About this topic
Summary Critical thinking is a cluster concept encompassing both the cognitive and meta-cognitive skills, practices and abilities, and the dispositions and character traits that make for reasonable, reflective, and self-aware judgment and decision-making. This double focus tends to produce inquiry along two general lines. One the one hand, there are inquiries that we might think of as falling broadly into applied epistemology (e.g. What are the signs of trustworthiness in a source of evidence? How can agents avoid having false beliefs about important matters? etc.). On the other, there are more normative inquiries that shade into the moral and quasi-moral (e.g. Why is it important to care about avoiding falsehoods in one’s beliefs? What practices are required for minimally responsible use of one’s rational faculties? etc.). Of key importance to the critical thinking endeavor is interest not only in settling these questions but in learning how to teach good epistemic habits and character traits to students. Questions here include what practices we ought to teach, given the limited time we have with students, how we should go about teaching it for maximally beneficial results, and how we should assess and evaluate those results to be sure that what we do is working. Predictably, it is here where critical thinking research becomes interdisciplinary in nature. There are long-standing, active bodies of research into critical thinking in education, psychology, medicine and business, just to name a few. Critical thinking researchers in philosophy have often (but by no means always) taken good work from well-constructed studies from across disciplinary lines seriously in their own work.
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  1. added 2020-05-24
    Criticism and Democracy.Leah Segal & Ruth Richter - 2001 - Inquiry: Critical Thinking Across the Disciplines 20 (4):34-41.
    This paper describes a holistic approach and an interdisciplinary curriculum in enhancing critical thinking and education for democracy at the junior-high schools and highschools levels. The curriculum includes academic subjects such as the humanities, sciences, social sciences and art. The aim of this curriculum is not to teach an additional lesson in history, political sciences, art, etc., but to fostercritical thinking and democratic behavior. The theoretical framework has two bases. The first derives from eighteenth century rationalism and scientific thinking, while (...)
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  2. added 2020-05-22
    The Education for Democracy Project: Using Democratic Pedagogies to Create Indigenous Curriculum.Patricia K. Kubow & John M. Fischer - 2004 - Inquiry: Critical Thinking Across the Disciplines 23 (4):7-12.
  3. added 2020-05-22
    Democracy in Education: Beyond the Conservative or Progressivist Stances.John Portelli - 1996 - Inquiry: Critical Thinking Across the Disciplines 16 (1):9-21.
  4. added 2020-05-17
    The Intellectual's New Clothes: Review of Richard Posner, Public Intellectuals: A Study of Decline and Peter Singer, One World: The Ethics of Globalization. [REVIEW]Julian Friedland - 2003 - APA Newsletter on Teaching Philosophy 12.
  5. added 2020-04-25
    How to Think Critically About the Common Past? On the Feeling of Communism Nostalgia in Post-Revolutionary Romania.Lavinia Marin - 2019 - The Annals of the University of Bucharest - Philosophy Series 68 (2):57-71.
    This article proposes a phenomenological interpretation of nostalgia for communism, a collective feeling expressed typically in most Eastern European countries after the official fall of the communist regimes. While nostalgia for communism may seem like a paradoxical feeling, a sort of Stockholm syndrome at a collective level, this article proposes a different angle of interpretation: nostalgia for communism has nothing to do with communism as such, it is not essentially a political statement, nor the signal of a deep value tension (...)
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  6. added 2020-04-15
    On What a Good Argument Is, in Science and Elsewhere.Rainer Ebert - 2011 - Dhaka University Journal on Journalism, Media and Communication Studies 1:17-26.
    This article investigates what constitutes good reason, in particular in scientific communication. I will start out with a general description of what scientists do and will identify the good argument as an integral part of all science. Employing some simple examples, I will then move on to derive some necessary conditions for the goodness of an argument. Along the way, I will introduce various basic concepts in logic and briefly talk about the nature of human knowledge. I will conclude by (...)
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  7. added 2020-03-09
    On One Case of Condensation.Andrej Poleev - 2020 - Enzymes 18.
  8. added 2020-02-27
    Teaching Critical Thinking with Argument Mapping and Mastery Learning.Javier Hidalgo - manuscript
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  9. added 2019-12-20
    Outro retrato dos desenhos animados da mente dos metafísicos reducionistas – uma revisão de Peter Carruthers ' A Opacidade da Mente ' (The Opacity of Mind) (2011) (revisão revisada 2019).Michael Richard Starks - 2019 - In Delírios Utópicos Suicidas no Século XXI Filosofia, Natureza Humana e o Colapso de Civilization- Artigos e Comentários 2006-2019 5ª edição. Las Vegas, NV USA: Reality Press. pp. 129-154.
    Materialismo, reducionismo, behaviorismo, funcionalismo, teoria dos sistemas dinâmicos e computacionalismo são visões populares, mas eles foram mostrados por Wittgenstein para ser incoerente. O estudo do comportamento abrange toda a vida humana, mas o comportamento é em grande parte automático e inconsciente e até mesmo a parte consciente, principalmente expressa em linguagem (que Wittgenstein equivale com a mente), não é perspicaz, por isso é fundamental ter um quadro que Searle chama a estrutura lógica da racionalidade (LSR) e eu chamo a psicologia (...)
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  10. added 2019-11-26
    Структурно-онтологическая матрица: приступаем к идентификации сегментов.Vitalii Shymko - 2019 - Pro|Stranstvo.
    Публикация (#5) из научно-популярного цикла: "Структурная онтология познания с доктором Шимко".
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  11. added 2019-11-25
    Системный подход, экзистенциальная депрессия и структурированная галлюцинация – есть ли связь?Vitalii Shymko - 2018 - Pro|Stranstvo.
    Публикация (#2) из научно-популярного цикла: "Структурная онтология познания с доктором Шимко".
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  12. added 2019-11-25
    О бедном мышлении замолвите слово, или Зачем нужна системология?Vitalii Shymko - 2018 - Pro|Stranstvo.
    Публикация (#1) из научно-популярного цикла: "Структурная онтология познания с доктором Шимко".
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  13. added 2019-11-05
    Searching the Arcane Origins of Fuzzy Logic.Angel Garrido - 2011 - BRAIN. Broad Research in Artificial Intelligence and Neuroscience 2.
    ABSTRACT It is well-known that Artificial Intelligence requires Logic. But its Classical version shows too many insufficiencies. So, it is very necessary to introduce more sophisticated tools, as may be Fuzzy Logic, Modal Logic, Non-Monotonic Logic, and so on. When you are searching the possible precedent of such new ideas, we may found that they are not totally new, because some ancient thinkers have suggested many centuries ago similar concepts, certainly without adequate mathematical formulation, but in the same line: against (...)
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  14. added 2019-09-22
    Critical Thinking and its Impact on Therapeutic Treatment Outcomes: A Critical Examination.I. L. Williams & David E. Wright - 2019 - British Journal of Guidance and Counselling 2 (13):1-14.
    The literature on critical thinking (CT) in counselling and therapy generally posits higher quality outcomes when CT is applied in therapeutic treatment. We critically examine support for the claim that CT improves clinical outcomes. The purported effects of CT are first identified by arguments in favour of using CT in therapeutic treatment, both in terms of its general efficacy and with regard to its applicability in professional counselling. We then underscore limitations in the current literature, highlighting mainly a gap between (...)
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  15. added 2019-09-22
    Using Factor Analysis to Test a Measure of Student Metacognitive Ability Related to Critical Thinking and Intellectual Humility.Jeff Roberts, David E. Wright & Glenn M. Sanford - 2017 - Intersection of Assessment and Learning 2017 (Fall):31-37.
    Locally-developed measures represent great tools for institutions to use in assessing student outcomes. Such measures can be easy to administer, can be cost-effective, and can provide meaningful data for improving student learning. However, many institutions struggle with questions surrounding the quality of their locally-developed assessments. Are their instruments reliable? Are their instruments valid? Can the data generated from these instruments be trusted to drive change and improvement? The good news for faculty, staff, and assessment professionals is that there are steps (...)
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  16. added 2019-09-22
    Review of The Palgrave Handbook of Critical Thinking in Higher Education Part V “Critical Thinking and the Cognitive Sciences”. [REVIEW]David Wright - 2015 - Inquiry: Critical Thinking Across the Disciplines 30 (2):54-62.
    This review essay discusses three articles from the Palgrave Handbook of Critical Thinking in Higher Education concerned with outlining the connection between cognitive science and critical thinking. All of the authors explain how recent findings in cognitive science, such as research on heuristics and cognitive biases might be incorporated into the critical thinking curriculum. The authors also elaborate on how recent findings in metacognition can reshape critical thinking pedagogy. For instance, the essays articulate how critical thinking instructors would be wise (...)
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  17. added 2019-08-29
    Reasons: A Digital Argument Mapping Library for Modern Browsers.Dave Kinkead, Deborah Brown, Peter Ellerton & Claudio Mazzola - 2019 - Journal of Open Source Software 4 (37):1044.
    Reasons.js is an open-source, loosely-coupled, web-based argument mapping library that can be integrated into a range of online coursewares and websites. The javascript library can be embedded into any HTML page and allows users to create, edit, share, and export argument maps . The API is designed to permit the integration of the three stages of informal logical analysis — identification of truth claims within arguments, the analysis of logical structure, and synthesis of logical structure into written form.
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  18. added 2019-07-11
    Studies in Critical Thinking.John Anthony Blair (ed.) - 2019 - Windsor: University of Windsor.
    Critical thinking deserves both imaginative teaching and serious theoretical attention. Studies in Critical Thinking assembles an all-star cast to serve both.
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  19. added 2019-07-09
    Below the Belt: The Founding of a Higher Education Institution.Carol Hill & Sean F. Johnston (eds.) - 2005 - Dumfries, UK: University of Glasgow Crichton Publications.
    On the formation of the School of Interdisciplinary Studies at the University of Glasgow.
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  20. added 2019-06-06
    Thinking Critically About Critical Thinking.Jennifer Wilson Mulnix - 2012 - Educational Philosophy and Theory 44 (5):464-479.
    As a philosophy professor, one of my central goals is to teach students to think critically. However, one difficulty with determining whether critical thinking can be taught, or even measured, is that there is widespread disagreement over what critical thinking actually is. Here, I reflect on several conceptions of critical thinking, subjecting them to critical scrutiny. I also distinguish critical thinking from other forms of mental processes with which it is often conflated. Next, I present my own conception of critical (...)
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  21. added 2019-06-06
    Tacts™.Frank Fair, John Miller, Valerie Muehsam & Wendy Elliott - 2010 - Inquiry: Critical Thinking Across the Disciplines 25 (2):37-41.
    When the accrediting association for collegiate schools of business, AACSB International, reformulated its accreditation standards to include a systematic assessment of undergraduates’ progress in analytic and reflective thinking, our interdisciplinary team looked at available instruments. Logistical problems, concerns about validity, and an interest in assessing quantitative skills not covered in the available instruments led us to devise the Texas Assessment of Critical Thinking Skills™. As part of the process we followed a suggestion from Scriven and Fisher and incorporated novel multiple-rating (...)
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  22. added 2019-06-06
    Implications for Critical Thinking Dispositions: Evidence From Freshmen in New Mexico.Harikumar Sankaran & Mariza Dimitrijevic - 2010 - Inquiry: Critical Thinking Across the Disciplines 25 (2):27-35.
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  23. added 2019-06-06
    Using Cases to Improve the Critical Thinking Skills of Prospective Teachers.Linda K. Elksnin - 2005 - Inquiry: Critical Thinking Across the Disciplines 24 (3):5-15.
    This essential that prospective teachers develop critical thinking skills. However, they cannot develop these skills simply by reading the assigned text, taking notes during lecture, and completing exams. The case method of instruction relies on real-life situations to teach students general problem solving and decision making through active participation in the leaming process. Thus, CMI offers an effective means of developing the critical thinking skills of prospective teachers. This article presents guidelines teacher educators can follow to create case-based classrooms. Specific (...)
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  24. added 2019-06-06
    Integrating Critical Thinking Into Daily Life.Steve Cady - 2004 - Inquiry: Critical Thinking Across the Disciplines 23 (3):33-36.
    Learners who are first introduced to the process of critical thinking frequently experience a paradigm shift in their own thinking. However, such a major transition in one’s pattern of thinking may presentdifficulties when applying newly acquired critical thinking skills in social contexts. Learners may lack the confidence required for engaging in intellectual discourse, placing inhibitions on their using critical thinking. This article suggests several ways in which critical thinkers may more effectively and confidently use their skills in daily conversation.
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  25. added 2019-06-06
    Critical Reasoning In Ethics: A Practical Introduction. [REVIEW]Norman Mooradian - 2002 - Teaching Philosophy 25 (1):91-95.
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  26. added 2019-06-06
    Critical Thinking: An Introduction to Analytical Reading and Reasoning.Larry Wright - 2001 - Oup Usa.
    Critical Thinking: An Introduction to Analytical Reading and Reasoning, Second Edition, provides a nontechnical vocabulary and analytic apparatus that guide students in identifying and articulating the central patterns found in reasoning and in expository writing more generally. Understanding these patterns of reasoning helps students to better analyze, evaluate, and construct arguments and to more easily comprehend the full range of everyday arguments found in ordinary journalism. Critical Thinking, Second Edition, distinguishes itself from other texts in the field by emphasizing analytical (...)
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  27. added 2019-06-06
    Critical Thinking and Some Diesel Mechanics’ Lifeworlds.Trevor Davison - 1997 - Inquiry: Critical Thinking Across the Disciplines 17 (2):88-100.
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  28. added 2019-06-06
    Incorporating Critical Thinking in the Curriculum: An Introduction to Some Basic Issues.Robert Ennis - 1997 - Inquiry: Critical Thinking Across the Disciplines 16 (3):1-9.
  29. added 2019-06-06
    Critical Thinking Vs. Pure Thought.Orestes Coccia - 1995 - Inquiry: Critical Thinking Across the Disciplines 15 (2):42-58.
  30. added 2019-06-06
    Critical Thinking and Educational Assent.John J. Conley - 1993 - Inquiry: Critical Thinking Across the Disciplines 11 (2):1-1.
  31. added 2019-06-06
    Which Critical Thinking is Ideal?Bernard Davis - 1993 - Inquiry: Critical Thinking Across the Disciplines 11 (4):6-11.
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  32. added 2019-06-06
    Critical Thinking and Improvisation.Elisa de la Roche - 1992 - Inquiry: Critical Thinking Across the Disciplines 10 (1):16-17.
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  33. added 2019-06-06
    Critical Thinking and American People.José Mariá Calvo - 1991 - Inquiry: Critical Thinking Across the Disciplines 7 (3):22-22.
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  34. added 2019-06-06
    Faculty Accessing Critical Thinking: FACT.Gerard Caracciolo & Allison Schumer - 1990 - Inquiry: Critical Thinking Across the Disciplines 6 (2):16-18.
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  35. added 2019-06-05
    Enhancing Rationality: Heuristics, Biases, and The Critical Thinking Project.Mark Battersby - 2016 - Informal Logic 36 (2):99-120.
    : This paper develops four related claims: 1. Critical thinking should focus more on decision making, 2. the heuristics and bias literature developed by cognitive psychologists and behavioral economists provides many insights into human irrationality which can be useful in critical thinking instruction, 3. unfortunately the “rational choice” norms used by behavioral economists to identify “biased” decision making narrowly equate rational decision making with the efficient pursuit of individual satisfaction; deviations from these norms should not be treated as an irrational (...)
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  36. added 2019-05-20
    Reason Better: An Interdisciplinary Guide to Critical Thinking.David Manley - 2019 - Toronto, ON, Canada: Tophat Monocle.
    This book is the result of rethinking the standard playbook for critical thinking courses, to include only the most useful skills from the toolkits of philosophy, cognitive psychology, and behavioral economics. -/- The text focuses on: -/- - a mindset that avoids systematic error, more than the ability to persuade others - the logic of probability and decisions, more than than the logic of deductive arguments - a unified treatment of evidence, covering statistical, causal, and best-explanation inferences -/- The unified (...)
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  37. added 2019-04-17
    Using Computer-Assisted Argument Mapping to Teach Reasoning to Students.Martin Davies, Ashley Barnett & Tim van Gelder - 2019 - In J. Anthony Blair (ed.), Studies in Critical Thinking. Windsor, ON, Canada: Windsor Studies in Argumentation. pp. 131-176.
    Argument mapping is a way of diagramming the logical structure of an argument to explicitly and concisely represent reasoning. The use of argument mapping in critical thinking instruction has increased dramatically in recent decades. This paper overviews the innovation and provides a procedural approach for new teaches wanting to use argument mapping in the classroom. A brief history of argument mapping is provided at the end of this paper.
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  38. added 2019-04-17
    Critical Thinking and the Disciplines Reconsidered.Martin Davies - 2013 - Higher Education Research and Development 32 (4):529-544.
    This paper argues that Moore's specifist defence of critical thinking as ‘diverse modes of thought in the disciplines’, which appeared in Higher Education Research & Development, 30(3), 2011, is flawed as it entrenches relativist attitudes toward the important skill of critical thinking. The paper outlines the critical thinking debate, distinguishes between ‘top-down’, ‘bottom-up’ and ‘relativist’ approaches and locates Moore's account therein. It uses examples from one discipline-specific area, namely, the discipline of Literature, to show that the generalist approach to critical (...)
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  39. added 2019-04-17
    Computer-Assisted Argument Mapping: A Rationale Approach.Martin Davies - 2009 - Higher Education 58:799-820.
    Computer-Assisted Argument Mapping (CAAM) is a new way of understanding arguments. While still embryonic in its development and application, CAAM is being used increasingly as a training and development tool in the professions and government. Inroads are also being made in its application within education. CAAM claims to be helpful in an educational context, as a tool for students in responding to assessment tasks. However, to date there is little evidence from students that this is the case. This paper outlines (...)
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  40. added 2019-02-04
    Educating for Intellectual Virtue: A Critique From Action Guidance.Ben Kotzee, J. Adam Carter & Harvey Siegel - 2019 - Episteme:1-23.
    Virtue epistemology is among the dominant influences in mainstream epistemology today. An important commitment of one strand of virtue epistemology – responsibilist virtue epistemology (e.g., Montmarquet 1993; Zagzebski 1996; Battaly 2006; Baehr 2011) – is that it must provide regulative normative guidance for good thinking. Recently, a number of virtue epistemologists (most notably Baehr, 2013) have held that virtue epistemology not only can provide regulative normative guidance, but moreover that we should reconceive the primary epistemic aim of all education as (...)
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  41. added 2018-12-07
    Inquiry: A New Paradigm for Critical Thinking.Mark Battersby (ed.) - 2018 - Windsor, Canada: Windsor Studies in Argumentation.
    This volume reflects the development and theoretical foundation of a new paradigm for critical thinking based on inquiry. The field of critical thinking, as manifested in the Informal Logic movement, developed primarily as a response to the inadequacies of formalism to represent actual argumentative practice and to provide useful argumentative skills to students. Because of this, the primary focus of the field has been on informal arguments rather than formal reasoning. Yet the formalist history of the field is still evident (...)
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  42. added 2018-11-29
    Problems in Argument Analysis and Evaluation.Trudy Gover - 2018 - Windsor: University of Windsor.
    We are pleased to publish this WSIA edition of Trudy’s Govier’s seminal volume, Problems in Argument Analysis and Evaluation. Originally published in 1987 by Foris Publications, this was a pioneering work that played a major role in establishing argumentation theory as a discipline. Today, it is as relevant to the field as when it first appeared, with discussions of questions and issues that remain central to the study of argument. It has defined the main approaches to many of those issues (...)
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  43. added 2018-11-29
    Reasonable Responses: The Thought of Trudy Govier.Hundleby Catherine (ed.) - 2017 - Windsor: University of Windsor.
    This tribute to the breadth and influence of Trudy Govier’s philosophical work begins with her early scholarship in argumentation theory, paying special attention to its pedagogical expression. Most people first encounter Trudy Govier’s work and many people only encounter it through her textbooks, especially A Practical Study of Argument, published in many editions. In addition to the work on argumentation that has continued throughout her career, much of Govier’s later work addresses social philosophy and the problems of trust and response (...)
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  44. added 2018-11-29
    Deliberative Rhetoric: Arguing About Doing.Christian Kock (ed.) - 2017 - Windsor: University of Windsor.
    Christian Kock’s essays show the essential interconnectedness of practical reasoning, rhetoric and deliberative democracy. They constitute a unique contribution to argumentation theory that draws on – and criticizes – the work of philosophers, rhetoricians, political scientists and other argumentation theorists. It puts rhetoric in the service of modern democracies by drawing attention to the obligations of politicians to articulate arguments and objections that citizens can weigh against each other in their deliberations about possible courses of action.
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  45. added 2018-10-10
    Dangerous Dualisms or Murky Monism? A Reply to Jim Garrison.Harvey Siegel - 2001 - Journal of Philosophy of Education 35 (4):577–595.
  46. added 2018-09-29
    An Introduction to Critical Thinking and Symbolic Logic Volume 2: Informal Reasoning Assignments.Rebeka Ferreira & Anthony Ferrucci - 2018 - Open Educational Resource: OpenStax-CNX and Canvas Commons.
    This textbook is not a textbook in the traditional sense. Here, what we have attempted is compile a set of assignments and exercise that may be used in critical thinking courses. To that end, we have tried to make these assignments as diverse as possible while leaving flexibility in their application within the classroom. Of course these assignments and exercises could certainly be used in other classes as well. Our view is that critical thinking courses work best when they are (...)
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  47. added 2018-09-18
    Critical Thinking and Transcendence : Towards Kantian Ideals of Reason.Christina Hendricks - manuscript
    Paper presented at the Association for Informal Logic and Critical Thinking meeting in conjunction with the Central Division of the American Philosophical Association, Chicago, April 2004.
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  48. added 2018-09-04
    Thomson, A.-Critical Reasoning.D. Simpson - 1999 - Philosophical Books 40:80-80.
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  49. added 2018-08-10
    Arguing About Muslims : Reasonable Argumentation in Letters to the Editor.Atkin Albert & E. Richardson John - 2007 - Text and Talk 1 (27):1-25.
    This article analyses letters to the editor written on or about Muslims printed in a British broadsheet newspaper. The pragma-dialectical theory of argumentation is applied as a model for explaining and understanding the arguments employed in the sampled letters. Our presentation of pragma-dialectical theory focuses on argumentative reasonableness. More specifically, we introduce the four dialectical stages through which any argument must pass and explain the ten rules of critical discussion that participants must follow throughout if they are to resolve the (...)
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  50. added 2018-06-20
    Thinking Twice About Virtue and Vice: Philosophical Situationism and the Vicious Minds Hypothesis.Guy Axtell - 2017 - Logos and Episteme 8 (1):7-39.
    This paper provides an empirical defense of credit theories of knowing against Mark Alfano’s challenges to them based on his theses of inferential cognitive situationism and of epistemic situationism. In order to support the claim that credit theories can treat many cases of cognitive success through heuristic cognitive strategies as credit-conferring, the paper develops the compatibility between virtue epistemologies qua credit theories, and dual-process theories in cognitive psychology. It also a response to Lauren Olin and John Doris’ “vicious minds” thesis, (...)
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