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  1. Russell L. Ackoff (1955). Book Review:Cybernetics (Transactions of the Ninth Conference, March 20-21, 1952) H. Von Foerster. [REVIEW] Philosophy of Science 22 (1):68-.
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  2. Russell L. Ackoff (1949). Book Review:Cybernetics Norbert Wiener. [REVIEW] Philosophy of Science 16 (2):159-.
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  3. Alvarez de Linera Antonio (1957). Cybernetics as Seen by the Philosopher. Philosophy Today 1 (3):202-206.
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  4. M. Arnold-Cathalifaud & D. Thumala-Dockendorff (2016). To What Extent Can Second-Order Cybernetics Be a Foundation for Psychology? Constructivist Foundations 11 (3):520-521.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Cybernetic Foundations for Psychology” by Bernard Scott. Upshot: Scott’s proposal is well-founded and opens interesting possibilities. We selected some critical aspects of his argumentation and discuss them in the context of the constructivist perspective. We highlight as Scott’s “blind spot” his statement - presented without further argument - of the need for a conceptual and theoretical unification of psychology from the perspective of second-order cybernetics. We find this especially worrisome as it is based on (...)
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  5. W. Ross Ashby (1962). Principles of the Self-Organizing System. In H. Von Foerster & Zopf Jr (eds.), Principles of Self-Organization: Transactions of the University of Illinois Symposium. Pergamon Press. pp. 255–278.
  6. W. Ross Ashby (1956). An Introduction to Cybernetics. New York: J. Wiley.
    We must, therefore, make a study of mechanism; but some introduction is advisable, for cybernetics treats the subject from a new, and therefore unusual, ...
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  7. E. B. Babskii & E. S. Gelle (1970). Cybernetics and Life. Russian Studies in Philosophy 8 (4):354-370.
    The ideas and methods of cybernetics are increasingly penetrating the biological and medical sciences, and today we are justified in speaking of a new branch of science: biological and medical cybernetics. This branch already has a number of important and encouraging subfields.
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  8. Simon Bacon (2013). “We Can Rebuild Him!”: The Essentialisation of the Human/Cyborg Interface in the Twenty-First Century, or Whatever Happened to The Six Million Dollar Man? [REVIEW] AI and Society 28 (3):267-276.
    This paper aims to show how recent cinematic representations reveal a far more pessimistic and essentialised vision of Human/Cyborg hybridity in comparison with the more enunciative and optimistic ones seen at the end of the twentieth century. Donna Haraway’s still influential 1985 essay “A Cyborg Manifesto” saw the combination of the organic and the technological as offering new and exciting ways beyond the normalised culturally constructed categories of gender and identity formation. However, more recently critics see her later writings as (...)
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  9. D. Baecker (2010). The Culture of Cybernetics. Review of “The Black Boox. Volume III: 39 Steps' by Ranulph Glanville. Edition Echoraum, Vienna, 2009”. [REVIEW] Constructivist Foundations 5 (2):102--103.
    Upshot: Ranulph Glanville’s musings about cybernetics are statements of wonder as much as careful reconstructions of the core ideas of cybernetics. In Vol. III of his Black Boox all 39 of them are collected, which appeared between 1994 and 2009 in the Journal, Cybernetics and Human Knowing. If Heinz von Foerster said that the ideas of second-order cybernetics are nowadays to be found just about?everywhere in everyday life, Glanville is not that sure about this.
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  10. William Sims Bainbridge (2012). Whole-Personality Emulation. International Journal of Machine Consciousness 4 (01):159-175.
  11. G. Becerra (2016). Connecting Second-Order Cybernetics’ Revolution with Genetic Epistemology. Constructivist Foundations 11 (3):468-470.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Second-Order Cybernetics as a Fundamental Revolution in Science” by Stuart A. Umpleby. Upshot: Connecting Umpleby’s article with Piaget and García’s genetic epistemology, I will argue that the revolution the former discerns is more comprehensive. Additionally, since the latter differ from cybernetic and radical traditions in their philosophical assumptions about society and its conditioning on knowledge, I will suggest that these assumptions must be considered to explain each constructivist program’s achievements and challenges.
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  12. P. A. Cariani (2016). Beware False Dichotomies. Constructivist Foundations 11 (3):472-475.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Second-Order Cybernetics as a Fundamental Revolution in Science” by Stuart A. Umpleby. Upshot: While I agree with most of the thrust of second-order cybernetics, I find the dichotomy of first- vs. second-order cybernetics conceptually and historically problematic because it implicitly conflates the cybernetics of nonhuman systems with realist conceptions of observer-free science. The dichotomy may be divisive and unhealthy for cybernetics by driving natural scientists and engineers out of the movement, thereby undermining the universality (...)
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  13. S. Ceccato & C. Bougarel (1966). Cybernetics as a Discipline and an Interdiscipline. Diogenes 14 (53):99-114.
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  14. Jere W. Clark (1974). Eco-Cybernetics: The Nucleus of Unified Knowledge And. In Donald E. Washburn & Dennis R. Smith (eds.), Coping with Increasing Complexity: Implications of General Semantics and General Systems Theory. Gordon & Breach. pp. 348.
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  15. David Cole (2010). Anthony Chemero: Radical Embodied Cognitive Science. [REVIEW] Minds and Machines 20 (3):475-479.
  16. Roberto Cordeschi (2008). Steps Toward the Synthetic Method: Symbolic Information Processing and Self-Organizing Systems in Early Artificial Intelligence. In P. Husbands, O. Holland & M. Wheeler (eds.), The Mechanichal Mind in History. MIT Press.
    The year 1943 is customarily considered as the birth of cybernetics. Artificial Intelligence (AI) was officially born thirteen years later, in 1956. This chapter is about two theories on human cognitive processes developed in the context of cybernetics and early AI. The first theory is that of the cyberneticist Donald MacKay, in the framework of an original version of self-organizing systems; the second is that of Allen Newell and Herbert Simon (initially with the decisive support of Clifford Shaw) and is (...)
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  17. Roberto Cordeschi (2008). Cybernetics. In L. Floridi (ed.), The Blackwell Guide to the Philosophy of Computing and Information. Blackwell.
    The term cybernetics was first used in 1947 by Norbert Wiener with reference to the centrifugal governor that James Watt had fitted to his steam engine, and above all to Clerk Maxwell, who had subjected governors to a general mathematical treatment in 1868. Wiener used the word “governor” in the sense of the Latin corruption of the Greek term kubernetes, or “steersman.” Wiener defined cybernetics as the study of “control and communication in the animal and the machine” (Wiener 1948). This (...)
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  18. Roberto Cordeschi (2007). AI Turns Fifty: Revisiting its Origins. Applied Artificial Intelligence 21:259-279.
    The expression ‘‘artificial intelligence’’ (AI) was introduced by John McCarthy, and the official birth of AI is unanimously considered to be the 1956 Dartmouth Conference. Thus, AI turned fifty in 2006. How did AI begin? Several differently motivated analyses have been proposed as to its origins. In this paper a brief look at those that might be considered steps towards Dartmouth is attempted, with the aim of showing how a number of research topics and controversies that marked the short history (...)
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  19. Roberto Cordeschi (2006). Simulation Models of Organism Behavior: Some Lessons From Precybernetic and Cybernetic Approaches. In S. Termini (ed.), Imagination and Rigor: Essays on Eduardo R. Caianiello’s Scientific Heritage. Springer.
    The rise and some more recent developments of the machine-simulation methodology of living-organism behavior are discussed in this paper. In putting forward these issue, my aim is that of isolating recurring themes which help understanding the development of such a machine-simulation methodology, from its, so to speak, discovery during the first half of the twentieth century up to the present time. The machine designed by the engineer S. Bent Russell in 1913 seems to share the core of at least some (...)
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  20. Roberto Cordeschi (2002). The Discovery of the Artificial: Behavior, Mind and Machines Before and Beyond Cybernetics. Kluwer Academic Publishers.
    Since the second half of the XXth century, researchers in cybernetics and AI, neural nets and connectionism, Artificial Life and new robotics have endeavoured to build different machines that could simulate functions of living organisms, such as adaptation and development, problem solving and learning. In this book these research programs are discussed, particularly as regard the epistemological issues of the behaviour modelling. One of the main novelty of this book consists of the fact that certain projects involving the building of (...)
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  21. Roberto Cordeschi (1991). The Discovery of the Artificial: Some Protocybernetic Developments 1930-1940. Artificial Intelligence and Society 5 (3):218-238.
    In this paper I start from a definition of “culture of the artificial” which might be stated by referring to the background of philosophical, methodological, pragmatical assumptions which characterizes the development of the information processing analysis of mental processes and of some trends in contemporary cognitive science: in a word, the development of AI as a candidate science of mind. The aim of this paper is to show how (with which plausibility and limitations) the discovery of the mentioned background might (...)
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  22. Roberto Cordeschi (1991). Brain, Mind and Computers. In P. Corsi (ed.), The Enchanted Loom: Chapters in the History of Neuroscience. Oxford University Press.
    In this chapter the early history of Computer Science, Cybernetics and Artificial Intelligence is sketched. More recent developments of AI and the philosophy of Cognitive Science are also discussed.
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  23. Roberto Cordeschi (1987). Purpose, Feedback and Homeostasis: Dimension of a Controversy in Psychological Theory. In S. Bem, H. Rappard & W. van Horn (eds.), Studies in the History of Psychology and the Social Sciences 3. Psychologisch Instituut Leiden.
    In this paper several reformulations of William Ross Ashby and Norbert Wiener’s classical claims on purposive behavior are examined. Next restatements of this issue are then discussed, particularly as regards the following question: is it possible to extend the concepts and methods of mechanical (physical) explanation to psychological explanation, in order to explain human (and animal) purposive behavior? This question was restated in the 1950s as follows: are negative feedback and homeostatic mechanisms really explanatory of adaptive and purposive behavior, or (...)
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  24. Roberto Cordeschi (1985). Mechanical Models in Psychology in the 1950s. In S. Bem, H. Rappard & W. van Horn (eds.), Studies in the History of Psychology and the Social Sciences 3. Psychologisch Instituut Leiden.
    In this paper some applications and methodological developments of mechanical models in psychology in the 1950s are examined. During that period, a new conception of the theory-model relationship in psychology become evident, which had been proposed earlier by the mechanistic trend in psychology in the 1930s. Such a conception allowed psychologists a new approach to many problems in theoretical psychology, such as the role of hypotheses and neurophysiology in psychological explanation and the positions of psychologists concerning neobehavioristic theories of behaviour (...)
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  25. Roberto Cordeschi & Guglielmo Tamburrini (2005). Intelligent Machines and Warfare: Historical Debates and Epistemologically Motivated Concerns. In L. Magnani (ed.), European Computing and Philosophy Conference (ECAP 2004). College Publications.
    The early examples of self-directing robots attracted the interest of both scientific and military communities. Biologists regarded these devices as material models of animal tropisms. Engineers envisaged the possibility of turning self-directing robots into new “intelligent” torpedoes during World War I. Starting from World War II, more extensive interactions developed between theoretical inquiry and applied military research on the subject of adaptive and intelligent machinery. Pioneers of Cybernetics were involved in the development of goal-seeking warfare devices. But collaboration occasionally turned (...)
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  26. Frederick J. Crosson (ed.) (1967). Philosophy And Cybernetics. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press.
  27. A. Delobelle (1975). Feedback, Cybernetics and Sociology. Diogenes 23 (91):70-105.
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  28. J. dos Santos Cabral Filho (2016). Cybernetics Is the Answer, but What Was the Conversation About? Constructivist Foundations 11 (3):587-589.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Design Research as a Variety of Second-Order Cybernetic Practice” by Ben Sweeting. Upshot: It is suggested that the main arguments of the target article could be constructed in an easier way and would become even more compelling if a radical consideration of the systemic nature of design were taken into account.
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  29. Kevin J. Downing (1992). The Cybernetics GroupSteve Joshua Heims. Isis 83 (3):520-521.
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  30. F. Erpicum (2008). Sowing Seeds: Heinz von Foerster's Second Order Cybernetics and Complexity. Review Of: Evelyne Andreewsky & Robert Delorme (Eds.) (2006) Seconde Cybernétique Et Complexité: Rencontres Avec Heinz von Foerster. L'Harmattan: Paris. [REVIEW] Constructivist Foundations 3 (2):115-116.
    Summary: Because this book has something of the storytelling of cheerful meetings, von Foerster is made more accessible to the novice; however, it does not lose any of its intellectual sharpness. Henri Atlan and Edgar Morin, in particular, greatly influenced by von Foerster and quite famous in French-speaking countries, give a helping hand to those who wish to explore their work further from the perspective of von Foerster's vision and thoughts. And Atlan and Morin take also the credit for the (...)
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  31. T. R. Flanagan (2016). Second-Order Cybernetics Needs a Unifying Methodology. Constructivist Foundations 11 (3):475-478.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Second-Order Cybernetics as a Fundamental Revolution in Science” by Stuart A. Umpleby. Upshot: Theory without a strong methodology is stranded in philosophy. Principles devolved from theory can be applied to situations in the arena of practice in many ways; however, a continually improving science must refine its theories with feedback from data drawn from the use of continually improving sets of codified methodologies. Second-order cybernetics is contingent upon sense-making within sapient systems. A perspective on (...)
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  32. S. Franchi (2007). Blunting the Edge of Second-Order Cybernetics: The Heritage of Heinz von Foerster. Review Of: Albert Müller & Karl H. Müller (Eds.) (2007) An Unfinished Revolution? [REVIEW] Constructivist Foundations 3 (1):53-54.
    Summary: The aim of this collection is to provide a two-fold access to von Foerster's legacy and his work at the Biological Computer Laboratory, the institution he founded and directed at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign from 1958 to 1976. It represents a precious contribution for the understanding of BCL, a crucial but still not properly understood chapter in the history of cybernetics and, more generally, of cognitive science. It is greatly recommended.
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  33. Charles Francois (1999). Systemics and Cybernetics in a Historical Perspective. Systems Research and Behavioral Science 16 (3):203-219.
  34. T. Froese (2010). From Cybernetics to Second-Order Cybernetics: A Comparative Analysis of Their Central Ideas. Constructivist Foundations 5 (2):75--85.
    Context: The enactive paradigm in the cognitive sciences is establishing itself as a strong and comprehensive alternative to the computationalist mainstream. However, its own particular historical roots have so far been largely ignored in the historical analyses of the cognitive sciences. Problem: In order to properly assess the enactive paradigm’s theoretical foundations in terms of their validity, novelty and potential future directions of development, it is essential for us to know more about the history of ideas that has led to (...)
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  35. Philippe Gagnon (2015). Cartesianism, the Embodied Mind, and the Future of Cognitive Research. In Dirk Evers, Michael Fuller, Anne Runehov & Knut-Willy Sæther (eds.), Do Emotions Shape the World? Biennial Yearbook of the European Society for the Study of Science and Theology 2015-2016. Martin-Luther-Universität. pp. 225-244.
    In his oft-cited book Descartes' Error, Antonio Damasio claims that Descartes is responsible for having stifled the development of modern neurobiological science, in particular as regards the objective study of the physical and physiological bases for emotive and socially-conditioned cognition. Most of Damasio’s book would stand without reference to Descartes, so it is intriguing to ask why he launched this attack. What seems to fuel such claims is a desire for a more holistic understanding of the mind, the brain and (...)
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  36. F. H. George (1979). Philosophical Foundations of Cybernetics. Abacus Press.
    Artificial intelligence and the interrogation game; Scientific method and explanation; Godel's incompleteness theorem; Determinism and uncertainty; Axioms, theorems and formalisation; Creativity; Consciousness and free will; Pragmatics; A ...
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  37. Matthew E. Gladden (2015). Utopias and Dystopias as Cybernetic Information Systems: Envisioning the Posthuman Neuropolity. Creatio Fantastica (3 (50)).
    While it is possible to understand utopias and dystopias as particular kinds of sociopolitical systems, in this text we argue that utopias and dystopias can also be understood as particular kinds of information systems in which data is received, stored, generated, processed, and transmitted by the minds of human beings that constitute the system’s ‘nodes’ and which are connected according to specific network topologies. We begin by formulating a model of cybernetic information-processing properties that characterize utopias and dystopias. It is (...)
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  38. Gordon G. Globus (1996). Quantum Consciousness is Cybernetic. Psyche 2 (21).
    Classical mechanics cannot naturally accommodate consciousness, whereas quantum mechanics can, but the Heisenberg/Stapp approach, in which consciousness randomly collapses the neural wave function, leaves the conscious function unrestricted by known physical principles. The Umezawa/Yasue approach, in which consciousness offers superposed possibilities to the match with sensory input, is based in the first physical principles of quantum field theory. Stapp thinks of the brain as a measuring device, like a Geiger counter, and overlooks that the brain upholds second-order quantum fields that (...)
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  39. D. Griffiths & P. Baron (2015). The Tensions Between Second-Order Cybernetics and Traditional Academic Conferences. Constructivist Foundations 11 (1):86-88.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Designing Academic Conferences in the Light of Second-Order Cybernetics” by Laurence D. Richards. Upshot: Richards’s long history and commitment to cybernetics provides a well-rounded view of the dichotomy between the traditional conference and one aspiring for second-order cybernetic attributes. We examine why traditional conferences have proved so resilient, despite their shortcomings, and discuss some issues that underlie the dynamics of the participation of academics in non-traditional conferences.
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  40. Hermann Haken & Helena Knyazeva (2000). Synergetik: zwischen Reduktionismus und Holismus. Philosophia Naturalis 37 (1):21-44.
    Die philosophischen Folgerungen der Synergetik, einer interdisziplinären Theorie der Evolution und Selbstorganisation komplexer nichtlinearer Systeme, werden in diesem Artikel zur Diskussion gestellt. Das sind der weltanschauliche Sinn des Begriffs von der „Nichtlinearität“, die konstruktive Rolle des Chaos in der Evolution, eine neue Vorstellung von diskreten Spektren evolutionärer Wege in komplexen Systemen, die Prinzipien des Aufbaus von komplexem evolutionärem Ganzen, der Integration von komplexen Strukturen, die sich mit verschiedenen Geschwindigkeiten entwickeln, die Methoden des nichtlinearen Managements komplexer Systeme. Die Synergetik entdeckt allgemeingültige (...)
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  41. Garrett Hardin (1963). The Cybernetics of Competition: A Biologist's View of Society. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 7 (1):58-84.
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  42. Steve J. Heims (1991). The Cybernetics Group.
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  43. C. M. Herr (2016). What Can Cybernetics Learn From Design? Constructivist Foundations 11 (3):583-585.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Design Research as a Variety of Second-Order Cybernetic Practice” by Ben Sweeting. Upshot: Based on Sweeting’s central question of what design can bring to cybernetics, this commentary extends and adds further depth to the target article. Aspects discussed include the nature of practice in relation to design, the introduction of designerly ways of acting and thinking through acting to cybernetics, and the re-introduction of material experimentation typical of early cybernetics.
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  44. Christopher S. Hill & Kenneth M. Sayre (1978). Cybernetics and the Philosophy of Mind. Philosophical Review 87 (3):494.
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  45. L. H. Kauffman (2016). Cybernetics, Reflexivity and Second-Order Science. Constructivist Foundations 11 (3):489-497.
    Context: Second-order cybernetics and its implications have been understood within the cybernetics community for some time. These implications are important for understanding the structure of scientific endeavor, and for researchers in other fields to see the reflexive nature of scientific research. This article is about the role of context in the creation and exploration of our experience. Problem: The purpose of this article is to point out the fundamental nature of the circularity in cybernetics and in scientific work in general. (...)
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  46. Alvin E. Keaton, The Philosophical Significance of Cybernetics.
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  47. Evelyn Fox Keller (2008). Organisms, Machines, and Thunderstorms: A History of Self-Organization (I). Historical Studies in the Natural Sciences 38 (1):45-75.
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  48. V. Kenny (2009). "There's Nothing Like the Real Thing". Revisiting the Need for a Third-Order Cybernetics. Constructivist Foundations 4 (2):100-111.
    Purpose: To argue for the need to generate a third - order cybernetics to deal with the problematics of second- order cybernetics. Problem: The recent exponential increase in the use of the internet and other "media" to influence and shape dominant cultural experiences via "virtual reality" exploits a core facility of human psychology - that of being able to accept " substitutions " for the " Real Thing." In this paper, I want to raise some basic questions and dilemmas for (...)
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  49. S. Konstantinovic Saumjan (1965). Cybernetics and Language. Diogenes 13 (51):129-146.
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  50. Bernard Korzeniewski (2005). Confrontation of the Cybernetic Definition of a Living Individual with the Real World. Acta Biotheoretica 53 (1):1-28.
    The cybernetic definition of a living individual proposed previously (Korzeniewski, 2001) is very abstract and therefore describes the essence of life in a very formal and general way. In the present article this definition is reformulated in order to determine clearly the relation between life in general and a living individual in particular, and it is further explained and defended. Next, the cybernetic definition of a living individual is confronted with the real world. It is demonstrated that numerous restrictions imposed (...)
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