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Summary Toleration's first defense is by Saint Augustine (who later recanted it), but it does not become a major force until the beginning of liberal thought, particularly with thinkers like Spinoza, Bayle, and Locke.  These thinkers and those following them sought to defend toleration as a general value, though typically a dependent value.  The pieces in this category relate to such defenses.
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  1. The Power of Tolerance: A Debate Wendy Brown and Rainer Forst Columbia University Press, 2014; 112 Pp.; $15.00. [REVIEW]Alexander Agnello - 2015 - Dialogue 54 (3):557-559.
  2. The Theoretical Foundations of Tolerance in Rumi.Sayed Hassan Akhlaq - 2012 - Philosophy, Culture, and Traditions 8:165-187.
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  3. La democracia y el valor político de la tolerancia.Fuentes/Caro Eduardo Andres - 2015 - Filosofia Unisinos 16 (2):164-182.
    It is a widespread opinion that toleration, as a political practice, has merely instrumental value. The aim of this paper is to defend, on the contrary, that toleration has political value in itself. In more specific terms, I will claim that it is valuable in itself in virtue of its intrinsic relationship with democracy. Toleration is a constituent of democracy inasmuch as it is necessary for the existence of a democratic administration of political power. I will show that that relation (...)
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  4. Michael Walzer, On Toleration.D. Archard - forthcoming - Radical Philosophy.
  5. Tolerance: The Scope and Limits of its Justifications.Amy Danielle Ash - 1996 - Dissertation, Cornell University
    This work examines some of the grounds that are commonly used to justify tolerance, evaluating them in terms of both their scope and limits. The grounds of justification fall within three major categories: epistemological arguments, arguments about the proper role of the state and varieties of pluralism. Throughout the work, the controversy surrounding Salman Rushdie's novel, The Satanic Verses, is used to evaluate the scope of those justifications and the limits they place upon tolerance. Discussion of the Satanic Verses controversy (...)
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  6. John Locke y Pierre Bayle: sobre la libertad de conciencia.Fernando Bahr - 2004 - Tópicos 12:43-64.
    This paper intends a comparative analysis of freedom of thought and toleration,as these concepts appear by the end of the 17th century in Locke's Epistola de Tolerantia and Bayle's Commentaire Philosophique. Nowadays we think that an open society implies freedom of thought as one of its pillars, and so an unlimited toleration, except in case others were injured. For Locke, things were different: freedom of thought was, for him, obedience to natural law, the basis of human society, and this purported (...)
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  7. Toleration, by Andrew Jason Cohen. [REVIEW]Peter Balint - 2014 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 92 (4):816-817.
  8. Cary J. Nederman: Worlds of Difference: European Discourses of Toleration, C. 1100-C. 1550. The Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park, Pennsylvania. [REVIEW]Giuseppe Ballacci - 2004 - Foro Interno. Anuario de Teoría Política 4:192-194.
  9. Tolerance as a Primary Virtue.Barry Barnes - 2001 - Res Publica 7 (3):231-245.
    The commonly perceived tension between authentic moral and ethical action and action involving tolerance is held to be the illusory product of an unduly individualistic frame of thought. Moral and ethical actions are produced not by independent individuals but by participants in cultural traditions. And even the wholly routine continuation of a single homogeneous tradition must always and invariably involve mutual tolerance: participants must interact not as independent individuals but as tolerant members. Tolerance deserves recognition, accordingly, as a primary virtue, (...)
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  10. John Locke Ses Théories Politiques Et Leur Influence En Angleterre. Les Libertés Politiques - L'église Et l'État - la Tolérance.Charles Bastide - 1907 - E. Leroux.
  11. On the Epistemological Justification of Pluralism and Tolerance.Diderik Batens - 2000 - Philosophica 65.
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  12. A Philosophical Commentary on These Words of the Gospel, Luke 14:23, “Compel Them to Come In, That My House May Be Full”.Pierre Bayle - 2005 - Liberty Fund.
    (From Liberty Fund:) The topics of church and state, religious toleration, the legal enforcement of religious practices, and religiously motivated violence on the part of individuals have once again become burning issues. Pierre Bayle’s Philosophical Commentary was a major attempt to deal with very similar problems three centuries ago. His argument is that if the orthodox have the right and duty to persecute, then every sect will persecute, since every sect considers itself orthodox. The result will be mutual slaughter, something (...)
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  13. The Basis of Tolerance in a Democratic Society.Waldo Beach - 1946 - Ethics 57 (3):157-169.
  14. Moral Relativism in Context.James Beebe - 2010 - Noûs 44 (4):691-724.
    Consider the following facts about the average, philosophically untrained moral relativist: (1.1) The average moral relativist denies the existence of “absolute moral truths.” (1.2) The average moral relativist often expresses her commitment to moral relativism with slogans like ‘What’s true (or right) for you may not be what’s true (or right) for me’ or ‘What’s true (or right) for your culture may not be what’s true (or right) for my culture.’ (1.3) The average moral relativist endorses relativistic views of morality (...)
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  15. 'The Bond of Civility': Roger Williams on Toleration and its Limits.Teresa M. Bejan - 2011 - History of European Ideas 37 (4):409-420.
    In this article, I examine the meaning of the concept of ?civility? for Roger Williams and the role it played in his arguments for religious toleration. I place his concern with civility in the broader context of his life and works and show how it differed from the missionary and civilizing efforts of his fellow New English among the American Indians. For Williams, civility represented a standard of inclusion in the civil community that was ?essentially distinct? from Christianity, which properly (...)
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  16. Scepticism and Causal Reasoning.Christopher David Belshaw - 1989 - Dissertation, University of California, Santa Barbara
    I argue that one standard account of the problem of induction, that which is commonly attributed to Hume, is misguided, in that it places unwarranted emphasis on the denial of necessary connexions between events. Once this emphasis is removed, then a way open to a solution, or dissolution, of the problem is revealed. ;I attempt to show first, some recent scholarship notwithstanding, that Hume can fairly be read as propounding scepticism about induction, and that this scepticism in large measure depends (...)
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  17. Tolerance and Freedom of Conscience in the Works of Spinoza-Remarks on Mignini, Filippo Hypothesis.M. Beltran - 1994 - Rivista di Filosofia Neo-Scolastica 86 (4):738-746.
  18. "Traité Sur la Tolérance" de Voltaire.François Bessire, Sylvain Menant, Marie-hélène Cotoni & Voltaire - 2000
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  19. Locke and the Skeptical Argument for Toleration.Sam Black - 2007 - History of Philosophy Quarterly 24 (4):355-375.
  20. A Critique of Pure Tolerance. By R. P. Wolff, B. Moore, Jr., and H. Marcuse. Boston: Beacon Press, 1965. Pp. 117. $2.45. [REVIEW]J. Boler - 1968 - American Journal of Jurisprudence 13 (1):163-170.
  21. Locke’s Tracts and the Anarchy of the Religious Conscience.Paul Bou-Habib - 2015 - European Journal of Political Theory 14 (1):3-18.
    This article reconstructs the main arguments in John Locke’s first political writings, the highly rhetorical, and often obscure, Two Tracts on Government . The Tracts support the government’s right to impose religious ceremonies on its people, an astonishing fact given Locke’s famous defense of toleration in his later works. The reconstruction of the Tracts developed here allows us to see that rather than a pessimistic view of the prospects for peace under religious diversity, what mainly animates the young Locke is (...)
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  22. Why Tolerate Conscience?François Boucher & Cécile Laborde - forthcoming - Criminal Law and Philosophy:1-21.
    In Why Tolerate Religion?, Brian Leiter argues against the special legal status of religion, claiming that religion should not be the only ground for exemptions to the law and that this form of protection should be, in principle, available for the claims of secular conscience as well. However, in the last chapter of his book, he objects to a universal regime of exemptions for both religious and secular claims of conscience, highlighting the practical and moral flaws associated with it. We (...)
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  23. The European Union Democratic Deficit Federalists, Skeptics, and Revisionists.Jonathan Bowman - 2006 - European Journal of Political Theory 5 (2):191-212.
    I outline the current debate over the European Union democratic deficit in terms of differing methodological approaches towards the realization of freedom and basic rights to political participation. Federalists opt for a model of freedom as noninterference and autonomous self-determination by proposing to tie basic rights in the EU to a univocal form of European-wide popular sovereignty. Although skeptics argue that the EU lacks the fundamental basis for such European-wide democratic self-determination, they ultimately defend a similar view of freedom as (...)
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  24. A Pragmatic Defense of Religious Exclusivism.Girard Brenneman - 2006 - The Proceedings of the Twenty-First World Congress of Philosophy 8:13-18.
    Religious pluralism (the view that all the great world religions are equally true) is largely motivated by the fear that religious exclusivism ( the view that there is just one correct religion) leads to intolerance and oppression of those holding differing religious views. I claim that this suggests a false dichotomy: either be a tolerant pluralist or an intolerant exclusivist. I argue, first, that the seventeenth-century doctrine of toleration supports the claim that exclusivists of differing sects can peacefully coexist and, (...)
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  25. Regulating Aversion: Tolerance in the Age of Identity and Empire.Wendy Brown - 2008 - Princeton University Press.
    Tolerance is generally regarded as an unqualified achievement of the modern West. Emerging in early modern Europe to defuse violent religious conflict and reduce persecution, tolerance today is hailed as a key to decreasing conflict across a wide range of other dividing lines-- cultural, racial, ethnic, and sexual. But, as political theorist Wendy Brown argues in Regulating Aversion, tolerance also has dark and troubling undercurrents. Dislike, disapproval, and regulation lurk at the heart of tolerance. To tolerate is not to affirm (...)
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  26. The Power of Tolerance: A Debate.Wendy Brown & Rainer Forst - 2014 - Columbia University Press.
    Does it transform conflicts into productive tensions, or does it perpetuate underlying power relations? To what extent does tolerance hide its involvement with power and act as a form of depoliticization?
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  27. Hegel's Defense of Toleration.Timothy Brownlee - 2013 - In Angelica Nuzzo (ed.), Hegel on Religion and Politics. State University of New York Press. pp. 79.
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  28. Between Atheism and Tolerance-on the Historical Effects of Bayle, Pierre (1647-1706).Tg Bucher - 1985 - Philosophisches Jahrbuch 92 (2):353-379.
  29. Justifying Toleration: Conceptual and Historical Perspectives.Tom D. Campbell - 1990 - Philosophical Books 31 (2):114-115.
  30. John Locke, Lettera sulla tolleranza: Una nuova traduzione della "Letter Concerning Toleration" di John Locke, accompagnata da un testo introduttivo.Brunella Casalini - forthcoming - Bollettino Telematico di Filosofia Politica.
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  31. An Argument for Intolerance.J. F. Catherwood - 2000 - Journal of Medical Ethics 26 (6):427-431.
    “Multiculturalism”, “pluralism” and “tolerance” have become buzz words in applied ethics. While serious and well thought out work is going on in these areas, a misunderstanding of the importance of tolerance, and the difficulties raised by multicultural moral conflict seems common. In this paper I argue that intolerance of some cultural traditions is morally required, and suggest that the forging of a moral mono-culture is preferable to pluralism.
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  32. Y. Ch. Zarka, Fr. Lessay & J. Rogers, Les Fondements Philosophiques de la Tolérance. [REVIEW]Pierre Caye - 2003 - Archives de Philosophie du Droit 47.
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  33. Toleration.Emanuela Ceva - 2013 - Oxford Bibliographies in Philosophy.
    The idea of toleration (or tolerance—the terms are mostly used interchangeably) plays a paramount role in liberal theorizing with regard to the normative characterization of the relations between the state and citizens and between majority and minority groups in society. Toleration occurs when an agent A refrains from interfering negatively with an agent B’s practice x or belief y despite A’s opposition to B’s x-ing or y-ing, although A thinks herself to be in the position of interfering. So, the notion (...)
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  34. Frank Furedi, On Tolerance: A Defence of Moral Independence.David Chandler - 2012 - Radical Philosophy 171:42.
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  35. Samuel Johnson, Samuel Clarke and the Toleration of Heresy.Chester Chapin - 1997 - Enlightenment and Dissent 16:146-150.
  36. Voltaire pensador da tolerância: do combate ao fanatismo à luta contra o ateísmo.Sébastien Charles - 2012 - Doispontos 9 (3).
    Voltaire's militancy in favor of religious toleration is well-known. But he seems to be concerned by its practical results, the rehabilitation of those religiously persecuted, rather than by the theorectical reasonings to convince his opponents. That can be seen in the few importance given to argumentation in the Traité sur la tolerance , mostly composed by historical examples of violence caused by religious fanaticism. However, in Voltaire we find real philosophical reflection on tolerance, but the author finds it inneficient to (...)
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  37. The Separation of Religion and State : Context and Meaning.Stephen Chavura - unknown
    This paper seeks to show the analytical limitations of the most popular terms describing the relationship between religion and politics, the two most popular being "separation of church and state" and "separation of religion and politics". Although the latter term is preferred it is still quite vague in its meaning and, strictly speaking, impossible to put into practice. I try to clarify the meaning of "separation of religion and state" by discussing the early writings out of which the tradition arose, (...)
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  38. Locke's Political Arguments for Toleration.S. Chen - 1998 - History of Political Thought 19 (2):167-185.
    This paper argues for a new perspective on Locke's account of toleration by looking at a set of important but neglected arguments for toleration. Standard accounts which view Lockean toleration as justified solely on considerations of conscience fail to explain Locke's preferred form of toleration, the process by which he overcame his earlier objections to toleration, and the importance of considerations regarding the practicability of religious toleration. The paper argues that attention to Locke's political arguments provides a more complete account (...)
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  39. Theories of Interreligious Dialogue: The Difficulties and its Resolving Approaches From the perspectives of Philosophy of Religion.John Chuang - 2005 - Philosophy and Culture 32 (4):89-108.
    Prevalent today in the religious philosophy of religious pluralism, Hick, but the most faithful Christian in the Catholic Church, adopted the form of dialogue is pulled behind the theory of religious tolerance on the inside. This study is to examine the Catholic Church as an inclusive theory is based on the best choice? From contemporary research results in the possibility that Hick's religious pluralism and tolerance in the discussion on the existence of problems and their remedy. So, first, this will (...)
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  40. Toleration.Andrew Jason Cohen - 2014 - Polity.
    In this engaging and comprehensive introduction to the topic of toleration, Andrew Jason Cohen seeks to answer fundamental questions, such as: What is toleration? What should be tolerated? Why is toleration important? Beginning with some key insights into what we mean by toleration, Cohen goes on to investigate what should be tolerated and why. We should not be free to do everythingÑmurder, rape, and theft, for clear examples, should not be tolerated. But should we be free to take drugs, hire (...)
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  41. Why Tolerate? Reflections on the Millian Truth Principle.Raphael Cohen-Almagor - 1997 - Philosophia 25 (1-4):131-152.
    The aim of this essay is to reflect on the Millian, utilitarian argument from truth that is held as one of the most conspicuous answers to the question Why tolerate? This argument postulates that only in a free market of ideas may the truth be discovered. Even the most unpopular idea may contain some truth in it and may contribute to the advancement of knowledge. It further commands us to contest those opinions which are believed to be true vigorously and (...)
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  42. Thomas Hobbes, Heresy, and the Theological Project of Leviathan.Jeffrey R. Collins - 2013 - Hobbes Studies 26 (1):6-33.
  43. The Dalai Lama and the World Religions: A False Friend?: Jane Compson.Jane Compson - 1996 - Religious Studies 32 (2):271-279.
    The Dalai Lama is well known for his tolerance of other religious traditions, actively encouraging people to celebrate their own faiths rather than convert to Buddhism. However, far from being a pluralist as this attitude suggests, he believes that ultimate liberation is obtained only through the practice of Buddhist teachings. This apparent contradiction is resolved when one examines some of the teachings that he follows, such as the notions of emptiness , skilful means , karma and rebirth. On such examination (...)
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  44. Lockean Toleration and the Victim's Perspective.Gregory Conti - 2015 - European Journal of Political Theory 14 (1):76-97.
    According to Jeremy Waldron, John Locke's argument for the instrumental irrationality of persecution is fatally flawed. In this paper, I offer evidence that Waldron has misread Locke, and that Locke's views about why persecution generally proves inefficacious have greater plausibility than Waldron allowed. Locke's argument for the irrationality of intolerance does not, as has been thought, rest on a tendentious ontological distinction between ‘the will’ and ‘the understanding’, but on an account of the adverse psychological reaction of victims of persecution (...)
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  45. Locke on Toleration.M. Cranston - 1988 - Rivista Internazionale di Filosofia Del Diritto 65 (2):213-219.
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  46. John Locke and the Case for Toleration.Maurice Cranston - 1987 - In Susan Mendus & David Edwards (eds.), On Toleration. Oxford University Press. pp. 101--121.
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  47. Toleration.Maurice Cranston - 1967 - In Paul Edwards (ed.), The Encyclopedia of Philosophy. New York: Macmillan. pp. 8--143.
  48. Locke on Toleration.I. Creppell - 1996 - Political Theory 24 (2):200-240.
  49. Montaigne: The Embodiment of Identity as Grounds for Toleration.Ingrid Creppell - 2001 - Res Publica 7 (3):247-271.
    One of the most important issues today is the conflict between identity groups. Can the concept of toleration provide resources for thinking about this? The standard definition of toleration – rejection or disapproval of a practice or belief followed by a constraint of oneself from repressing it –has limits. If we seek to make political and social conditions of toleration among diverse people a stable reality, we need to flesh out more deeply and widely what that depends upon. The essence (...)
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  50. Scepticism and Toleration: The Case of Montaigne.E. M. Curley - 2005 - In Daniel Garber & Steven Nadler (eds.), Oxford Studies in Early Modern Philosophy Volume 2. Oxford University Press.
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