراج بالقول: «النقد في زماننا شبهة، ممارسة مشبوهة، فعل سيء الصيت.» وقبل مناقشة هذه النظرة السلبية للنقد، وربطها بالفكر النقدي عند (...)
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  34. Deliberative Rhetoric: Arguing About Doing.Christian Kock (ed.) - 2017 - Windsor: University of Windsor.
    Christian Kock’s essays show the essential interconnectedness of practical reasoning, rhetoric and deliberative democracy. They constitute a unique contribution to argumentation theory that draws on – and criticizes – the work of philosophers, rhetoricians, political scientists and other argumentation theorists. It puts rhetoric in the service of modern democracies by drawing attention to the obligations of politicians to articulate arguments and objections that citizens can weigh against each other in their deliberations about possible courses of action.
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  35. The New Critical Thinking: An Empirically Informed Introduction.Jack Lyons & Barry Ward - 2017 - New York: Routledge.
    This innovative text is psychologically informed, both in its diagnosis of inferential errors, and in teaching students how to watch out for and work around their natural intellectual blind spots. It also incorporates insights from epistemology and philosophy of science that are indispensable for learning how to evaluate premises. The result is a hands-on primer for real world critical thinking. The authors bring a fresh approach to the traditional challenges of a critical thinking course: effectively explaining the nature of validity, (...)
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  36. Giving Reasons: An Extremely Short Introduction to Critical Thinking.David R. Morrow - 2017 - Hackett Publishing Company.
    _Giving Reasons_ prepares students to think independently, evaluate information, and reason clearly across disciplines. Accessible to students and effective for instructors, it provides plain-English exercises, helpful appendices, and a variety of online supplements.
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  37. Using Factor Analysis to Test a Measure of Student Metacognitive Ability Related to Critical Thinking and Intellectual Humility.Jeff Roberts, David E. Wright & Glenn M. Sanford - 2017 - Intersection of Assessment and Learning 2017 (Fall):31-37.
    Locally-developed measures represent great tools for institutions to use in assessing student outcomes. Such measures can be easy to administer, can be cost-effective, and can provide meaningful data for improving student learning. However, many institutions struggle with questions surrounding the quality of their locally-developed assessments. Are their instruments reliable? Are their instruments valid? Can the data generated from these instruments be trusted to drive change and improvement? The good news for faculty, staff, and assessment professionals is that there are steps (...)
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  38. Enhancing Rationality: Heuristics, Biases, and The Critical Thinking Project.Mark Battersby - 2016 - Informal Logic 36 (2):99-120.
    : This paper develops four related claims: 1. Critical thinking should focus more on decision making, 2. the heuristics and bias literature developed by cognitive psychologists and behavioral economists provides many insights into human irrationality which can be useful in critical thinking instruction, 3. unfortunately the “rational choice” norms used by behavioral economists to identify “biased” decision making narrowly equate rational decision making with the efficient pursuit of individual satisfaction; deviations from these norms should not be treated as an irrational (...)
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  39. Powers of the Mind.Robert James M. Boyles, Jeremiah Joven Joaquin & Mark Anthony Dacela - 2016 - In Elizabeth M. Nuncio (ed.), Personal Development. Anvil Publishing, Inc. pp. 61–81.
    This article is a general introduction to the psychology of reasoning. Specifically, it focuses on the dual process theory of human cognition. Proponents of the said two-system view hold that human cognition involves two processes (viz., System 1 and System 2). System 1 is an automatic, intuitive thinking process where judgments and reasoning rely on fast thinking and ready-to-hand data. On the other hand, System 2 is a slow, logical cognitive process where our judgments and reasoning rely on reflective, careful (...)
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  40. Probability Judgements About Indicative Conditionals: An Erotetic Theory.Sam Carter - 2016 - Logic Journal of the IGPL 24 (4).
    Research into the cognition of conditionals has predominantly focused on conditional reasoning, producing a range of theories which explain associated phenomena with considerable success. However, such theories have been less successful in accommodating experimental data concerning how agents assess the probability of indicative conditionals. Since an acceptable account of conditional reasoning should be compatible with evidence regarding how we evaluate conditionals’ likelihoods, this constitutes a failing of such theories. Section 1 introduces the most dominant established approach to conditional reasoning: mental (...)
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  41. The Polemic Between Leonard Nelson and Ernst Cassirer on the Critical Method in the Philosophy.Tomasz Kubalica - 2016 - Folia Philosophica 35:53-69.
    The subject of the paper is a polemic between Leonard Nelson and Ernst Cassirer mainly concerning the understanding of the critical method in philosophy. Nelson refutes the accusation of psychologism and attacks the core of the philosophy of the Marburg School of Neo-Kantianism. In response to those allegations, Cassirer feels obliged to defend the position of his masters and performs this task brilliantly. The present paper considers similarities and differences in the positions of both sides in this debate. I try (...)
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  42. An Introduction to Interdisciplinary Research. Theory and Practice.Steph Menken, Machiel Keestra, Lucas Rutting, Ger Post, Mieke de Roo, Sylvia Blad & Linda de Greef (eds.) - 2016 - Amsterdam University Press.
    This book (128 pp.) serves as an introduction and manual to guide students through the interdisciplinary research process. We are becoming increasingly aware that, as a result of technological developments and globalisation, problems are becoming so complex that they can only be solved through cooperation between multiple disciplines. Healthcare, climate change, food security, energy, financial markets and quality of life are just a few examples of issues that require scientists and academics to work in a crossdisciplinary way. As a result (...)
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  43. Reflection On: On Reflection.Declan Smithies - 2016 - Analysis 76 (1):55-69.
    In his book, On Reflection, Hilary Kornblith criticizes what he regards as a chronic tendency in philosophy towards inflating the significance of reflection in ways that manifest a combination of philosophical naiveté and scientific ignorance about how reflection actually works. In these comments, I respond to Kornblith's challenge by sketching an account of the philosophical significance of reflection in the theory of epistemic justification.
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  44. "في بعض محفزات النقد عند العظم"، مجلة "نزوى"، العدد 82، نيسان/أبريل 2015.Housamedden Darwish - 2015 - Niywa نزوى (82):60-64.
    لا جدال في مركزية أو أهمية ممارسة النقد والتنظير له في فكر العظم. وللوصول إلى فهمٍ أوليٍّ لهذه الأهمية وتلك المركزية، سنعمل، في هذا النص، على إبراز الصلة الوثيقة لممارسة النقد والتنظير له، في فكر العظم، بخلفيته أو نزعاته العلمية أو العلموية والتنويرية واليسارية – الماركسية؛ ثم سنقوم بتوضيح أو تأكيد الارتباط الوجودي أو الضروري، لهذه الممارسة وذاك التنظير، بسمة أو بحالة «الأزمة» الملازمة للواقع والفكر العربيين المعاصرين.
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  45. A Epistemologia de Aristóteles.Jorge Ferigolo (ed.) - 2015 - São Leopoldo, RS, BRAZIL: UNISINOS University.
    Aristotle's epistemology is related to his dialectical method, whose steps are 1- collect the endoxa (accepted opinions of wise and philosophers), 2- contrast endoxa each other, 3- make his own observations over the objects/animals, 4- preserve the corrections and eliminate the errors, 5- conclusion. This method is very similar to what is today called "scientific method", based on the recollection of previous contributions, observations and experiments, and testing of hypotheses.
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  46. A ‘Circulation Model’ of Education: A Response to Challenges of Education at the New University.Amos Keestra & Machiel Keestra - 2015 - Krisis: Journal for Contemporary Philosophy 2015 (2):90-98.
    The protests at the Universiteit van Amsterdam (UvA) that began in November 2014 as a reaction to severe cuts in the department of humanities have sparked a broad debate nationally and even internationally about the future of the university and the values and ideals that should define it. It turned out that dissatisfaction was much more widespread in different parts of the university than some had previously thought, and many turned out to share the concerns first put forward in the (...)
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  47. El lugar de la controversia en la argumentación.María G. Navarro - 2015 - In Fernando Leal Carretero (ed.), Argumentación y pragma-dialéctica: Estudios en honor a Frans H. van Eemeren. Guadalajara (México): Editorial Universitaria.
    La oposición a una estricta separación entre las dimensiones dialéctica y retórica de la actividad argumentativa es una de las aportaciones más destacadas y peculiares de la denominada escuela holandesa sobre argumentación. Frans H. van Eemeren y Peter Houtlosser reaccionaron contra una separación estricta entre dialéctica y retórica en varios trabajos, pero uno de los más inspiradores es sin duda su artículo “William the Silent’s argumentative discourse” (1998) presentado en la ciudad de Ámsterdam con ocasión de la cuarta conferencia organizada (...)
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  48. Why Justification Matters.Declan Smithies - 2015 - In David Henderson & John Greco (eds.), Epistemic Evaluation: Point and Purpose in Epistemology. Oxford University Press. pp. 224-244.
    This chapter is guided by the hypothesis that the point and purpose of using the concept of justification in epistemic evaluation is tied to its role in the practice of critical reflection. In section one, I propose an analysis of justification as the epistemic property in virtue of which a belief has the potential to survive ideal critical reflection. In section two, I use this analysis in arguing for a form of access internalism on which one has justification to believe (...)
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  49. Review of The Palgrave Handbook of Critical Thinking in Higher Education Part V “Critical Thinking and the Cognitive Sciences”. [REVIEW]David Wright - 2015 - Inquiry: Critical Thinking Across the Disciplines 30 (2):54-62.
    This review essay discusses three articles from the Palgrave Handbook of Critical Thinking in Higher Education concerned with outlining the connection between cognitive science and critical thinking. All of the authors explain how recent findings in cognitive science, such as research on heuristics and cognitive biases might be incorporated into the critical thinking curriculum. The authors also elaborate on how recent findings in metacognition can reshape critical thinking pedagogy. For instance, the essays articulate how critical thinking instructors would be wise (...)
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  50. Using Critical Thinking to Change Distracted Driving Behaviors.Jennifer J. Didier - 2014 - Inquiry: Critical Thinking Across the Disciplines 29 (1):56-62.
    In an attempt to reduce dangerous driving behavior of those students enrolled in an upper level course at Sam Houston State University, students performed a series of critical thinking assignments and completed a survey to record their behavior and habits related to driving and the project. The project included a lab experiment, lecture, class discussion, video, and a culminating paper to synthesize the scientific information with real world and classroom experiences. Inspired by the approach to critical thinking put forward by (...)
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