This category has changed name
||De re modality concerns the modal properties that an object has in virtue of itself. This contrasts with de dicto modality, which concerns modal properties that are merely "said of" an object. More formally: De dicto: Necessarily, some x is such that it is F. De re: Some x is such that it is necessarily F. The essence of an entity in contemporary metaphysics is generally regarded as being constituted by the entity's de re modal properties. For instance, if we consider it necessary for John to be human, then this is part of John's essence. Different varieties of essentialism can be distinguished by the kind of de re modal properties in question. If we debate whether it is necessary for John to have the very parents that he actually has, we are debating origins essentialism. It should also be noted that essences may be individual or general. John's essence is an individual essence, and it may be essential for John to belong to the (natural) kind human. But we can also ask what is essential for the kind, e.g. whether humans are essentially rational. In that case we are concerned with the general essence of humans. Essentialism about species is a good example of a debate concerning general essences. Essences are commonly considered to be synonymous with de re modal properties, following the work of Kripke and others. However, the more traditional view, following Aristotle, may in fact be that essence is ontologically prior to modality. Recently, such non-modal accounts of essence have been defended in the literature, with one suggestion being that essence should be explicated via real definition.
||The most influential modern contributions are no doubt Kripke 1980, and Putnam 1975 which reintroduced essentialism into metaphysics. Quine's classic critique (Turquette 1953) of De Re Modality was largely undermined by the contributions of Kripke and Putnam, but Marcus 1967 and Hintikka 1970 should also be mentioned. Wiggins 1980, Plantinga 1974, and Salmon 1981 are also classics. One important application of essentialism is counterpart theory, e.g. Lewis 1968. The secondary literature on different aspects of the topic is enormous, but recent, often cited contributions include Bealer 1987, Shalkowski 1994, Ellis 2007, Della Rocca 2002, LaPorte 2003, Paul 2006, Mackie 2006, and Devitt 2008. Non-modal accounts of essence have been gaining popularity, especially due to the work of Kit Fine (e.g. Fine 1994). Other recent works in this tradition include Paul 2006, Oderberg 2007, Lowe 2008, Tahko 2009, Correia 2012, Dumsday 2012, and Vaidya 2010.
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History/traditions: De Re Modality
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Actualism and Possibilism
- Actualism and Thisness.Robert Merrihew Adams - 1981 - Synthese 49 (1):3-41.
- Theories of Actuality.Robert Merrihew Adams - 1979 - In Michael J. Loux (ed.), The Possible and the Actual: Readings in the Metaphysics of Modality. Cornell University Press. pp. 190.
- Theories of Actuality.Robert Merrihew Adams - 1974 - Noûs 8 (3):211-231.
- La función de los universales en metafísica modal.Jose Tomas Alvarado Marambio - 2010 - Teorema: International Journal of Philosophy 29 (3):77-101.
- Plantinga on Actualism and Essences.David F. Austin - 1981 - Philosophical Studies 39 (1):35 - 42.
- Quantificational Logic and Empty Names.Andrew Bacon - 2013 - Philosophers' Imprint 13.
- Proxy “Actualism”.Karen Bennett - 2006 - Philosophical Studies 129 (2):263-294.
- Two Axes of Actualism.Karen Bennett - 2005 - Philosophical Review 114 (3):297-326.
- (Serious) Actualism and (Serious) Presentism.Michael Bergmann - 1999 - Noûs 33 (1):118-132.
- A New Argument From Actualism to Serious Actualism.Michael Bergmann - 1996 - Noûs 30 (3):356-359.
- Un mondo di possibilità. Realismo modale senza mondi possibili.Andrea Borghini - 2004 - Rivista di Estetica 26 (2):87-100.
- Troubles with Plantinga's Actualism.Donald Brownstein - 1985 - Theoria 51 (3):174-189.
- The Truth About Possibility and Necessity.Johannes Bulhof - 1995 - Dissertation, University of Pennsylvania
- Worlds and Individuals, Possible and Otherwise.R. Cameron - 2010 - Analysis 70 (4):783-792.
- On Characterizing the Presentism/Eternalism and Actualism/Possibilism Debates.Ross P. Cameron - 2016 - Analytic Philosophy 57 (2):110-140.
- Essentialism and Individuation in Modal Logic.Troy Thomas Catterson - 2003 - Dissertation, Boston University
- Ficta as Contingently Nonconcrete.Lightfield Ceth - 2014 - Organon F: Medzinárodný Časopis Pre Analytickú Filozofiu 21 (4):431-457.
- Metaphysical Accounts of Modality: A Comparative Evaluation of Lewisian and Neo-Aristotelian Modal Metaphysics.David Chua - unknown
- On Modal Meinongianism.Nicola Ciprotti - 2014 - In Marian David & Mauro Antonelli (eds.), Logical, Ontological, and Historical Contributions on the Philosophy of Alexius Meinong. De Gruyter. pp. 1-36.
- Actualism Versus Possibilism in Formal Ontology.Nino Cocchiarella - 2010 - In Roberto Poli & Johanna Seibt (eds.), Theory and Applications of Ontology: Philosophical Perspectives. Springer Verlag. pp. 105--117.
- Modal Truthmakers and Two Varieties of Actualism.Gabriele Contessa - 2010 - Synthese 174 (3):341 - 353.
- Modality, Quantification, and Many Vlach-Operators.Fabrice Correia - 2007 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 36 (4):473-488.
- Knowledge and Reality: Essays in Honor of Alvin Plantinga.Thomas M. Crisp, Matthew Davidson & David Vander Laan (eds.) - 2006 - Springer.
- Essays in the Metaphysics of Modality.Matthew Davidson (ed.) - 2003 - Oxford University Press USA.
- Possible Worlds for Modal Primitivists.Louis deRosset - 2014 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 43 (1):109-131.
- Logic for Contigent Beings.Harry Deutsch - 1994 - Journal of Philosophical Research 19:273-329.
- Sustaining Actualism.Michael Devitt - 2001 - Noûs 35 (s15):415 - 419.
- Worlds and Individuals, Possible and Otherwise, by Takashi Yagisawa. [REVIEW]J. Divers - 2011 - Mind 120 (478):570-574.
- Possible Worlds.John Divers - 2002 - Routledge.
- Causal Structuralism, Dispositional Actualism, and Counterfactual Conditionals.Antony Eagle - 2009 - In Toby Handfield (ed.), Dispositions and Causes. Oxford University Press. pp. 65--99.
- Combinatorialism and the Possibility of Nothing.David Efird & Tom Stoneham - 2006 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 84 (2):269 – 280.
- The Problem of Possibilia.Kit Fine - 2003 - In Michael J. Loux & Dean W. Zimmerman (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Metaphysics. Oxford University Press. pp. 161-179.
- First-Order Modal Theories III — Facts.Kit Fine - 1982 - Synthese 53 (1):43-122.
- First-Order Modal Theories. II: Propositions.Kit Fine - 1980 - Studia Logica 39 (2-3):159-202.
- Actuality, Possibility, and Being.Frederic B. Fitch - 1949 - Review of Metaphysics 3 (3):367 - 384.
- John Divers, Possible Worlds. [REVIEW]G. Fitch - 2003 - Philosophy in Review 23:332-333.
- In Defense of Aristotelian Actualism.G. W. Fitch - 1996 - Philosophical Perspectives 10:53 - 71.
- Time, Modality, and the Unbearable Lightness of Being.Akiko M. Frischhut & Alexander Skiles - 2013 - Thought: A Journal of Philosophy 2 (1):264-273.
- Modal Ontology and Generalized Quantifiers.Peter Fritz - 2013 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 42 (4):643-678.
- FINE, K. And PRIOR, A. N. "Worlds, Times and Selves". [REVIEW]R. Gallie - 1979 - Mind 88:625.
- Actuality and Necessity.Pieranna Garavaso - 1992 - Journal of Critical Analysis 9 (2):35-40.
- Change and Actuality.William Godfrey-Smith - 1980 - Philosophical Quarterly 30 (121):350-355.
- Functionalism About Possible Worlds.Dominic Gregory - 2006 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 84 (1):95 – 115.
- The Problem of Possibilia.Cf Gupta - unknown
- Actualism, Serious Actualism, and Quantified Modal Logic.William H. Hanson - 2018 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 59 (2):233-284.
- Actualism and Higher-Order Worlds.Reina Hayaki - 2003 - Philosophical Studies 115 (2):149 - 178.
- Actualism Again.A. P. Hazen - 1996 - Philosophical Studies 84 (2-3):155 - 181.
- One of the Truths About Actuality.Allen Hazen - 1979 - Analysis 39 (1):1 - 3.
- Relativized Metaphysical Modality.Benj Hellie, Adam Russell Murray & Jessica Wilson - forthcoming - In Otávio Bueno & Scott Shalkowski (eds.), Routledge Handbook of Modality. New York: Routledge.
- Plantinga's Defence of Serious Actualism.Mark Hinchliff - 1989 - Analysis 49 (4):182 - 185.
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