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Summary Critical thinking is a cluster concept encompassing both the cognitive and meta-cognitive skills, practices and abilities, and the dispositions and character traits that make for reasonable, reflective, and self-aware judgment and decision-making. This double focus tends to produce inquiry along two general lines. One the one hand, there are inquiries that we might think of as falling broadly into applied epistemology (e.g. What are the signs of trustworthiness in a source of evidence? How can agents avoid having false beliefs about important matters? etc.). On the other, there are more normative inquiries that shade into the moral and quasi-moral (e.g. Why is it important to care about avoiding falsehoods in one’s beliefs? What practices are required for minimally responsible use of one’s rational faculties? etc.). Of key importance to the critical thinking endeavor is interest not only in settling these questions but in learning how to teach good epistemic habits and character traits to students. Questions here include what practices we ought to teach, given the limited time we have with students, how we should go about teaching it for maximally beneficial results, and how we should assess and evaluate those results to be sure that what we do is working. Predictably, it is here where critical thinking research becomes interdisciplinary in nature. There are long-standing, active bodies of research into critical thinking in education, psychology, medicine and business, just to name a few. Critical thinking researchers in philosophy have often (but by no means always) taken good work from well-constructed studies from across disciplinary lines seriously in their own work.
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  1. The Art of Critical Thinking. [REVIEW]E. J. A. - 1965 - Review of Metaphysics 19 (2):381-381.
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  2. Smart Thinking: Skills for Critical Understanding and Writing.Matthew Allen - 2004 - Oxford University Press.
    Smart Thinking: Skills for Critical Understanding and Writing 2E is a practical step-by-step guide to improving skills in analysis, critical thinking, and the effective communication of arguments and explanations. The book combines an accessible and straightforward style, with a strong foundation of knowledge. The text treats reasoning as an aspect of communication, not an abstract exercise in logic. The book not only provides detailed advice on how to practise analytical skills, but also demonstrates how these skills can be used in (...)
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  3. Techniques of Critical Reasoning.David B. Annis - 1974 - Columbus, Ohio, Merrill.
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  4. Moral Reasoning Development Programmes in Prison: Cognitive‐Developmental and Critical Reasoning Approaches.Jack Arbuthnot - 1984 - Journal of Moral Education 13 (2):112-123.
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  5. Perfectly Irrational: The Unexpected Ways We Defy Logic at Work and at Home.Dan Ariely - 2010 - Harper.
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  6. Critical Reasoning.Karl Aschenbrenner - 1960 - Journal of Philosophy 57 (20/21):654-665.
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  7. Means-End Reciprocity and the Aims of Education Debate.Guy Axtell - manuscript
    In the centennial year of John Dewey’s classic, Democracy and Education (1916), this paper revisits his thesis of the reciprocity of means and ends, arguing that it remains of central importance for debate over the aims of education. The paper provides a Dewey-inspired rebuttal of arguments for an ‘ultimate aim,’ but balances this with a development of the strong overlaps between proponents of pragmatism, intellectual virtues education (Jason Baehr) and critical thinking education (Harvey Siegel). Siegel’s ‘Kantian’ justification of critical thinking (...)
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  8. Enhancing Rationality: Heuristics, Biases, and The Critical Thinking Project.Mark Battersby - 2016 - Informal Logic 36 (2):99-120.
    : This paper develops four related claims: 1. Critical thinking should focus more on decision making, 2. the heuristics and bias literature developed by cognitive psychologists and behavioral economists provides many insights into human irrationality which can be useful in critical thinking instruction, 3. unfortunately the “rational choice” norms used by behavioral economists to identify “biased” decision making narrowly equate rational decision making with the efficient pursuit of individual satisfaction; deviations from these norms should not be treated as an irrational (...)
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  9. Théories à processus duaux et théories de l’éducation : Le cas de l’enseignement de la pensée critique et de la logique.Guillaume Beaulac & Serge Robert - 2011 - Les ateliers de l'éthique/The Ethics Forum 6 (1):63-77.
    Many theories about the teaching of logic and critical thinking take for granted that theoretical learning, the learning of formal rules for example, and its practical application are sufficient to master the tools taught and to take the habit of using them. However, this way of teaching is not efficient, a conclusion supported by much work in cognitive science. Approaching cognition evolutionarily with dual-process theories allows for an explanation of these insufficiencies and offers clues on how we could teach critical (...)
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  10. The Fallacy Detective: Thirty-Six Lessons on How to Recognize Bad Reasoning.Nathaniel Bluedorn - 2003 - Christian Logic.
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  11. Galileo's Lessons on Critical Reasoning.Luciano Boschiero - 2012 - Metascience 21 (1):219-221.
    Galileo’s lessons on critical reasoning Content Type Journal Article Pages 1-3 DOI 10.1007/s11016-011-9541-5 Authors Luciano Boschiero, Campion College, PO Box 3052, Toongabbie East, NSW 2146, Australia Journal Metascience Online ISSN 1467-9981 Print ISSN 0815-0796.
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  12. Critical Reasoning, Understanding and Self-Knowledge.J. Brown - 2000 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 61 (3):659-676.
    Following Burge, many anti-individualists suppose that a subject can possess a concept even if she incompletely understands it. While agreeing that this is possible, I argue that there is a limit on the extent to which a subject can incompletely understand the set of concepts she thinks with. This limit derives from our conception of our ability to reflectively evaluate our own thoughts or, as Burge puts it, our ability to engage in critical reasoning. The paper extends Burge’s own work (...)
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  13. What for, Critical Thinking?Robert Bruno & Lynn Bruno - 1992 - Inquiry 10 (4):7-8.
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  14. Integrating Critical Thinking Into Daily Life.Steve Cady - 2004 - Inquiry 23 (3):33-36.
    Learners who are first introduced to the process of critical thinking frequently experience a paradigm shift in their own thinking. However, such a major transition in one’s pattern of thinking may presentdifficulties when applying newly acquired critical thinking skills in social contexts. Learners may lack the confidence required for engaging in intellectual discourse, placing inhibitions on their using critical thinking. This article suggests several ways in which critical thinkers may more effectively and confidently use their skills in daily conversation.
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  15. Critical Reasoning Regarding War.Laurie Calhoun - 1999 - The Acorn 10 (1):5-26.
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  16. Critical Thinking and American People.José Mariá Calvo - 1991 - Inquiry 7 (3):22-22.
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  17. The Art of Deception: An Introduction to Critical Thinking.Nicholas Capaldi - 2007 - Prometheus Books.
    Identifying arguments -- Formal analysis of arguments -- Presenting your case -- Attacking an argument -- Defending your case -- Cause-and-effect reasoning.
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  18. You've Got to Be Kidding!: How Jokes Can Help You Think.John Capps & Donald Capps - 2009 - Wiley-Blackwell.
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  19. Faculty Accessing Critical Thinking: FACT.Gerard Caracciolo & Allison Schumer - 1990 - Inquiry 6 (2):16-18.
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  20. Critical Reasoning: Understanding and Criticizing Arguments and Theories.J. B. Cederblom - 2012 - Cengage.
    In this era of increased polarization of opinion and contentious disagreement, CRITICAL REASONING presents a cooperative approach to critical thinking and formation of beliefs. CRITICAL REASONING emphasizes the importance of developing and applying analytical skills in real life contexts. This book is unique in providing multiple, diverse examples of everyday arguments, both textual and visual, including hard to find long argument passages from real-life sources. The book provides clear, step-by-step procedures to help you decide for yourself what to believe--to be (...)
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  21. Forum Critical Thinking: Symposium on the Future of Universities: Introduction.Kelly Coate - 2010 - Arts and Humanities in Higher Education 9 (1):9-12.
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  22. Critical Thinking Vs. Pure Thought.Orestes Coccia - 1995 - Inquiry 15 (2):42-58.
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  23. Critical Thinking: Step by Step.Robert Cogan - 1998 - Upa.
    This book is a comprehensive introduction to critical thinking skills and the philosophical and factual bases of critical thinking.
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  24. Critical Thinking Unleashed.Elliot D. Cohen - 2009 - Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    Demonstrating the practical relevance and import of many historically significant philosophers , Critical Thinking Unleashed presents a practical, non-technical, and comprehensive approach to critical thinking. In contrast to other treatments of practical reasoning, Elliot D. Cohen not only teaches students how to identify and refute irrational premises_he also teaches them how to construct rational antidotes to combat the personal, social, and political obstacles they confront in everyday life.
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  25. The Art of Logick; or, the Entire Body of Logick in English. Unfolding to the Meanest Capacity the Way to Dispute Well, and to Refute All Fallacies Whatsoever.Zachary Coke & John Streater - 1657 - Printed for John Streater, and Are to Be Sold by the Book-Sellers of London.
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  26. A Participatory Approach to the Teaching of Critical Reasoning.Rory J. Conces - 1995 - APA Newsletter on Teaching Philosophy 94 (2):114-116.
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  27. Critical Reasoning in Contemporary Culture.John J. Conley - 1994 - International Philosophical Quarterly 34 (1):132-134.
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  28. Critical Thinking and Educational Assent.John J. Conley - 1993 - Inquiry 11 (2):1-1.
  29. C.A. Missimer, Good Arguments: An Introduction To Critical Thinking. [REVIEW]D. Crossley - 1986 - Philosophy in Review 6 (8):390-393.
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  30. Maurice A. Finocchiaro. 2010. Defending Copernicus and Galileo: Critical Reasoning in the Two Affairs.Scott Crothers - 2010 - Informal Logic 30 (4).
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  31. The Teaching of Critical Thinking.Edward D'angelo - 1971
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  32. Thinking About Thinking. [REVIEW]S. D. - 1956 - Review of Metaphysics 9 (4):712-712.
  33. Critical Thinking Faces the Challenge of Japan.B. Davidson - 1998 - Inquiry 14 (3):41-53.
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  34. Computer-Aided Argument Mapping and the Teaching of Critical Thinking.Martin Davies - 2013 - Inquiry 27 (3):16-28.
    Part I of this paper outlined the three standard approaches to the teaching of critical thinking: the normative (or philosophical), cognitive psychology, and educational taxonomy approaches. The paper contrasted these with the visualisation approach; in particular, computer-aided argument mapping (CAAM), and presented a detailed account of the CAAM methodology and a theoretical justification for its use. This part develops further support for CAAM. A case is made that CAAM improves critical thinking because it minimises the cognitive burden of prose and (...)
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  35. Computer-Aided Mapping and the Teaching of Critical Thinking.Martin Davies - 2012 - Inquiry: Critical Thinking Across the Disciplines 27 (2):15-30.
    This paper is in two parts. Part I outlines three traditional approaches to the teaching of critical thinking: the normative, cognitive psychology, and educational approaches. Each of these approaches is discussed in relation to the influences of various methods of critical thinking instruction. The paper contrasts these approaches with what I call the “visualisation” approach. This approach is explained with reference to computer-aided argument mapping (CAAM) which uses dedicated computer software to represent inferences between premise and conclusions. The paper presents (...)
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  36. Which Critical Thinking is Ideal?Bernard Davis - 1993 - Inquiry 11 (4):6-11.
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  37. Critical Thinking and Some Diesel Mechanics' Lifeworlds.Trevor Davison - 1997 - Inquiry 17 (2):88-100.
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  38. Fisher, Alec and Scriven, Michael (1997). Critical Thinking. Its Definition and Assessment.Kees de Glopper - 2002 - Argumentation 16 (2):247-251.
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  39. Critical Thinking and Improvisation.Elisa de la Roche - 1992 - Inquiry 10 (1):16-17.
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  40. Helping to Undo the Past: Teaching Critical Reasoning in South Africa.Stephen de Wijze - 1996 - Informal Logic 18 (1):57-82.
    In this paper I discuss the opportunities and difficulties of teaching critical reasoning in a rapidly transforming society such as South Africa. I argue that the real benefits for students of such courses outweigh the pessimism of John McPeck and Richard Paul that they do little, if any, good. This paper is based on my experience of having taught critical reasoning at school and university level in South Africa during the early 90's.
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  41. Critical Thinking and Sexing Chickens.Richard DeWitt - 1992 - Inquiry 10 (1):8-11.
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  42. How to Become a Really Good Pain in the Ass: A Critical Thinker's Guide to Asking the Right Questions.Christopher DiCarlo - 2011 - Prometheus Books.
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  43. Using Critical Thinking to Change Distracted Driving Behaviors.Jennifer J. Didier - 2014 - Inquiry: Critical Thinking Across the Disciplines 29 (1):56-62.
    In an attempt to reduce dangerous driving behavior of those students enrolled in an upper level course at Sam Houston State University, students performed a series of critical thinking assignments and completed a survey to record their behavior and habits related to driving and the project. The project included a lab experiment, lecture, class discussion, video, and a culminating paper to synthesize the scientific information with real world and classroom experiences. Inspired by the approach to critical thinking put forward by (...)
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  44. Becoming a Critical Thinker: A User Friendly Manual.Sherry Diestler - 2009 - Pearson/Prentice Hall.
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  45. Implications for Critical Thinking Dispositions.Mariza Dimitrijevic - 2010 - Inquiry 25 (2):27-35.
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  46. Critical Thinking as a Source of Respect for Persons: A Critique.Christine Doddington - 2007 - Educational Philosophy and Theory 39 (4):449–459.
    Critical thinking has come to be defined as and aligned with ‘good’ thinking. It connects to the value placed on rationality and agency and is woven into conceptions of what it means to become a person and hence deserve respect. Challenges to the supremacy of critical thinking have helped to provoke richer and fuller interpretations and critical thought is prevalent in talk of what it is to become a person and more fundamentally to educate. The capacity for critical thought may (...)
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  47. There Must Be Some Way Out of Here: A Case Study in the Teaching of Critical Thinking.M. Drewett - 1995 - South African Journal of Philosophy 14 (2):72-76.
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  48. Educational and Philosophical Weaknesses of the Critical Thinking Movement.Laura Duhan - 1991 - Dissertation, The Claremont Graduate University
    By focusing its efforts on teaching logic and argumentation, the critical thinking movement does a disservice to students and misrepresents philosophy. Literature from the critical pedagogy movement supports the claim that the critical thinking movement impoverishes students. Literature on metaphor and analogy from the phenomenological movement in philosophy supports the claim that the critical thinking movement misrepresents philosophy. ;In critical thinking courses, students are taught that their careful reading of a text should lead to the identification and criticism of an (...)
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  49. From Effective Teacher Training in Critical Thinking to Effective Classroom Teaching in Critical Thinking.Phyllis Edelson & Gerard Vallone - 1998 - Analytic Teaching and Philosophical Praxis 18 (2):37-43.
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  50. Higher Mind: The Method of Critical Thinking.Todd F. Eklof - 2005 - Philosophical Practice 1 (3):129-133.
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