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Siblings:History/traditions: Demarcation of Science

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  1. Science and Illusions.Luigi Scorzato -
    It is mostly agreed that Popper's criterion of falsifiability fails to provide a useful demarcation between science and pseudo-science, because ad-hoc assumptions are always able to save any theory that conflicts with the empirical data, and a characterization of ad-hoc assumptions is lacking. Moreover, adding some testable predictions is not very difficult. It should be emphasized that the Duhem-Quine argument does not simply make the demarcation approximate, but it makes it totally useless. Indeed, no philosophical criterion of demarcation is presently (...)
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  2. Demarcation Without Dogmas.Ilmari Hirvonen & Janne Karisto - forthcoming - Theoria.
    This paper reviews how research on the demarcation problem has developed, starting from Popper’s criterion of falsifiability and ending with recent naturalistically oriented approaches. The main differences between traditional and contemporary approaches to the problem are explicated in terms of six postulates called the traditional assumptions. It is argued that all of the assumptions can be dismissed without giving up on the demarcation problem and that doing so might benefit further discussions on pseudoscience. Four present-day research movements on evaluating the (...)
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  3. The Methods of Science: No Dogs or Philosophers Allowed.Ken Knisely, Deborah Mayo, Robert Rynasiewicz & Drew Arrowood - forthcoming - DVD.
    What is science, and what is it not? Is falsifiability the key to drawing this line? How and why does science work? Should we worry whether science is talking about a "real" world? And should we stop thinking there is a single thing we can call "the scientific method"? With Deborah Mayo, Robert Rynasiewicz, and Drew Arrowood.
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  4. Será a Psicanálise uma Pseudociência? Reavaliando a Doutrina à luz da Proposta de Demarcação de Hansson e da Ética de Clifford.Clarice de Medeiros Chaves Ferreira - 2022 - Caderno de Resumos Do XIII Encontro Nacional de Pesquisa Em Filosofia - ENPF.
    Este resumo é um trabalho baseado no artigo publicado por Ferreira (2021), intitulado "Será a psicanálise uma pseudociência? Reavaliando a doutrina utilizando uma lista de multicritérios". Além de se apoiar nele, coloca uma proposta de expansão sobre as implicações éticas de sua conclusão. O artigo original, publicado na revista Debates em Psiquiatria, busca fazer uma avaliação da doutrina psicanalítica utilizando da proposta de demarcação de Sven Ove Hansson.
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  5. Free Will and the Rebel Angels in Medieval Philosophy. [REVIEW]Joseph Madonna - 2022 - Augustinian Studies 53 (1):113-115.
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  6. When Do Non-Epistemic Values Play an Epistemically Illegitimate Role in Science? How to Solve One Half of the New Demarcation Problem.Alexander Reutlinger - 2022 - Studies in the History and Philosophy of Science 92:152-161.
    Solving the “new demarcation problem” requires a distinction between epistemically legitimate and illegitimate roles for non-epistemic values in science. This paper addresses one ‘half’ (i.e. a sub-problem) of the new demarcation problem articulated by the Gretchenfrage: What makes the role of a non-epistemic value in science epistemically illegitimate? I will argue for the Explaining Epistemic Errors (EEE) account, according to which the epistemically illegitimate role of a non-epistemic value is defined via an explanatory claim: the fact that an epistemic agent (...)
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  7. Second Philosophy and Testimonial Reliability: Philosophy of Science for STEM Students.Frank Cabrera - 2021 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science (3):1-15.
    In this paper, I describe some strategies for teaching an introductory philosophy of science course to Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) students, with reference to my own experience teaching a philosophy of science course in the Fall of 2020. The most important strategy that I advocate is what I call the “Second Philosophy” approach, according to which instructors ought to emphasize that the problems that concern philosophers of science are not manufactured and imposed by philosophers from the outside, but (...)
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  8. Definindo Ciência e Pseudociência, para Além da Falseabilidade: A Proposta Ampliada de Hansson.Clarice de Medeiros Chaves Ferreira - 2021 - Anais Do IV Encontro Sul-Brasileiro de Análise Do Comportamento.
    Muitos psicólogos ainda pensam que a maior referência para falar sobre a demarcação de ciência/pseudociência é Popper. Entretanto, as discussões sobre o problema da demarcação não se encerraram com o critério da falseabilidade, e a filosofia teve diversos avanços. Este trabalho tem por objetivo atualizar os estudantes e profissionais de psicologia sobre os avanços no campo da filosofia da ciência, com um enfoque na teoria de Hansson. Para isso, foi consultado o livro “Philosophy of Pseudoscience: Reconsidering the Demarcation Problem”, obra (...)
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  9. Is Psychoanalysis a Pseudoscience? Reevaluating the Doctrine Using a Multicriteria List.Clarice de Medeiros Chaves Ferreira - 2021 - Debates Em Psiquiatria 11:1-33.
    Introduction: In the past, psychoanalysis was classified as a pseudoscience. Karl Popper was one of those who objected to the idea that psychoanalysis is a science, using falsifiability. However, falsifiability cannot be considered sufficient anymore, since it carries major weaknesses and better alternatives to address the issue are available. Objective: This article intends to evaluate the scientific status of psychoanalysis concerning the demarcation problem. Method: In order to do so, Sven Ove Hansson’s criteria were used. His proposal consists of a (...)
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  10. Será a psicanálise uma pseudociência? Reavaliando a doutrina utilizando uma lista de multicritérios.Clarice de Medeiros Chaves Ferreira - 2021 - Debates Em Psiquiatria 11:1-33.
    Introdução: A psicanálise já foi classificada como pseudociência no passado. Karl Popper foi um daqueles que traçou objeções à doutrina psicanalítica, usando do critério da falseabilidade. Entretanto, a falseabilidade não pode mais ser considerada suficiente para resolver o problema, já que implica em dificuldades consideráveis, e melhores alternativas para abordar a questão estão disponíveis. Objetivo: Este artigo tem por objetivo avaliar o status científico da psicanálise em relação ao problema da demarcação. Método: Para fazer isso, o critério de Sven Ove (...)
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  11. SÖZDE-BİLİMSEL KONULAR.Oktay Kızkapan - 2021 - Ankara, Türkiye: Pegem Akademi.
    Sözde-bilim ile ilgili bu tartışmalar uluslararası literatürde yapılıyor olsa da Türkiye’de henüz bu konuların eleştirel olarak ele alındığı söylenemez. Dolayısıyla sözde-bilimlerin eleştirel olarak ele alındığı öğrenme ortamlarının öğrencilerin bilime ve sözde-bilime ilişkin algılarına etkisi üzerine yapılacak araştırmalar konunun daha iyi anlaşılmasını sağlayabilir ve belki de ilerideki program değişiklerinde öğretim programlarında sözde-bilimin yer bulmasının yolunu açabilir.
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  12. Sobre el respeto a la evidencia empírica. McIntyre en La actitud científica.Mariano Sanjuan - 2021 - Daimon: Revista Internacional de Filosofía 82:189-195.
    No hace mucho tiempo, la demarcación, el cambio teórico o la racionalidad científica coloreaban la paleta de la filosofía de la ciencia. Hoy estos problemas son vistos como asuntos clásicos de la disciplina. En La actitud científica, Lee McIntyre renueva el escaparate filosófico recuperando el problema de la demarcación, defendiendo que lo distintivo de la ciencia es “que se preocupa por la evidencia y está dispuesta a modificar sus teorías en función de la evidencia”. Se presentan a continuación una síntesis (...)
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  13. The Fashionable Scientific Fraud: Collingwood’s Critique of Psychometrics.Joel Michell - 2020 - History of the Human Sciences 33 (2):3-21.
    In his review of Charles Spearman’s The Nature of ‘Intelligence’, R. G. Collingwood launched an attack upon psychometrics that was expanded in his Essay on Metaphysics. Although underrated by friend and foe alike, Collingwood’s critique identified a number of defects in the thinking of psychometricians that subsequently became entrenched. However, his main complaint was that psychology generally was a ‘fashionable scientific fraud’. This charge was inspired by his more general views on logic and metaphysics, which, however, as I argue, are (...)
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  14. Institutional Degeneration of Science.Jüri Eintalu - 2019 - Philosophical Drops.
    Since Popper and Lakatos, the demarcation line between science and non-science has been considered one of the fundamental issues of the philosophy of science. According to Lakatos, pseudoscience is a non-science, which appears as science, using science's public authority. Since then, mountains of texts have been published on how non-sciences, such as astrology, are not sciences. -/- But the enemy is not on the other side of the border. The enemy is in our midst. Science has been institutionalized. The best (...)
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  15. The Gordian Knot of Demarcation: Tying Up Some Loose Ends.Kåre Letrud - 2019 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 32 (1):3-11.
    In this article, I seek to improve upon a definition of pseudoscience put forward by Sven Ove Hansson. I argue that not only does its use of ‘pseudoscientific statement’ as definiendum inadequately address the theoretical issue of demarcation, it also makes the definition inapt for practical demarcation. Moreover, I argue that Hanson’s definition subsumes statements and associated practices that are forms of bad science, resulting in an unfavourably wide concept. I try to save the definition from the brunt of this (...)
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  16. SÖZDE-BİLİM UYGULAMALARI YOLUYLA ÜSTÜN ZEKALI VE YETENEKLİ 4. SINIF ÖĞRENCİLERİNİN BİLİMSEL SÜREÇ BECERİ DÜZEYLERİNİN BELİRLENMESİ.Eylül Başkurt Sayhan - 2019 - Dissertation, Ege
    The aim of this study is to determine the perceptions of gifted and talented 4th grade primary school students towards pseudoscience, as well as their awareness of scientific process skills by using pseudoscientific scenarios. Specifically, the aim is to reveal the students’ knowledge about crystals, which is a pseudoscientific issue, views on treatments carried out with crystals, experiences about experiments, knowledge about scientific process skills and scientific process skills used in proposing research methodology for claims about crystals’ healing abilities.
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  17. Scientificity and The Law of Theory Demarcation.Ameer Sarwar & Patrick Fraser - 2018 - Scientonomy: Journal for the Science of Science 2:55-66.
    The demarcation between science and non-science seems to play an important role in the process of scientific change, as theories regularly transition from being considered scientific to being considered unscientific and vice versa. However, theoretical scientonomy is yet to shed light on this process. The goal of this paper is to tackle the problem of demarcation from the scientonomic perspective. Specifically, we introduce scientificity as a distinct epistemic stance that an agent can take towards a theory. We contend that changes (...)
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  18. Is African Science True Science? Reflections on the Methods of African Science.Oseni Taiwo Afisi - 2016 - Filosofia Theoretica: Journal of African Philosophy, Culture and Religions 5 (1):59-75.
    The general character of science and the methodology it employs are in specific terms referred to as observation and experimentation. These two methodologies reflect how science differs from other systematic modes of inquiries. This description characterises, strictly, ‘Western science’ and it is contrasted with the indigenous mode of enquiry that has come under the name, ‘African science’. In contemporary scholarship, ‘African science’ is being condemned to the level of the mysticoreligious or supernaturalist worldview. ‘African science’ is said to be purely (...)
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  19. To Be Scientific Is To Be Interactive.Seungbae Park - 2016 - European Journal of Science and Theology 12 (1):77-86.
    Hempel, Popper, and Kuhn argue that to be scientific is to be testable, to be falsifiable, and most nearly to do normal science, respectively. I argue that to be scientific is largely to be interactive, offering some examples from science to show that the ideas from different fields of science interact with one another. The results of the interactions are that hypotheses become more plausible, new phenomena are explained and predicted, we understand phenomena from a new perspective, and our worldview (...)
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  20. Are Different Standards Warranted to Evaluate Psi?George Williams - 2016 - Journal of Parapsychology 79 (2):186-202.
    Throughout the debate on psi, skeptics have almost universally insisted on different standards for evaluating the evidence, claiming that psi represents a radical departure from our current scientific understanding. Thus, there is considerable ambiguity about what standard of evaluation psi must meet. Little attention has been paid to the possible harm to the integrity of scientific investigation from this resulting inconsistency in testing standards. Some have proposed using a Bayesian framework as an improvement on this dilemma in order to more (...)
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  21. Review of Paul Hoyningen-Huene, Systematicity: The Nature of Science[REVIEW]Mariam Thalos - 2015 - Mind 124 (493):351–357.
  22. Tycho Brahe and the Separation of Astronomy From Astrology: The Making of a New Scientific Discourse.Gábor Almási - 2013 - Science in Context 26 (1):3-30.
    ArgumentThe subject of the paper is the shift from an astrology-oriented astronomy towards an allegedly more objective, mathematically grounded approach to astronomy. This shift is illustrated through a close reading of Tycho Brahe's scientific development and the contemporaneous changes in his communicational strategies. Basing the argument on a substantial array of original sources it is claimed that the Danish astronomer developed a new astronomical discourse in pursuit of credibility, giving priority to observational astronomy and natural philosophical questions. The abandonment of (...)
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  23. Loki's Wager and Laudan's Error: On Genuine and Territorial Demarcation.Maarten Boudry - 2013 - In Massimo Pigliucci & Maarten Boudry (eds.), Philosophy of Pseudoscience: Reconsidering the Demarcation Problem. University of Chicago Press. pp. 79--98.
  24. The Pseudoscience Wars: Immanuel Velikovsky and the Birth of the Modern Fringe. [REVIEW]Michael Gordin - 2013 - Isis 104:416-417.
  25. Philosophy of Pseudoscience: Reconsidering the Demarcation Problem.Massimo Pigliucci & Maarten Boudry (eds.) - 2013 - University of Chicago Press.
    What sets the practice of rigorously tested, sound science apart from pseudoscience? In this volume, the contributors seek to answer this question, known to philosophers of science as “the demarcation problem.” This issue has a long history in philosophy, stretching as far back as the early twentieth century and the work of Karl Popper. But by the late 1980s, scholars in the field began to treat the demarcation problem as impossible to solve and futile to ponder. However, the essays that (...)
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  26. Possibilities and Limits of Medical Science: Debates Over Double‐Blind Clinical Trials of Intercessory Prayer.Wendy Cadge - 2012 - Zygon 47 (1):43-64.
    . This article traces the intellectual history of scientific studies of intercessory prayer published in English between 1965 and the present by focusing on the conflict and discussion they prompted in the medical literature. I analyze these debates with attention to how researchers articulate the possibilities and limits medical science has for studying intercessory prayer over time. I delineate three groups of researchers and commentators: those who think intercessory prayer can and should be studied scientifically, those who are more skeptical (...)
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  27. Science, Religion and Common Sense.Louis Caruana - 2012 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 4 (4):161-173.
    Susan Haack has recently attempted to discredit religion by showing that science is an extended and enhanced version of common sense while religion is not. I argue that Haack’s account is misguided not because science is not an extended version of common sense, as she says. It is misguided because she assumes a very restricted, and thus inadequate, account of common sense. After reviewing several more realistic models of common sense, I conclude that common sense is rich enough to allow (...)
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  28. Psychical Research and Parapsychology Interpreted: Suggestions From the International Historiography of Psychical Research and Parapsychology for Investigating its History in the Netherlands.Ingrid Kloosterman - 2012 - History of the Human Sciences 25 (2):2-22.
    One of the reasons the history of parapsychology and its ancestor psychical research is intriguing is because it addresses a central issue: the boundaries of science. This article provides an overview of the historiography of parapsychology and presents an approach to investigate the Dutch history of parapsychology contributing to the understanding of this central theme. In the first section the historical accounts provided by psychical researchers and parapsychologists themselves are discussed; next those studies of sociologists and historians understanding parapsychology as (...)
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  29. The Eagle and the Starlings: Galileo’s Argument for the Autonomy of Science—How Pertinent is It Today?Hugh Lacey & Pablo R. Mariconda - 2012 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 43 (1):122-131.
  30. Metapsychics in Spain: Acknowledging or Questioning the Marvellous?Annette Mülberger & Mónica Balltondre - 2012 - History of the Human Sciences 25 (2):108-130.
    The present article deals with a kind of parapsychology called metapsychics (metapsíquica) as conceived and practised in Spain between 1923 and 1925. First we focus on the reception of a treatise by Richet that evoked both support (Ferrán) and criticism (Mira). Then we examine some experiments on clairvoyance performed at the Marquis of Santa Cara’s home, dealing chiefly with the rise and fall of a case of prodigious vision. The analysis gives special attention to the question of how metapsychics was (...)
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  31. Psychical Research and the Origins of American Psychology: Hugo Münsterberg, William James and Eusapia Palladino.Andreas Sommer - 2012 - History of the Human Sciences 25 (2):23-44.
    Largely unacknowledged by historians of the human sciences, late-19th-century psychical researchers were actively involved in the making of fledgling academic psychology. Moreover, with few exceptions historians have failed to discuss the wider implications of the fact that the founder of academic psychology in America, William James, considered himself a psychical researcher and sought to integrate the scientific study of mediumship, telepathy and other controversial topics into the nascent discipline. Analysing the celebrated exposure of the medium Eusapia Palladino by German-born Harvard (...)
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  32. The Concept of Scientific Research.Lisa Bortolotti - 2011 - In Carlos Maria Romeo Casabona (ed.), Los Nuevos Horizontes de la Investigacion Genetica. Comares.
    Chapter discussing what it takes for an activity to be an instance of scientific research.
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  33. Exploring the Hinterland of Science: Massimo Pigliucci: Nonsense on Stilts: How to Tell Science From Bunk. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 2010, 332pp, $20.00 PB.Maarten Boudry - 2011 - Metascience 20 (1):173-176.
  34. Exploring the Hinterland of Science: Massimo Pigliucci: Nonsense on Stilts: How to Tell Science From Bunk. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 2010, 332pp, $20.00 PB. [REVIEW]Maarten Boudry - 2011 - Metascience 20 (1):173-176.
    Book review of " Massimo Pigliucci: Nonsense on stilts: How to tell science from bunk. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 2010".
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  35. In Reference To Wojciech Sady’s Lecture: What Determines The Scientific Character Of Natural Studies.Paweł Jarnicki - 2011 - Studia Philosophica Wratislaviensia 6 (2):55-61.
    This paper is a polemic with Wojciech Sady’s forgoing paper. The main objection to his new approach to demarcation problem is that this approach does not accomplish the criterion formulated in it . Sady accuses medical ethics of not being scientific but forgets that he does it from the philosophical point of view. The only reasonable way to solve the demarcation problem is to define its practical aim — what do we need it for? One of such possible aims is (...)
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  36. On an Allegedly Essential Feature of Criteria for the Demarcation of Science.Sebastian Lutz - 2011 - The Reasoner 5 (8):125–126.
    Laudan’s argument against the possibility of a demarcation criterion for scientific theories rests on establishing that any criterion must be a necessary and sufficient condition. But Laudan’s argument at most establishes that any criterion must provide a necessary condition and a possibly different sufficient condition. His own claims suggest that such a criterion is possible.
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  37. Introduction (FOCUS: ALCHEMY AND THE HISTORY OF SCIENCE).Bruce Moran - 2011 - Isis 102:300-304.
  38. Can’T Philosophers Tell the Difference Between Science and Religion?: Demarcation Revisited.Robert Pennock - 2011 - Synthese 178 (2):177-206.
    In the 2005 Kitzmiller v Dover Area School Board case, a federal district court ruled that Intelligent Design creationism was not science, but a disguised religious view and that teaching it in public schools is unconstitutional. But creationists contend that it is illegitimate to distinguish science and religion, citing philosophers Quinn and especially Laudan, who had criticized a similar ruling in the 1981 McLean v. Arkansas creation-science case on the grounds that no necessary and sufficient demarcation criterion was possible and (...)
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  39. Nagel on Public Education and Intelligent Design.Scott F. Aikin, Michael Harbour & Robert B. Talisse - 2010 - Journal of Philosophical Research 35:209-219.
    In a recent article, Thomas Nagel argues against the court’s decision to strike down the Dover school district’s requirement that biology teachers in Dover public schools inform their students about Intelligent Design. Nagel contends that this ruling relies on questionable demarcation between science and nonscience and consequently misapplies the Establishment Clause of the constitution. Instead, he argues in favor of making room for an open discussion of these issues rather than an outright prohibition against Intelligent Design. We contend that Nagel’s (...)
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  40. How Not to Attack Intelligent Design Creationism: Philosophical Misconceptions About Methodological Naturalism. [REVIEW]Maarten Boudry, Stefaan Blancke & Johan Braeckman - 2010 - Foundations of Science 15 (3):227-244.
    In recent controversies about Intelligent Design Creationism (IDC), the principle of methodological naturalism (MN) has played an important role. In this paper, an often neglected distinction is made between two different conceptions of MN, each with its respective rationale and with a different view on the proper role of MN in science. According to one popular conception, MN is a self-imposed or intrinsic limitation of science, which means that science is simply not equipped to deal with claims of the supernatural (...)
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  41. Understanding Scientific Study Via Process Modeling.Robert W. P. Luk - 2010 - Foundations of Science 15 (1):49-78.
    This paper argues that scientific studies distinguish themselves from other studies by a combination of their processes, their (knowledge) elements and the roles of these elements. This is supported by constructing a process model. An illustrative example based on Newtonian mechanics shows how scientific knowledge is structured according to the process model. To distinguish scientific studies from research and scientific research, two additional process models are built for such processes. We apply these process models: (1) to argue that scientific progress (...)
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  42. Nonsense on Stilts: How to Tell Science From Bunk.Massimo Pigliucci - 2010 - University of Chicago Press.
    Introduction : science versus pseudoscience and the "demarcation problem" -- Hard science, soft science -- Almost science -- Pseudoscience -- Blame the media? -- Debates on science : the rise of think tanks and the decline of public intellectuals -- Science and politics : the case of global warming -- Science in the courtroom : the case against intelligent design -- From superstition to natural philosophy -- From natural philosophy to modern science -- The science wars I : do we (...)
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  43. How Science Textbooks Treat Scientific Method: A Philosopher's Perspective.James Blachowicz - 2009 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 60 (2):303--344.
    This paper examines, from the point of view of a philosopher of science, what it is that introductory science textbooks say and do not say about 'scientific method'. Seventy introductory texts in a variety of natural and social sciences provided the material for this study. The inadequacy of these textbook accounts is apparent in three general areas: (a) the simple empiricist view of science that tends to predominate; (b) the demarcation between scientific and non-scientific inquiry and (c) the avoidance of (...)
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  44. Has Laudan Killed the Demarcation Problem?Kirsten Walsh - 2009 - Dissertation, University of Melbourne
    The ‘Demarcation Problem’ is to mark the boundary between things that are scientific and things that are not. Philosophers have worked on this problem for a long time, and yet there is still no consensus solution. Should we continue to hope, or must we draw a more sceptical conclusion? In his paper, ‘The Demise of the Demarcation Problem’, Larry Laudan (1983) does the latter. In this thesis, I address the three arguments he gives for this conclusion.
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  45. That’s Not Science! The Role of Moral Philosophy in the Science/Non-Science Divide.Bjørn Hofmann - 2007 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 28 (3):243-256.
    The science/non-science distinction has become increasingly blurred. This paper investigates whether recent cases of fraud in science can shed light on the distinction. First, it investigates whether there is an absolute distinction between science and non-science with respect to fraud, and in particular with regards to manipulation and fabrication of data. Finding that it is very hard to make such a distinction leads to the second step: scrutinizing whether there is a normative distinction between science and non-science. This is done (...)
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  46. Federalism in Science — Complementarity Vs Perspectivism: Reply to Harré.Daniel Andler - 2006 - Synthese 151 (3):519 - 522.
  47. Rouse-Ing Out the Legitimation Project: Scientific Practice and the Problem of Demarcation.Edward Slowik - 2001 - Ratio 14 (2):171–184.
    This essay critically examines Joseph Rouse's arguments against, what he dubs, the "legitimation project", which are the attempts to delimit and justify the scientific enterprise by means of global, "a priori" principles. Stipulating that a more adequate picture of science can be obtained by viewing it as a continuously transforming pattern of situated activities, Rouse believes that only by refocusing attention upon the actual practice of science can philosophers begin to detach themselves from the irresolvable epistemological problems that have remained (...)
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  48. Science: Freedom and Reason, Comments on Mara Beller's 'Quantum Dialogue'. [REVIEW]Orly R. Shenker - 2000 - Iyyun 50 (1):55-62.
    Mara Beller's book Quantum Dialogue: The Making of a Revolution is a book in history and historiography, which invites a philosophical reading. The book offers a new and quite radical approach in the philosophy of science, which Beller calls dialogism, and it demonstrates the application of this approach by studying cases in the history of physics. This paper reconstructs of some of the book's theses, in a way which emphasises its philosophical insights, and goes on to shows how philosophically far (...)
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  49. But Is It Science?Jerry Goodenough - 1998 - Philosophy Now 22:46-48.
  50. The Place of Metaphysics in the Historiography of Science.Joseph Agassi - 1996 - Foundations of Physics 26 (4):483-499.
    Legitimating the use of metaphysics in scientific research constituted a farreaching methodological revolution, invalidating the inductivist demands that science be guided by empirical information alone. Thus, science became tentative. The revolution was established when pioneering historians of science, Max Jammer among them, exhibited the working of metaphysics in scientific research. This raises many problems, since most metaphysical ideas are poor as compared with scientific ones. Yet taking science to be the effort to explain facts in a comprehensive manner, makes some (...)
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