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This category is about dehumanization as a social phenomenon of regarding or treating other humans as not or less human. Some people have been denied membership in the human species, which is a kind of dehumanization that is known since antiquity and that had some late reverberations in the 19th century. When people are regarded as less human rather than categorically as not human, dehumanization appears in its graded form, which is prevalent even in contemporary society. It can be explicit (blatant) or implicit. Often it utilizes the animal-human divide (animalistic dehumanization) or the machine-human divide (mechanistic dehumanization). Some researchers also connect dehumanization to objectification, de-individualization or depersonalization. Obviously, what dehumanization refers to depends on what ‘human’ means since it is the human (i.e. what it means to be human) that is attributed more or less in dehumanization. Further keywords that target specific forms or aspects of dehumanization are, for instance, animalization, commodification, sexism, racism and speciesism. 

Remark on other uses: Often the term ‘dehumanization’ shows up in philosophy not as what is studied, but simply in order to stress a negative evaluation of a phenomenon under study. For instance, physicalism, capitalist society or abortion have been taken as dehumanizing in that negative-qualifer sense. Works that use dehumanization only in that sense are not included in this category since it would broaden the category too much. There are also papers on art or natural sciences not as dehumanizing but as dehumanized: these papers refer to various forms of ‘leaving out the human’ in arts or sciences. Since these studies also do not refer (or at least not directly) to the social phenomenon of people regarding and treating other people as not or less human, they are also not included in this category.

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81 found
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1 — 50 / 81
  1. ‘My Little Wild Fever-Struck Brother’: Human and Animal Subjectivity in Hélène Cixous’ Algeria.Helen Andersson - 2017 - International Journal of Philosophy and Theology 78 (4-5):456-468.
    This article examines the place of human and animal subjectivity in two autobiographically informed texts by Hélène Cixous. It takes her view on the word ‘human’ and the figure of Fips, the dog of the Cixous family, as a point of departure. By thinking through this figure, I argue, Cixous analyses the dehumanizing logic of colonialism and anti-Semitism in Algeria and develops her own response to such kinds of political evils, arguing for human relationality and animal corporeality. The article shows (...)
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  2. What, If Anything, Renders All Humans Morally Equal?Richard J. Arneson - 1999 - In . Blackwell. pp. 103-128.
    All humans have an equal basic moral status. They possess the same fundamental rights, and the comparable interests of each person should count the same in calculations that determine social policy. Neither supposed racial differences, nor skin color, sex, sexual orientation, ethnicity, intelligence, nor any other differences among humans negate their fundamental equal worth and dignity. These platitudes are virtually universally affirmed. A white supremacist racist or an admirer of Adolf Hitler who denies them is rightly regarded as beyond the (...)
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  3. Tras los monstruos de la biopolítica.Isabel Balza - 2013 - Dilemata 12:27-46.
    In this paper I examine the figure of the monster, in both its negative and positive aspects, such as the notion of biopolitics. As a negative figure, the monster would represent the dehumanized subject produced by exclusion mechanisms operating in destructive version of biopolitics, resulting in thanatopolitics, and in this sense provokes horror and abjection. Here I will use the analyses of the anthropological machine (Agamben), the device of the person (Esposito) and indefinite detention (Butler). As a positive figure, the (...)
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  4. Selective Moral Disengagement in the Exercise of Moral Agency.Albert Bandura - 2002 - Journal of Moral Education 31 (2):101-119.
    Moral agency has dual aspects manifested in both the power to refrain from behaving inhumanely and the proactive power to behave humanely. Moral agency is embedded in a broader socio-cognitive self-theory encompassing affective self-regulatory mechanisms rooted in personal standards linked to self-sanctions. Moral functioning is thus governed by self-reactive selfhood rather than by dispassionate abstract reasoning. The self-regulatory mechanisms governing moral conduct do not come into play unless they are activated and there are many psychosocial mechanisms by which moral self-sanctions (...)
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  5. “The Innsmouth Look”: H. P. Lovecraft’s Ambivalent Modernism.Tracy Bealer - 2011 - Journal of Philosophy: A Cross-Disciplinary Inquiry 6 (14):44-50.
    “The Innsmouth Look: H. P. Lovecraft’s Ambivalent Modernism” explores how horror writing responds to the anxieties and possibilities presented by historical modernity. Lovecraft, in his short story “The Shadow Over Innsmouth,” translated contemporary concerns about immigration, industrialization and racial difference into a plot about a young traveler encountering a terrifying alien population in a small New England town. The essay examines the ways that this story both demonstrates how the dehumanization of the racialized “other” operated during the modern period, and (...)
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  6. Dehumanization.W. Bernard Viola, Perry Ottenberg & Fritz Redl - 1971 - In Nevitt Sanford & Craig Comstock (eds.), Sanctions for Evil. Boston: Beacon Press.
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  7. Denying Humanity: The Distinct Neural Correlates of Blatant Dehumanization.Emile Bruneau, Nir Jacoby, Nour Kteily & Rebecca Saxe - 2018 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 147 (7):1078-1093.
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  8. The Dehumanization of the Enemy.Antonio Cerella - unknown
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  9. The Classroom as Privileged Space: Psychoanalytic Paradigms for Social Justice in Pedagogy.Tapo Chimbganda - 2017 - Lexington Books.
    This book examines the psychic and emotional effects of the dehumanization of children based on discrimination and difference in classrooms. Using psychoanalysis, it highlights the emotional structures that develop in learners through the repeated trauma of racism and homophobia. Recommended for scholars in education, psychoanalysis, and sociology.
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  10. Understanding the Black Flame and Multigenerational Education Trauma: Toward a Theory of the Dehumanization of Black Students.June Cara Christian & Mary Rogers-Grantham - 2014 - Lexington Books.
    Using Africana critical theory as a critical framework to analyze W. E. B. Du Bois’s Black Flame trilogy, this study establishes a transdisciplinary theory of the dehumanization of Black students in the United States. As lenses of analysis, critical race theory and Post Traumatic Slave Syndrome reveal how the processes of racialization, colonization, and globalization contribute to the multigenerational traumas many Blacks have experienced in education since Reconstruction.
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  11. Dehumanization in Organizational Settings: Some Scientific and Ethical Considerations.Kalina Christoff - 2014 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 8.
  12. On Immorality of Terrorism and War.Predrag Cicovacki - 2003 - Filozofija I Društvo 2003 (22):115-132.
    The author first analyzes differences and similarities between war and terrorism and then argues that both are deeply immoral. Their differences are far less significant that their similarities, the main one of which consists in the denial of the view that every human life is equally worthy. This denial opens a way for an inhuman and violent treatment of those who are not as valuable as we are, which characterizes both terrorism and war. Besides having such unacceptable moral implications with (...)
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  13. 'Human-Ness', 'Dehumanisation' and Performance Enhancement.Leon Culbertson - 2007 - Sport, Ethics and Philosophy 1 (2):195 – 217.
    This paper focuses on the claim by Schneider and Butcher (2000) that it makes little sense to criticise the use of performance-enhancing drugs as ?dehumanising? (as, for example, Hoberman does (1992)) because we are unable to give a satisfactory account of what it is to be human. Schneider and Butcher (2000, 196) put this as follows: ?The dehumanisation argument is interesting but incomplete. It is incomplete because we do not have an agreed-upon conception of what it is to be human. (...)
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  14. Cuidado humanizado en pacientes con limitación del esfuerzo terapéutico en cuidados intensivos, desafíos para enfermería.Macarena Yañez Dabdoub & Ivonne Esmeralda Vargas Celis - 2018 - Persona y Bioética 22 (1):56-75.
    En las unidades de cuidados intensivos el equipo de salud utiliza todas las medidas posibles para preservar la vida de sus pacientes. No obstante, cuando las terapias son fútiles, se decide limitar el esfuerzo terapéutico. Este artículo tiene como objetivo describir los factores que pueden llevar a enfermería a deshumanizar sus cuidados en pacientes en LET en UCI. Revisión de la literatura en bases de datos, con las palabras clave: critical care, intensive care unit, limitation of therapeutic effort, end of (...)
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  15. The Unlearned Lessons of the Twentieth Century: An Essay on Late Modernity.Chantal Delsol - 2006 - Isi Books.
    In The Unlearned Lessons of the Twentieth Century , the sequel to Icarus Fallen, published by ISI Books in 2003, Chantal Delsol maintains that the age in which we live—late modernity—calls into question most of the truths and beliefs bequeathed to us from the past. Yet it clings to a central belief in the dignity of the human person, the cornerstone of the doctrine of universal human rights to which even secular Westerners still cling. At the same time, the process (...)
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  16. The Moment of Microaggression: The Experience of Acts of Oppression, Dehumanization and Exploitation.Michael A. Dover - 2016 - Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment 27 (7-8):575-586.
    After a brief introduction and review of recent literature on microaggressions, a theoretical typology of three sources of social injustice (oppression, dehumanization, and exploitation) contributes to the theorization of the sources of microaggressions. A selected compendium of words and affective phrases generated in classroom exercises illustrates the nature of the experience of the moment of microaggression. Future research on microaggressions as well as evaluation of practice should examine the experience of microaggression, including being subjected to microaggression, initiating such acts, and (...)
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  17. Race, Place, and the Bounds of Humanity1.Glen Elder, Jennifer Wolch & Jody Emel - 1998 - Society and Animals 6 (2):183-202.
    The idea of a human-animal divide as reflective of both differences in kind and in evolutionary progress, has retained its power to produce and maintain racial and other forms of cultural difference. During the colonial period, representations of similarity were used to link subaltern groups to animals and thereby racialize and dehumanize them. In the postcolonial present, however, animal practices of subdominant groups are typically used for this purpose. Using data on cultural conflicts surrounding animal practices collected from media sources, (...)
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  18. Un mundo inhabitable o por debajo de las necesidades.Francisco José Pérez Fernández - 2010 - Investigaciones Fenomenológicas 7:275-292.
    La presente comunicación pretende desbrozar el proceso de deshumanizaciónal que fue sometido el ser humano en los campos de exterminio. Todo ello, y en la medida de lo posible, atendiendo de manera fundamental a los testimonios de los sobrevivientes, como Primo Levi, Jean Amery, Víktor Frakl, etc. spa, la pérdida del lenguaje y la imposibilidad de ponerse en el lugar del otro, además de la anulación de la comunicación. Para finalizar con la reivindicación de la memoria y el testimonio como (...)
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  19. Perceptual Dehumanization of Faces is Activated by Norm Violations and Facilitates Norm Enforcement.Katrina M. Fincher & Philip E. Tetlock - 2016 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 145 (2):131-146.
  20. Dehumanising the Dehumanisers: Reversal in Human Rights Discourse.Robert Fine - 2010 - Journal of Global Ethics 6 (2):179-190.
    If the legitimacy of international humanitarian and human rights law lies, in part at least, in its capacity to confront dehumanising actions in the modern world, we may speak of the limits of this achievement. It is well known that people who commit genocide or crimes against humanity typically dehumanise those against whom their crimes are committed and that the humanitarian and human rights dimensions of international law were developed in response to the radicalisation of this phenomenon. The expanded scope (...)
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  21. Social Constraints on the Direct Perception of Emotions and Intentions.Shaun Gallagher & Somogy Varga - 2014 - Topoi 33 (1):185-199.
    In this paper, we first review recent arguments about the direct perception of the intentions and emotions of others, emphasizing the role of embodied interaction. We then consider a possible objection to the direct perception hypothesis from social psychology, related to phenomena like ‘dehumanization’ and ‘implicit racial bias’, which manifest themselves on a basic bodily level. On the background of such data, one might object that social perception cannot be direct since it depends on and can in fact be interrupted (...)
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  22. The Wrong of Injustice: Dehumanization and its Role in Feminist Philosophy by Mari Mikkola.Kathryn Gillespie - 2017 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 27 (2):1-5.
    Mari Mikkola identifies three primary forms of social injustice—oppression, domination, and discrimination—and asks what makes them wrong. She argues that feminist philosophy has thus far focused heavily on gender as a lens or anchor through which to understand and respond to injustice. In Mikkola's view, this orientation around gender is limiting feminist philosophers' theoretical engagement with the roots of injustice. To remedy this problem, she builds a case for moving toward a more broadly humanist conception of injustice. The humanist feminism (...)
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  23. More Than a Body: Mind Perception and the Nature of Objectification.Kurt Gray, Joshua Knobe, Mark Sheskin, Paul Bloom & Lisa Feldman Barrett - 2011 - Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 101 (6):1207-1220.
    According to models of objectification, viewing someone as a body induces de-mentalization, stripping away their psychological traits. Here evidence is presented for an alternative account, where a body focus does not diminish the attribution of all mental capacities but, instead, leads perceivers to infer a different kind of mind. Drawing on the distinction in mind perception between agency and experience, it is found that focusing on someone's body reduces perceptions of agency but increases perceptions of experience. These effects were found (...)
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  24. Beyond Dehumanization: A Post-Humanist Critique of Intensive Confinement.Lisa Guenther - 2012 - Journal of Critical Animal Studies. Special Issue on Animals and Prisons 10 (2).
    Prisoners involved in the Attica rebellion and in the recent Georgia prison strike have protested their dehumanizing treatment as animals and as slaves. Their critique is crucial for tracing the connections between slavery, abolition, the racialization of crime, and the reinscription of racialized slavery within the US prison system. I argue that, in addition to the dehumanization of prisoners, inmates are further de-animalized when they are held in conditions of intensive confinement such as prolonged solitude or chronic overcrowding. To be (...)
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  25. Humanismo y violencia.Franz Hinkelammert - 2007 - Polis 18.
    El autor postula la necesidad de la recuperación del humanismo concreto, lo que requiere mirarlo de manera crítica y reconocer su desdoblamiento que lo vuelve un humanismo abstracto que deriva hacia la violencia. Si no lo advertimos, señala el autor, a cada renacimiento del humanismo el circuito de desdoblamiento vuelve a empezar con su correspondiente justificación ideológica, que describe la deshumanización como una acción al servicio de lo humano.
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  26. Seeing Human: Distinct and Overlapping Neural Signatures Associated with Two Forms of Dehumanization.Anthony I. Jack, Abigail J. Dawson & Megan E. Norr - 2013 - NeuroImage 79:313-328.
    The process of dehumanization, or thinking of others as less than human, is a phenomenon with significant societal implications. According to Haslam's model, two concepts of humanness derive from comparing humans with either animals or machines: individuals may be dehumanized by likening them to either animals or machines, or humanized by emphasizing differences from animals or machines. Recent work in cognitive neuroscience emphasizes understanding cognitive processes in terms of interactions between distributed cortical networks. It has been found that reasoning about (...)
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  27. The Wrong of Injustice, by Mari Mikkola.Katharine Jenkins - 2018 - Mind 127 (506):618-627.
    The Wrong of Injustice, by MikkolaMari. Oxford University Press, 2016. Pp. 285.
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  28. Violence and the Evolving Face of Yao in Taiping Propaganda.Huan Jin - 2018 - Journal of Religion and Violence 6 (1):127-144.
    This paper explores the interplay between rhetorical and political violence during the Taiping Civil War. Specifically, I examine how yao 妖, a conception bearing many cultural and historical connotations, was profusely employed in Taiping propaganda and in individual testimonies reflecting traditional political and religious beliefs. In extant Taiping placards, the Taiping rebels used xiwen 檄文, the prose of “call to arms,” to persuade people to take up the Taiping cause and to solicit and justify violence. With the compilation and extensive (...)
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  29. Fast Tracks to Narrative Empathy: Anthropomorphism and Dehumanization in Graphic Narratives.Suzanne Keen - 2011 - Substance 40 (1):135-155.
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  30. Intellectual Disability: Ethics, Dehumanization, and a New Moral Community.Heather E. Keith - 2013 - J. Wiley.
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  31. Perceiving the Agency of Harmful Agents: A Test of Dehumanization Versus Moral Typecasting Accounts.Mansur Khamitov, Jeff D. Rotman & Jared Piazza - 2016 - Cognition 146:33-47.
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  32. Obscenity: Dvd.Ken Knisely, Natsha Kyburg, Peter Jemma & Mark Casale - 2001 - Milk Bottle Productions.
    What are the stakes when we allow sexually explicit images to have wide circulation in our culture? How can we judge the moral status of pornography and erotica? Is the arousal of desire by a depiction and not another person essentially dehumanizing? With Natsha Kyburg, Peter Jemma, and Mark Casale.
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  33. What's Left of Human Nature? A Post-Essentialist, Pluralist and Interactive Account of a Contested Concept.Maria Kronfeldner - forthcoming - Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Human nature has always been a foundational issue for philosophy. What does it mean to have a human nature? Is the concept the relic of a bygone age? What is the use of such a concept? What are the epistemic and ontological commitments people make when they use the concept? In What’s Left of Human Nature? Maria Kronfeldner offers a philosophical account of human nature that defends the concept against contemporary criticism. In particular, she takes on challenges related to social (...)
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  34. The Politics of Human Nature.Maria Kronfeldner - 2016 - In Tibayrenc M. & Ayala F. J. (eds.), On human nature: Evolution, diversity, psychology, ethics, politics and religion. Academic Press. pp. 625-632.
    Human nature is a concept that transgresses the boundary between science and society and between fact and value. It is as much a political concept as it is a scientific one. This chapter will cover the politics of human nature by using evidence from history, anthropology and social psychology. The aim is to show that an important political function of the vernacular concept of human nature is social demarcation (inclusion/exclusion): it is involved in regulating who is ‘us’ and who is (...)
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  35. Sexual Solipsism: Philosophical Essays on Pornography and Objectification.Rae Langton - 2009 - Oxford University Press.
    Rae Langton here draws together her ground-breaking and contentious work on pornography and objectification. She shows how women come to be objectified -- made subordinate and treated as things -- and she argues for the controversial feminist conclusions that pornography subordinates and silences women, and women have rights against pornography.
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  36. Resisting Dehumanization: Citizen Voices and Acts of Solidarity.Inger Lassen - 2018 - Critical Discourse Studies 15 (5):427-443.
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  37. Dehumanizing Women: Treating Persons as Sex Objects.Linda Lemoncheck - 1986 - Ethics 96 (4):885-886.
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  38. Dehumanizing Women: Treating Persons as Sex Objects.Linda LeMoncheck - 1985 - Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    The book is designed to be of interest to women's studies students wishing an introduction to a specifically philosophical analysis of the problem of sex objectification, as well as to philosophers interested in the contemporary moral issues of sexism and sex stereotyping.
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  39. Treating Persons as Sex Objects.Linda Lemoncheck - 1981 - Dissertation, University of California, Los Angeles
    The aim of the dissertation is to examine critically the nature of, and objections to treating persons as sex objects. My thesis is that the sex object is treated as an object, body, or animal but not also in some other appropriate way, viz. as a moral equal to persons. The sex object is treated as lacking some or all of the rights to well-being and freedom that other persons enjoy. In this way, the sex object is dehumanized in her (...)
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  40. How the Politics of Inclusion/Exclusion and the Neuroscience of Dehumanization/Rehumanization Can Contribute to Animal Activists' Strategies: Bestia Sacer II.Robin Mackenzie - 2011 - Society and Animals 19 (4):407-424.
    Juxtaposing the continental philosophy of inclusion/exclusion and the cognitive and affective neuroscience of dehumanization, infrahumanization, and rehumanization may inform animal activists’ strategies. Both fields focus upon how we decide who counts and who doesn’t. Decisions over who’s human and who isn’t are not simply about species membership but involve biopolitical value judgments over who we wish to include or exclude. Posthumanists seek to disrupt the biopolitics of inclusion/exclusion, partly to heal ethical and political relations between human and nonhuman animals. Calarco (...)
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  41. Biohacking Gender.Malatino Hilary - 2017 - Angelaki 22 (2):179-190.
    This essay explores how, for many minoritized peoples, cyborg ontology is experienced as dehumanizing rather than posthumanizing. Rereading Haraway’s Cyborg Manifesto through a decolonial, transfeminist lens, it explores the implications of Haraway’s assertion that cyborg subjectivity is the “illegitimate offspring of militarism and patriarchal capitalism” by examining the modern/colonial development and deployment of microprosthetic hormonal technologies – so often heralded as one of the technologies ushering in a queer, posthuman, post-gender future – as mechanisms of gendered and racialized subjective control (...)
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  42. Book Review:Dehumanizing Women: Treating Persons as Sex Objects. Linda LeMoncheck. [REVIEW]Patricia S. Mann - 1986 - Ethics 96 (4):885-.
  43. Humanism.Kate Manne - 2016 - Social Theory and Practice 42 (2):389-415.
    This paper considers the moral psychology of interpersonal conduct that is cruel, brutal, humiliating, or degrading. On the view I call “humanism,” such behavior often stems from the perpetrators’ dehumanizing view of their targets. The former may instead see the latter as subhuman creatures, nonhuman animals, supernatural beings, or even mindless objects. If people recognized their common humanity, they would have a hard time mistreating other human beings. This paper criticizes humanism so understood, arguing that its explanatory power is often (...)
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  44. Recovering the Human in Human Rights.Diana Tietjens Meyers - 2014 - Law, Culture, and Humanities:1-30.
    It is often said that human rights are the rights that people possess simply in virtue of being human – that is, in virtue of their intrinsic, dignity-defining common humanity. Yet, on closer inspection the human rights landscape doesn’t look so even. Once we bring perpetrators of human rights abuse and their victims into the picture, attributions of humanity to persons become unstable. In this essay, I trace the ways in which rights discourse ascribes variable humanity to certain categories of (...)
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  45. The Wrong of Injustice: Dehumanization and its Role in Feminist Philosophy.Mari Mikkola - 2016 - Oxford University Press USA.
    This book examines contemporary structural social injustices from a feminist perspective. It asks: what makes oppression, discrimination, and domination wrongful? Is there a single wrongness-making feature of various social injustices that are due to social kind membership? Why is sexist oppression of women wrongful? What does the wrongfulness of patriarchal damage done to women consist in? In thinking about what normatively grounds social injustice, the book puts forward two related views. First, it argues for a paradigm shift in focus away (...)
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  46. Der Begriff der Entmenschlichung und seine Rolle in der feministischen Philosophie.Mari Mikkola - 2012 - In H. Landweer, C. Newmark, C. Kley & S. Miller (eds.), Philosophie und die Potenziale der Gender Studies. Transcript.
  47. Dehumanization.Mari Mikkola - 2011 - In Thom Brooks (ed.), New Waves in Ethics. Palgrave-MacMillan.
    Martha Nussbaum endorses a kind of humanist feminism, which (for her) involves articulating the notion of human being as a normative ethical concept: once this normative concept is articulated, it can be employed to pick out those modes of treating women that are inappropriate with the view to developing corrective public policies. Contra Nussbaum, Louise Antony argues that human being cannot be defined in a normative sense. For Antony, the only plausible human universals are biological or genetic traits, which lack (...)
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  48. Ethics in an Age of Terror and Genocide: Identity and Moral Choice.Kristen Renwick Monroe - 2011 - Princeton University Press.
    What causes genocide? Why do some stand by, doing nothing, while others risk their lives to help the persecuted? Ethics in an Age of Terror and Genocide analyzes riveting interviews with bystanders, Nazi supporters, and rescuers of Jews during the Holocaust to lay bare critical psychological forces operating during genocide. Monroe's insightful examination of these moving--and disturbing--interviews underscores the significance of identity for moral choice. Monroe finds that self-image and identity--especially the sense of self in relation to others--determine and delineate (...)
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  49. Dehumanized Denizens, Displayed Animals: Prison Tourism and the Discourse of the Zoo.Kelly Struthers Montford - 2016 - philoSOPHIA: A Journal of Continental Feminism 6 (1):73-91.
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  50. Dehumanization and the Post-Human: The Similarities and Our Discontents.Robert C. Morgan - 2005 - Art Inquiry. Recherches Sur les Arts 7:7-12.
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