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  1. Book Review:Cybernetics (Transactions of the Ninth Conference, March 20-21, 1952) H. Von Foerster. [REVIEW]Russell L. Ackoff - 1955 - Philosophy of Science 22 (1):68-.
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  2. Book Review:Cybernetics Norbert Wiener. [REVIEW]Russell L. Ackoff - 1949 - Philosophy of Science 16 (2):159-.
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  3. Cybernetics as Seen by the Philosopher.Alvarez de Linera Antonio - 1957 - Philosophy Today 1 (3):202-206.
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  4. To What Extent Can Second-Order Cybernetics Be a Foundation for Psychology?M. Arnold-Cathalifaud & D. Thumala-Dockendorff - 2016 - Constructivist Foundations 11 (3):520-521.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Cybernetic Foundations for Psychology” by Bernard Scott. Upshot: Scott’s proposal is well-founded and opens interesting possibilities. We selected some critical aspects of his argumentation and discuss them in the context of the constructivist perspective. We highlight as Scott’s “blind spot” his statement - presented without further argument - of the need for a conceptual and theoretical unification of psychology from the perspective of second-order cybernetics. We find this especially worrisome as it is based on (...)
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  5. Principles of the Self-Organizing System.W. Ross Ashby - 1962 - In H. Von Foerster & Zopf Jr (eds.), Principles of Self-Organization: Transactions of the University of Illinois Symposium. Pergamon Press. pp. 255–278.
  6. An Introduction to Cybernetics.W. Ross Ashby - 1956 - New York: J. Wiley.
    We must, therefore, make a study of mechanism; but some introduction is advisable, for cybernetics treats the subject from a new, and therefore unusual, ...
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  7. Authors’ Response: Communicating Second-Order Science.P. Aufenvenne, H. Egner & K. Elverfeldt - 2014 - Constructivist Foundations 10 (1):135-139.
    Upshot: For communicating second-order science, von Foerster’s ethical imperative provides a viable starting point. Proceeding from this, we plead in favour of emphasising the common grounds of diverging scientific opinions and of various approaches in second-order science instead of focussing on the differences. This will provide a basis for communication and stimulate scientific self-reflection.
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  8. Cybernetics and Life.E. B. Babskii & E. S. Gelle - 1970 - Russian Studies in Philosophy 8 (4):354-370.
    The ideas and methods of cybernetics are increasingly penetrating the biological and medical sciences, and today we are justified in speaking of a new branch of science: biological and medical cybernetics. This branch already has a number of important and encouraging subfields.
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  9. “We Can Rebuild Him!”: The Essentialisation of the Human/Cyborg Interface in the Twenty-First Century, or Whatever Happened to The Six Million Dollar Man? [REVIEW]Simon Bacon - 2013 - AI and Society 28 (3):267-276.
    This paper aims to show how recent cinematic representations reveal a far more pessimistic and essentialised vision of Human/Cyborg hybridity in comparison with the more enunciative and optimistic ones seen at the end of the twentieth century. Donna Haraway’s still influential 1985 essay “A Cyborg Manifesto” saw the combination of the organic and the technological as offering new and exciting ways beyond the normalised culturally constructed categories of gender and identity formation. However, more recently critics see her later writings as (...)
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  10. The Culture of Cybernetics. Review of “The Black Boox. Volume III: 39 Steps' by Ranulph Glanville. Edition Echoraum, Vienna, 2009”. [REVIEW]D. Baecker - 2010 - Constructivist Foundations 5 (2):102--103.
    Upshot: Ranulph Glanville’s musings about cybernetics are statements of wonder as much as careful reconstructions of the core ideas of cybernetics. In Vol. III of his Black Boox all 39 of them are collected, which appeared between 1994 and 2009 in the Journal, Cybernetics and Human Knowing. If Heinz von Foerster said that the ideas of second-order cybernetics are nowadays to be found just about?everywhere in everyday life, Glanville is not that sure about this.
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  11. Whole-Personality Emulation.William Sims Bainbridge - 2012 - International Journal of Machine Consciousness 4 (01):159-175.
  12. "Cybernetics and the Philosophy of Mind," by Kenneth Sayre.Dominic J. Balestra - 1978 - Modern Schoolman 55 (3):300-305.
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  13. Cybernetic Engines.John Barber - 1999 - Kairos 4 (1).
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  14. Connecting Second-Order Cybernetics’ Revolution with Genetic Epistemology.G. Becerra - 2016 - Constructivist Foundations 11 (3):468-470.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Second-Order Cybernetics as a Fundamental Revolution in Science” by Stuart A. Umpleby. Upshot: Connecting Umpleby’s article with Piaget and García’s genetic epistemology, I will argue that the revolution the former discerns is more comprehensive. Additionally, since the latter differ from cybernetic and radical traditions in their philosophical assumptions about society and its conditioning on knowledge, I will suggest that these assumptions must be considered to explain each constructivist program’s achievements and challenges.
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  15. On Certain Problems Concerning Cybernetics.A. I. Berg - 1962 - Russian Studies in Philosophy 1 (1):57-65.
    No generally accepted, unambiguous definition of the term "cybernetics" yet exists. However, we believe that many disputes about the purpose and spheres of application of cybernetics could be brought to an end if the definition of it as the science of the laws of control of complex dynamic systems were accepted. Such dynamic systems exist in unique forms both in living nature and in human society. These are systems capable of changing their state and comprising a multitude of simpler, interrelated (...)
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  16. Guest Editors' Introduction: Emergence of Third Order Cybernetics.D. Boje & K. Baskin - 2005 - Emergence: Complexity and Organization 7 (3-4).
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  17. Systems Theory and Scientific Philosophy: An Application of the Cybernetics of W. Ross Ashby to Personal and Social Philosophy, the Philosophy of Mind, and the Problems of Artificial Intelligence.John Bryant - 1991 - Upa.
    Systems Theory and Scientific Philosophy constitutes a totally new approach to philosophy, the philosophy of mind and the problems of artificial intelligence, and is based upon the pioneering work in cybernetics of W. Ross Ashby. While science is humanity's attempt to know how the world works and philosophy its attempt to know why, scientific philosophy is the application of scientific techniques to questions of philosophy.
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  18. Roberto Cordeschi: The Discovery of the Artificial. Behaviour, Mind and Machines Before and Beyond Cybernetics. [REVIEW]Ernesto Burattini - 2003 - AI and Society 17 (3-4):393-395.
  19. On the Importance of Being Emergent. Extended Review of “Emergence and Embodiment: New Essays on Second-Order Systems Theory' Edited by Bruce Clark and Mark B. N. Hanson.Duke University Press, Durham, 2009. [REVIEW]P. Cariani - 2010 - Constructivist Foundations 5 (2):86--91.
    Upshot: Emergence and Embodiment is a highly worthwhile and well-crafted collection of essays on second-order cybernetics that draws together ideas related to self-organization, autopoiesis, organizational closure, self-reference, and neurophenomenology. Chapters include articles by Heinz von Foerster, Francesco Varela, Niklas Luhmann, George Spencer-Brown, and Evan Thompson and external commentaries on them that analyze the relevance of their ideas in the context of social and cultural theory. Despite some projective distortions to cybernetics that arise from the internal imperatives of culture criticism, the (...)
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  20. Beware False Dichotomies.P. A. Cariani - 2016 - Constructivist Foundations 11 (3):472-475.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Second-Order Cybernetics as a Fundamental Revolution in Science” by Stuart A. Umpleby. Upshot: While I agree with most of the thrust of second-order cybernetics, I find the dichotomy of first- vs. second-order cybernetics conceptually and historically problematic because it implicitly conflates the cybernetics of nonhuman systems with realist conceptions of observer-free science. The dichotomy may be divisive and unhealthy for cybernetics by driving natural scientists and engineers out of the movement, thereby undermining the universality (...)
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  21. Cybernetics as a Discipline and an Interdiscipline.S. Ceccato & C. Bougarel - 1966 - Diogenes 14 (53):99-114.
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  22. The Role of Cybernetics in the Soviet Union and in Other Countries of Eastern Europe During the Period 1955–1975.Łukasz Cholewa - 2008 - Archiwum Historii Filozofii I Myśli Społecznej 53.
    In the following paper author presents main ideas and difficulties of the philosophy of cybernetics in the east – block countries between 1955 and 1975 year. First, the cybernetics is presented and put in the context of the contemporary ideology. Next, the main areas of investigations on this field are shown, with the emphasis on the mind – body relation as concerns to dialectic materialism. Finally, the role of cybernetics’s philosophy in the development of cybernetics itself is analyzed.
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  23. Eco-Cybernetics: The Nucleus of Unified Knowledge And.Jere W. Clark - 1974 - In Donald E. Washburn & Dennis R. Smith (eds.), Coping with Increasing Complexity: Implications of General Semantics and General Systems Theory. Gordon & Breach. pp. 348.
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  24. From Information to Cognition: The Systems Counterculture, Heinz von Foerster's Pedagogy, and Second-Order Cybernetics.B. Clarke - 2012 - Constructivist Foundations 7 (3):196-207.
    Context: In this empirical and conceptual paper on the historical, philosophical, and epistemological backgrounds of second-order cybernetics, the emergence of a significant pedagogical component to Heinz von Foerster’s work during the last years of the Biological Computer Laboratory is placed against the backdrop of social and intellectual movements on the American landscape. Problem: Previous discussion in this regard has focused largely on the student radicalism of the later 1960s. A wider-angled view of the American intellectual counterculture is needed. However, this (...)
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  25. Anthony Chemero: Radical Embodied Cognitive Science. [REVIEW]David Cole - 2010 - Minds and Machines 20 (3):475-479.
  26. Cybernetics.Roberto Cordeschi - 2008 - In L. Floridi (ed.), The Blackwell Guide to the Philosophy of Computing and Information. Blackwell.
    The term cybernetics was first used in 1947 by Norbert Wiener with reference to the centrifugal governor that James Watt had fitted to his steam engine, and above all to Clerk Maxwell, who had subjected governors to a general mathematical treatment in 1868. Wiener used the word “governor” in the sense of the Latin corruption of the Greek term kubernetes, or “steersman.” Wiener defined cybernetics as the study of “control and communication in the animal and the machine” (Wiener 1948). This (...)
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  27. Steps Toward the Synthetic Method: Symbolic Information Processing and Self-Organizing Systems in Early Artificial Intelligence.Roberto Cordeschi - 2008 - In P. Husbands, O. Holland & M. Wheeler (eds.), The Mechanichal Mind in History. MIT Press.
    The year 1943 is customarily considered as the birth of cybernetics. Artificial Intelligence (AI) was officially born thirteen years later, in 1956. This chapter is about two theories on human cognitive processes developed in the context of cybernetics and early AI. The first theory is that of the cyberneticist Donald MacKay, in the framework of an original version of self-organizing systems; the second is that of Allen Newell and Herbert Simon (initially with the decisive support of Clifford Shaw) and is (...)
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  28. AI Turns Fifty: Revisiting its Origins.Roberto Cordeschi - 2007 - Applied Artificial Intelligence 21:259-279.
    The expression ‘‘artificial intelligence’’ (AI) was introduced by John McCarthy, and the official birth of AI is unanimously considered to be the 1956 Dartmouth Conference. Thus, AI turned fifty in 2006. How did AI begin? Several differently motivated analyses have been proposed as to its origins. In this paper a brief look at those that might be considered steps towards Dartmouth is attempted, with the aim of showing how a number of research topics and controversies that marked the short history (...)
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  29. Simulation Models of Organism Behavior: Some Lessons From Precybernetic and Cybernetic Approaches.Roberto Cordeschi - 2006 - In S. Termini (ed.), Imagination and Rigor: Essays on Eduardo R. Caianiello’s Scientific Heritage. Springer.
    The rise and some more recent developments of the machine-simulation methodology of living-organism behavior are discussed in this paper. In putting forward these issue, my aim is that of isolating recurring themes which help understanding the development of such a machine-simulation methodology, from its, so to speak, discovery during the first half of the twentieth century up to the present time. The machine designed by the engineer S. Bent Russell in 1913 seems to share the core of at least some (...)
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  30. The Discovery of the Artificial: Behavior, Mind and Machines Before and Beyond Cybernetics.Roberto Cordeschi - 2002 - Kluwer Academic Publishers.
    Since the second half of the XXth century, researchers in cybernetics and AI, neural nets and connectionism, Artificial Life and new robotics have endeavoured to build different machines that could simulate functions of living organisms, such as adaptation and development, problem solving and learning. In this book these research programs are discussed, particularly as regard the epistemological issues of the behaviour modelling. One of the main novelty of this book consists of the fact that certain projects involving the building of (...)
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  31. The Discovery of the Artificial: Some Protocybernetic Developments 1930-1940.Roberto Cordeschi - 1991 - Artificial Intelligence and Society 5 (3):218-238.
    In this paper I start from a definition of “culture of the artificial” which might be stated by referring to the background of philosophical, methodological, pragmatical assumptions which characterizes the development of the information processing analysis of mental processes and of some trends in contemporary cognitive science: in a word, the development of AI as a candidate science of mind. The aim of this paper is to show how (with which plausibility and limitations) the discovery of the mentioned background might (...)
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  32. Brain, Mind and Computers.Roberto Cordeschi - 1991 - In P. Corsi (ed.), The Enchanted Loom: Chapters in the History of Neuroscience. Oxford University Press.
    In this chapter the early history of Computer Science, Cybernetics and Artificial Intelligence is sketched. More recent developments of AI and the philosophy of Cognitive Science are also discussed.
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  33. Purpose, Feedback and Homeostasis: Dimension of a Controversy in Psychological Theory.Roberto Cordeschi - 1987 - In S. Bem, H. Rappard & W. van Horn (eds.), Studies in the History of Psychology and the Social Sciences 3. Psychologisch Instituut Leiden.
    In this paper several reformulations of William Ross Ashby and Norbert Wiener’s classical claims on purposive behavior are examined. Next restatements of this issue are then discussed, particularly as regards the following question: is it possible to extend the concepts and methods of mechanical (physical) explanation to psychological explanation, in order to explain human (and animal) purposive behavior? This question was restated in the 1950s as follows: are negative feedback and homeostatic mechanisms really explanatory of adaptive and purposive behavior, or (...)
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  34. Mechanical Models in Psychology in the 1950s.Roberto Cordeschi - 1985 - In S. Bem, H. Rappard & W. van Horn (eds.), Studies in the History of Psychology and the Social Sciences 3. Psychologisch Instituut Leiden.
    In this paper some applications and methodological developments of mechanical models in psychology in the 1950s are examined. During that period, a new conception of the theory-model relationship in psychology become evident, which had been proposed earlier by the mechanistic trend in psychology in the 1930s. Such a conception allowed psychologists a new approach to many problems in theoretical psychology, such as the role of hypotheses and neurophysiology in psychological explanation and the positions of psychologists concerning neobehavioristic theories of behaviour (...)
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  35. Intelligent Machines and Warfare: Historical Debates and Epistemologically Motivated Concerns.Roberto Cordeschi & Guglielmo Tamburrini - 2005 - In L. Magnani (ed.), European Computing and Philosophy Conference (ECAP 2004). College Publications.
    The early examples of self-directing robots attracted the interest of both scientific and military communities. Biologists regarded these devices as material models of animal tropisms. Engineers envisaged the possibility of turning self-directing robots into new “intelligent” torpedoes during World War I. Starting from World War II, more extensive interactions developed between theoretical inquiry and applied military research on the subject of adaptive and intelligent machinery. Pioneers of Cybernetics were involved in the development of goal-seeking warfare devices. But collaboration occasionally turned (...)
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  36. Philosophy And Cybernetics.Frederick J. Crosson (ed.) - 1967 - Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press.
  37. Cybernetics: Circular Causal and Feedback Mechanisms in Biological and Social Systems. Transactions of the Tenth Conference, April 22, 23, and 24, 1953, Princeton, N. J. [REVIEW]S. D. - 1956 - Review of Metaphysics 10 (2):373-373.
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  38. Thinking by Machine.Pierre de Latil - 1957 - Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
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  39. Feedback, Cybernetics and Sociology.A. Delobelle - 1975 - Diogenes 23 (91):70-105.
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  40. Hermann Schmidt (1894-1968) and the General Theory of Regulation: German Cybernetics in 1940?F. Dittmann & J. Segal - 1997 - Annals of Science 54 (6):547-565.
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  41. Cybernetics Is the Answer, but What Was the Conversation About?J. dos Santos Cabral Filho - 2016 - Constructivist Foundations 11 (3):587-589.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Design Research as a Variety of Second-Order Cybernetic Practice” by Ben Sweeting. Upshot: It is suggested that the main arguments of the target article could be constructed in an easier way and would become even more compelling if a radical consideration of the systemic nature of design were taken into account.
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  42. The Cybernetics GroupSteve Joshua Heims.Kevin J. Downing - 1992 - Isis 83 (3):520-521.
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  43. Review of Michael Eldred, The Digital Cast of Being: Metaphysics, Mathematics, Cartesianism, Cybernetics, Capitalism, Communication[REVIEW]Val Dusek - 2010 - Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2010 (6).
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  44. Cybernetics.Murray Eden - 1983 - In Fritz Machlup (ed.), The Study of Information: Interdisciplinary Messages. Wiley. pp. 409--439.
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  45. Sowing Seeds: Heinz von Foerster's Second Order Cybernetics and Complexity. Review Of: Evelyne Andreewsky & Robert Delorme (Eds.) (2006) Seconde Cybernétique Et Complexité: Rencontres Avec Heinz von Foerster. L'Harmattan: Paris. [REVIEW]F. Erpicum - 2008 - Constructivist Foundations 3 (2):115-116.
    Summary: Because this book has something of the storytelling of cheerful meetings, von Foerster is made more accessible to the novice; however, it does not lose any of its intellectual sharpness. Henri Atlan and Edgar Morin, in particular, greatly influenced by von Foerster and quite famous in French-speaking countries, give a helping hand to those who wish to explore their work further from the perspective of von Foerster's vision and thoughts. And Atlan and Morin take also the credit for the (...)
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  46. Second-Order Cybernetics Needs a Unifying Methodology.T. R. Flanagan - 2016 - Constructivist Foundations 11 (3):475-478.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Second-Order Cybernetics as a Fundamental Revolution in Science” by Stuart A. Umpleby. Upshot: Theory without a strong methodology is stranded in philosophy. Principles devolved from theory can be applied to situations in the arena of practice in many ways; however, a continually improving science must refine its theories with feedback from data drawn from the use of continually improving sets of codified methodologies. Second-order cybernetics is contingent upon sense-making within sapient systems. A perspective on (...)
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  47. Computing a Reality. Heinz von Foerster's Lecture at the A.U.M Conference in 1973. Edited by Albert Müller.H. Foerster & A. Müller - 2008 - Constructivist Foundations 4 (1):62-69.
  48. Intelligent Universe: A Cybernetic Philosophy.David Blythe Foster - 1975 - Putnam.
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  49. Blunting the Edge of Second-Order Cybernetics: The Heritage of Heinz von Foerster. Review Of: Albert Müller & Karl H. Müller (Eds.) (2007) An Unfinished Revolution? [REVIEW]S. Franchi - 2007 - Constructivist Foundations 3 (1):53-54.
    Summary: The aim of this collection is to provide a two-fold access to von Foerster's legacy and his work at the Biological Computer Laboratory, the institution he founded and directed at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign from 1958 to 1976. It represents a precious contribution for the understanding of BCL, a crucial but still not properly understood chapter in the history of cybernetics and, more generally, of cognitive science. It is greatly recommended.
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  50. Systemics and Cybernetics in a Historical Perspective.Charles Francois - 1999 - Systems Research and Behavioral Science 16 (3):203-219.
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