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Summary Toleration's first defense is by Saint Augustine (who later recanted it), but it does not become a major force until the beginning of liberal thought, particularly with thinkers like Spinoza, Bayle, and Locke.  These thinkers and those following them sought to defend toleration as a general value, though typically a dependent value.  The pieces in this category relate to such defenses.
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  1. Tolerance: From a Hermeneutic Perspective.Lawrence Schmidt - unknown - Existentia 6 (1-4):79-87.
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  2. Michael Walzer, On Toleration.D. Archard - forthcoming - Radical Philosophy.
  3. Mapping the Epistemic Arguments for Religious Toleration.Gilles Beauchamp - forthcoming - Religious Studies.
    In the literature on toleration, epistemic arguments are commonly equated with John Stuart Mill's fallibilism according to which toleration of opinions is a necessary means to the attainment of truth. This conflation does not capture the variety of those arguments and it results from the fact that a proper analysis of epistemic arguments for religious toleration and a systematic account of their different types are still lacking. The purpose of this article is to provide such an analysis and to argue (...)
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  4. Why Tolerate Conscience?François Boucher & Cécile Laborde - forthcoming - Criminal Law and Philosophy:1-21.
    In Why Tolerate Religion?, Brian Leiter argues against the special legal status of religion, claiming that religion should not be the only ground for exemptions to the law and that this form of protection should be, in principle, available for the claims of secular conscience as well. However, in the last chapter of his book, he objects to a universal regime of exemptions for both religious and secular claims of conscience, highlighting the practical and moral flaws associated with it. We (...)
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  5. John Locke, Lettera sulla tolleranza: Una nuova traduzione della "Letter Concerning Toleration" di John Locke, accompagnata da un testo introduttivo.Brunella Casalini - forthcoming - Bollettino Telematico di Filosofia Politica.
  6. Peace Without Conciliation: The Irrelevance of "Toleration" in Judaism.Adin Steinsaltz - forthcoming - Common Knowledge 11 (1):41-47.
  7. Cultural Relativism.John J. Tilley - forthcoming - In George Ritzer (ed.), Wiley-Blackwell Encyclopedia of Sociology, 2nd ed. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
    A brief reference article on cultural relativism, forthcoming in the Wiley-Blackwell Encyclopedia of Sociology, 2nd edition.
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  8. Toleration and Liberty of Conscience.Jon Mahoney - 2021 - In Mitja Sardoc (ed.), Handbook of Toleration. Palgrave.
    This chapter examines some central features to liberal conceptions of toleration and liberty of conscience. The first section briefly examines conceptions of toleration and liberty of conscience in the traditions of Locke, Rawls, and Mill. The second section considers contemporary controversies surrounding toleration and liberty of conscience with a focus on neutrality and equality. The third section examines several challenges, including whether non-religious values should be afforded the same degree of accommodation as religious values, whether liberty of conscience requires a (...)
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  9. Identity Politics, Irrationalism, and Totalitarianism: Karl Popper and the Contemporary Malaise.Danny Frederick - 2019 - Cosmos + Taxis 6 (6-7):31-32.
    Introduction to my three essays on the relevance of Karl Popper to contemporary social, political and philosophical problems.
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  10. O’Hear on Popper, Criticism and the Open Society.Danny Frederick - 2019 - Cosmos + Taxis 6 (6-7):43-48.
    Karl Popper champions an open society in which all institutions, principles and values are open to criticism. Anthony O’Hear contends that Popper’s vision is utopian because an open society can survive only if some non-liberal values are assumed, including the prohibition of criticism of fundamental liberal principles and values. I correct O’Hear’s interpretation of Popper and I rebut most of his criticisms, arguing that an open society is stronger if it permits criticism of all views. However, I accept and strengthen (...)
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  11. Identity Politics, Irrationalism, and Totalitarianism: The Relevance Of Karl Popper’s ‘Open Society’.Danny Frederick - 2019 - Cosmos + Taxis 6 (6-7):33-42.
    In ‘The Open Society and its Enemies,’ Karl Popper contrasts closed and open societies. He evaluates irrationalism and the different kinds of rationalism and he argues that critical rationalism is superior. Living in an open society bestows great benefits but involves a strain that may in some people engender a longing to return to a closed society of tribal submission and an attraction for irrationalism. Attempts to recreate a closed society lead to totalitarianism. In the light of Popper’s arguments I (...)
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  12. Reasonable Citizens and Epistemic Peers: A Skeptical Problem for Political Liberalism.Han van Wietmarschen - 2018 - Journal of Political Philosophy 26 (4):486-507.
    Political liberalism holds that political decisions should be made on the basis of public considerations, and not on the basis of comprehensive religious, moral, or philosophical views. An important objection to this view is that it presupposes doubt, hesitation, or skepticism about the truth of comprehensive doctrines on the side of reasonable citizens. Proponents of political liberalism, such as John Rawls and Jonathan Quong, successfully defend political liberalism against several objections of this kind. In this paper, I argue that recent (...)
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  13. Locke, Toleration and Natural Law: A Reassessment.John William Tate - 2017 - European Journal of Political Theory 16 (1).
    There is an increasingly prevalent view among some contemporary Locke scholars that Locke's political philosophy is thoroughly subordinate to theological imperatives, centered on natural law. This article challenges this point of view by critically evaluating this interpretation of Locke as advanced by some of its leading proponents. This interpretation perceives natural law as the governing principle of Locke's political philosophy, and the primary source of transition and reconciliation within it. This article advances a very different reading of Locke's political philosophy, (...)
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  14. Tolérance libérale et délibération : l'apport de la neutralité scientifique.Marc-Kevin Daoust - 2016 - Les ateliers de l'éthique/The Ethics Forum 11 (1):4-28.
    Cet article poursuit la réflexion de Dilhac (2014) touchant la relation entre politique et vérité. Au terme d’une analyse de la tolérance chez Mill et Popper, Dilhac conclut qu’une conception épistémique de la tolérance manque sa dimension politique, et qu’il est préférable d’opter pour le concept rawlsien de consensus raisonnable. Discutant ces résultats, le premier objectif est ici de montrer qu’une notion de « raisonnabilité » peut facilement trouver ses racines dans la neutralité scientifique wébérienne, et donc être porteuse d’une (...)
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  15. Second Treatise of Government and a Letter Concerning Toleration.Mark Goldie (ed.) - 2016 - Oxford University Press UK.
    'Man being born...to perfect freedom...hath by nature a power...to preserve his property, that is, his life, liberty and estate.'Locke's Second Treatise of Government is one of the great classics of political philosophy, widely regarded as the foundational text of modern liberalism. In it Locke insists on majority rule, and regards no government as legitimate unless it has the consent of the people. He sets aside people's ethnicities, religions, and cultures and envisages political societies which command our assent because they meet (...)
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  16. On the Utility of Religious Toleration.Frederick Schauer - 2016 - Criminal Law and Philosophy 10 (3):479-492.
    Brian Leiter’s Why Tolerate Religion? valuably clarifies the issues involved in granting religion-specific accommodations to laws and policies of general application. His arguments are careful, rigorous, and fair, and in rejecting the deontological arguments for religion-specific accommodations he seems to me largely correct. But when he turns to arguing against the utilitarian case for such accommodations, he employs a seemingly non-standard sense of utilitarianism in which demands of principled consistency constrain what would otherwise be utilitarian welfare-maximization. A more traditional and (...)
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  17. The Coherence of Bayle’s Theory of Toleration.Jean-Luc Solère - 2016 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 54 (1):21-46.
    pierre bayle’s treatise on tolerance is a landmark in the birth of the modern mind. Written shortly before Locke’s Letter on Toleration, it advocates full toleration of all religious beliefs, not by reduction to the lowest common denominator, but rather because of the moral evilness of persecutions and forced conversions.However, many commentators believe that there is a flaw in Bayle’s theory: the so-called “conscientious persecutor aporia.”1 In order to show the wickedness of persecution, Bayle holds up conscience as an apparently (...)
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  18. Liberty, Toleration and Equality: John Locke, Jonas Proast and the Letters Concerning Toleration.John Tate - 2016 - Routledge.
    The seventeenth century English philosopher, John Locke, is widely recognized as one of the seminal sources of the modern liberal tradition. _Liberty, Toleration and Equality_ examines the development of Locke’s ideal of toleration, from its beginnings, to the culmination of this development in Locke’s fifteen year debate with his great antagonist, the Anglican clergyman, Jonas Proast. Locke, like Proast, was a sincere Christian, but unlike Proast, Locke was able to develop, over time, a perspective on toleration which allowed him to (...)
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  19. The Power of Tolerance: A Debate Wendy Brown and Rainer Forst Columbia University Press, 2014; 112 Pp.; $15.00. [REVIEW]Alexander Agnello - 2015 - Dialogue 54 (3):557-559.
  20. La democracia y el valor político de la tolerancia.Fuentes/Caro Eduardo Andres - 2015 - Filosofia Unisinos 16 (2):164-182.
    It is a widespread opinion that toleration, as a political practice, has merely instrumental value. The aim of this paper is to defend, on the contrary, that toleration has political value in itself. In more specific terms, I will claim that it is valuable in itself in virtue of its intrinsic relationship with democracy. Toleration is a constituent of democracy inasmuch as it is necessary for the existence of a democratic administration of political power. I will show that that relation (...)
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  21. Locke’s Tracts and the Anarchy of the Religious Conscience.Paul Bou-Habib - 2015 - European Journal of Political Theory 14 (1):3-18.
    This article reconstructs the main arguments in John Locke’s first political writings, the highly rhetorical, and often obscure, Two Tracts on Government . The Tracts support the government’s right to impose religious ceremonies on its people, an astonishing fact given Locke’s famous defense of toleration in his later works. The reconstruction of the Tracts developed here allows us to see that rather than a pessimistic view of the prospects for peace under religious diversity, what mainly animates the young Locke is (...)
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  22. Lockean Toleration and the Victim's Perspective.Gregory Conti - 2015 - European Journal of Political Theory 14 (1):76-97.
    According to Jeremy Waldron, John Locke's argument for the instrumental irrationality of persecution is fatally flawed. In this paper, I offer evidence that Waldron has misread Locke, and that Locke's views about why persecution generally proves inefficacious have greater plausibility than Waldron allowed. Locke's argument for the irrationality of intolerance does not, as has been thought, rest on a tendentious ontological distinction between ‘the will’ and ‘the understanding’, but on an account of the adverse psychological reaction of victims of persecution (...)
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  23. Toleration and the Design of Norms.Luciano Floridi - 2015 - Science and Engineering Ethics 21 (5):1095-1123.
    One of the pressing challenges we face today—in a post-Westphalian order and post-Bretton Woods world —is how to design the right kind of MAS that can take full advantage of the socio-economic and political progress made so far, while dealing successfully with the new global challenges that are undermining the best legacy of that very progress. This is the topic of the article. In it, I argue that in order to design the right kind of MAS, we need to design (...)
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  24. Routledge Philosophy Guidebook to Spinoza on Politics.Daniel Frank & Jason Waller - 2015 - Routledge.
    Baruch Spinoza is one of the most influential and controversial political philosophers of the early modern period. Though best-known for his contributions to metaphysics, Spinoza’s _Theological-Political Treatise_ and his unfinished _Political Treatise_ were widely debated and helped to shape the political writings of philosophers as diverse as Rousseau, Kant, Marx, Nietzsche, and even Locke. In addition to its enormous historical importance, Spinoza’s political philosophy is also strikingly contemporary in its advocacy of toleration of unpopular religious and political views and his (...)
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  25. Toleration Out of Conflicts. Review Article of Reiner Forst’s ‘Toleration in Conflicts’.Elisabetta Galeotti - 2015 - European Journal of Political Theory 14 (2):246-255.
    Rainer Forst's Toleration in Conflict is a significant contribution to the important topic of toleration. Its critical survey of various arguments for and around toleration is thorough and rigorous. However, although Forst's argument for the respect concept of toleration is persuasive, the claim that this is a tolerant theory of toleration located at a higher level than other arguments is perhaps less so.
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  26. Does Cognitive Humility Lead to Religious Tolerance? Reflections on Craig Versus Quinn.Michael S. Jones - 2015 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 78 (1):73-89.
    We’ve all heard the familiar saying, “ignorance is bliss.” It may also be true that “ignorance is intolerant.” But it seems to be at least sometimes true that intolerance is produced by something else: overconfidence in the truthfulness of one’s own opinions. Awareness of and avoidance of such overconfidence may be a path towards tolerating those with whom one disagrees. And this could be true in religion as well as in other areas of belief. In his 2005 article “On Religious (...)
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  27. Toleration, Religion and Accommodation.Peter Jones - 2015 - European Journal of Philosophy 23 (3):542-563.
    Issues of religious toleration might be thought dead and advocacy of religious toleration a pointless exercise in preaching to the converted, at least in most contemporary European societies. This paper challenges that view. It does so principally by focusing on issues of religious accommodation as these arise in contemporary multi-faith societies. Drawing on the cases of exemption, Article 9 of the ECHR, and law governing indirect religious discrimination, it argues that issues and instances of accommodation are issues and instances of (...)
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  28. Though He Is One, He Bears All Those Diverse Names: A Comparative Analysis of Jayanta Bhaṭṭa’s Argument for Toleration.David Slakter - 2015 - Philosophy East and West 65 (2):430-443.
    In the Āgamadambara (“Much Ado about Religion”), Jayanta Bhatta appears to be making a case for religious toleration and pluralism. This paper considers whether Jayanta has a concept like toleration in mind at all, or at least something that we today might understand to be toleration. If he is doing neither, our understanding of the nature of tolerance and its conceptual limits may be furthered by determining exactly what he is talking about and why it looks so much like tolerance.
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  29. A Companion to Locke.Matthew Stuart (ed.) - 2015 - Blackwell.
    This collection of 28 original essays examines the diverse scope of John Locke’s contributions as a celebrated philosopher, empiricist, and father of modern political theory. Explores the impact of Locke’s thought and writing across a range of fields including epistemology, metaphysics, philosophy of science, political theory, education, religion, and economics Delves into the most important Lockean topics, such as innate ideas, perception, natural kinds, free will, natural rights, religious toleration, and political liberalism Identifies the political, philosophical, and religious contexts in (...)
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  30. The Concept of Human Rights as an Answer to Religious Fundamentalism in a Modern Democratic Society.Inocent-Mária V. Szaniszló - 2015 - Journal for the Study of Religions and Ideologies 14 (42):100-120.
    In today’s European society one can observe different forms of religious fundamentalism, especially when defending various values relating to questions of the meaning of life or when confronted with multi-religious and multicultural situations. An ethical approach attempts to avoid such extremes, given that genuine human behavior is based on moral virtues, the Aristotelian “Golden mean”. At a time when some voices in left-leaning circles are trying to enshrine in the Charter of Human Rights the right of women to terminate their (...)
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  31. Toleration, by Andrew Jason Cohen: Cambridge: Polity Press, 2014, Pp. 176, £15.99 , £45.Peter Balint - 2014 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 92 (4):816-817.
  32. The Power of Tolerance: A Debate.Wendy Brown & Rainer Forst - 2014 - Columbia University Press.
    Does it transform conflicts into productive tensions, or does it perpetuate underlying power relations? To what extent does tolerance hide its involvement with power and act as a form of depoliticization?
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  33. Toleration.Andrew Jason Cohen - 2014 - Polity.
    In this engaging and comprehensive introduction to the topic of toleration, Andrew Jason Cohen seeks to answer fundamental questions, such as: What is toleration? What should be tolerated? Why is toleration important? Beginning with some key insights into what we mean by toleration, Cohen goes on to investigate what should be tolerated and why. We should not be free to do everythingÑmurder, rape, and theft, for clear examples, should not be tolerated. But should we be free to take drugs, hire (...)
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  34. On Shareable Reasons: A Comment on Forst.Adam Etinson - 2014 - Journal of Social Philosophy 45 (1):76-88.
  35. Rousseau E a Questão Do Direito Dos Judeus.José Benedito de Almeida Júnior - 2014 - Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 70 (4):833-850.
    Resumo Este trabalho tem por objetivo compreender um dos aspectos da concepção de tolerância religiosa na obra de Jean-Jacques Rousseau, neste caso especificamente, a situação do povo judeu na Europa. Para tanto, analisa especialmente as obras O Emílio ou da educação e a História do anti-semitismo, vol. III: De Voltaire a Wagner de Leon Poliakov. Na primeira parte analisa a postura de Rousseau que reivindicou o direito dos judeus terem seu território, suas escolas e universidades oferecendo, desta forma, suas razões (...)
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  36. Why Tolerate Religion?Samuel C. Rickless - 2014 - Philosophical Review 123 (2):238-241.
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  37. Hegel's Defense of Toleration.Timothy Brownlee - 2013 - In Angelica Nuzzo (ed.), Hegel on Religion and Politics. State University of New York Press. pp. 79.
  38. Toleration.Emanuela Ceva - 2013 - Oxford Bibliographies in Philosophy.
    The idea of toleration (or tolerance—the terms are mostly used interchangeably) plays a paramount role in liberal theorizing with regard to the normative characterization of the relations between the state and citizens and between majority and minority groups in society. Toleration occurs when an agent A refrains from interfering negatively with an agent B’s practice x or belief y despite A’s opposition to B’s x-ing or y-ing, although A thinks herself to be in the position of interfering. So, the notion (...)
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  39. Toleration.Andrew Jason Cohen - 2013 - In Hugh LaFollette (ed.), International Encyclopedia of Ethics. Oxford: pp. 5150-5160.
    Contemporary philosophical debates surrounding toleration have revolved around three issues: What is toleration? Should we tolerate and, if so, why? What should be tolerated? These questions are of central importance to social and political thought.
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  40. Thomas Hobbes, Heresy, and the Theological Project of Leviathan.Jeffrey R. Collins - 2013 - Hobbes Studies 26 (1):6-33.
  41. Questioning Authorities: Scepticism and Anti-Christian Arguments in the Colloquium Heptaplomeres.Delphine C. M. Doucet - 2013 - History of European Ideas 39 (6):755-775.
    Summary Bodin's Colloquium Heptaplomeres is one of the most important clandestine manuscripts of the early modern period. A fascinating dialogue between seven different religions it tackles some of the main debates of the early modern era. It has long in the historiography been recognised as a key text promoting toleration. However, a close reading of the text and a focus on the way in which it used and debated written authorities (from ancient literature to the Scriptures) directs us toward another (...)
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  42. Epistemic Toleration and the New Atheism.Richard Fumerton - 2013 - Midwest Studies in Philosophy 37 (1):97-108.
  43. Introduction.Maria Paola Ferretti Ian Carter - 2013 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 30 (3):191-194.
    Toleration classically denotes a relation between two agents that is characterised by three components: objection, power, and acceptance overriding the objection. Against recent claims that classical toleration is not applicable in liberal democracies and that toleration must therefore either be understood purely attitudinally or purely politically, we argue that the components of classical toleration are crucial elements of contemporary cases of minority accommodation. The concept of toleration is applicable to, and is an important element of descriptions of such cases, provided (...)
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  44. Was Toleranz Ist, Was Sie Nicht Ist Und Wie Man Sie Nicht Rechtfertigen Kann Eine Replik Auf Lohmar.Peter Königs - 2013 - Zeitschrift für Philosophische Forschung 67 (3).
    Toleranz wird für gewöhnlich als eine Einstellung definiert, die sich aus Akzeptanz und Ablehnung gegenüber der tolerierten Praxis zusammensetzt. In einem Aufsatz in dieser Zeitschrift hat Achim Lohmar dieses klassische Verständnis von Toleranz angegriffen und einen alternativen Toleranzbegriff stark gemacht. Ich werde argumentieren, dass Lohmars Analyse von Toleranz verfehlt ist, und zeigen, wie sich der klassische Toleranzbegriff gegen Lohmars Kritik verteidigen lässt. Dennoch ist Lohmars Kritik nicht uninteressant. Denn obwohl Lohmars begriffliche Kritik unzutreffend ist, lässt sich auf Lohmars Kritik aufbauend (...)
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  45. Examen de la Vision En Dieu de Malebranche.John Locke - 2013 - Vrin.
    Locke rédige autour de 1693 plusieurs notes sur la philosophie de Malebranche. Ces critiques n’ont pas eu le succès de celles d’Arnauld. Elles participent pourtant à la même controverse sur le statut des idées. Mais l’idée n’est pas l’essentiel; Locke en traite dans le cadre d’un débat plus large : comment accroître notre savoir limité? La critique a une visée pratique : s’opposer à la vision immédiate des vérités éternelles et à l’assurance qui en découle. La tolérance et la liberté (...)
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  46. Locke.A. J. Pyle - 2013 - Polity.
    John Locke has a good claim to the title of the greatest ever English philosopher, and was a founding father of both the empiricist tradition in philosophy and the liberal tradition in politics. This new book provides an accessible introduction to Locke’s thought. Although its primary focus is on the Essay Concerning Human Understanding, it also discusses the Two Treatises on Government, the Essay on Toleration, and the Reasonableness of Christianity, and draws on materials from Locke’s correspondence and notebooks to (...)
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  47. Can Tolerance Be Grounded in Equal Respect?Enzo Rossi - 2013 - European Journal of Political Theory 12 (3):240-252.
    In this paper I argue that equal respect-based accounts of the normative basis of tolerance are self-defeating, insofar as they are unable to specify the limits of tolerance in a way that is consistent with their own commitment to the equal treatment of all conceptions of the good. I show how this argument is a variant of the long-standing ‘conflict of freedoms’ objection to Kantian-inspired, freedom-based accounts of the justification of systems of norms. I criticize Thomas Scanlon’s defence of ‘pure (...)
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  48. John Locke and Argument From Economy for Tolerance.Antônio Carlos dos Santos - 2013 - Trans/Form/Ação 36 (1):9-24.
    O objetivo deste texto é analisar o argumento da economia que justificaria a tolerância como um dos maiores fatores para o desenvolvimento dos povos, no século XVII, segundo a interpretação de Locke. Expressando de outro modo, este texto pretende responder a seguinte questão: qual o lugar da dimensão econômica na teoria lockiana sobre a tolerância? The objective of this text is to analyze the economic argument that justifies tolerance as a major contributor to the development of peoples in the seventeenth (...)
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  49. Sowerby, Scott., Making Toleration.Peter Simpson - 2013 - Review of Metaphysics 67 (1):189-190.
  50. Authority, Progress, and the “Assumption of Infallibility” in On Liberty.Piers Norris Turner - 2013 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 51 (1):93-117.
    John Stuart Mill’s defense of free discussion in On Liberty includes the claim that silencing discussion implies an “assumption of infallibility.” This claim is often dismissed as absurd on the ground that a censor might attempt to silence an opinion he believes to be true but pernicious, or because rational assurance short of infallibility is obviously sufficient to justify censorship. This paper argues that Mill is concerned about the epistemic position one assumes with regard to future persons and circumstances as (...)
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