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  1. Joint Attention Without Recursive Mindreading: On the Role of Second-Person Engagement.Felipe León - forthcoming - Philosophical Psychology:1-31.
    On a widely held characterization, triadic joint attention is the capacity to perceptually attend to an object or event together with another subject. In the last four decades, research in developmental psychology has provided increasing evidence of the crucial role that this capacity plays in socio-cognitive development, early language acquisition, and the development of perspective-taking. Yet, there is a striking discrepancy between the general agreement that joint attention is critical in various domains, and the lack of theoretical consensus on how (...)
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  2. The Influence of Parents, Coaches, and Peers in the Long-Term Development of Highly Skilled and Less Skilled Volleyball Players.Patrícia Coutinho, João Ribeiro, Sara Mesquita da Silva, António M. Fonseca & Isabel Mesquita - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 12.
    The purpose of this study was to understand the perceptions of highly skilled and less skilled volleyball players about the influences that parents, coaches, and peers had on their sport development and performance achievement. Highly skilled and less skilled volleyball players participated in semi-structured retrospective interviews to explain how parents, coaches and peers may have influenced their sport participation. Data was analyzed through a process of content analysis. Results indicated that parents, coaches, and peers had an important influence in player's (...)
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  3. The Child Emotion Facial Expression Set: A Database for Emotion Recognition in Children.Juliana Gioia Negrão, Ana Alexandra Caldas Osorio, Rinaldo Focaccia Siciliano, Vivian Renne Gerber Lederman, Elisa Harumi Kozasa, Maria Eloisa Famá D'Antino, Anderson Tamborim, Vitor Santos, David Leonardo Barsand de Leucas, Paulo Sergio Camargo, Daniel C. Mograbi, Tatiana Pontrelli Mecca & José Salomão Schwartzman - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 12.
    Background: This study developed a photo and video database of 4-to-6-year-olds expressing the seven induced and posed universal emotions and a neutral expression. Children participated in photo and video sessions designed to elicit the emotions, and the resulting images were further assessed by independent judges in two rounds. Methods: In the first round, two independent judges, experts in the Facial Action Coding System, firstly analysed 3,668 emotions facial expressions stimuli from 132 children. Both judges reached 100% agreement regarding 1,985 stimuli, (...)
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  4. Collaborative Learning Quality Classification Through Physiological Synchrony Recorded by Wearable Biosensors.Yang Liu, Tingting Wang, Kun Wang & Yu Zhang - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 12.
    Interpersonal physiological synchrony has been consistently found during collaborative tasks. However, few studies have applied synchrony to predict collaborative learning quality in real classroom. To explore the relationship between interpersonal physiological synchrony and collaborative learning activities, this study collected electrodermal activity and heart rate during naturalistic class sessions and compared the physiological synchrony between independent task and group discussion task. The students were recruited from a renowned university in China. Since each student learn differently and not everyone prefers collaborative learning, (...)
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  5. Corrigendum: Impact of Divergent Thinking Training on Teenagers' Emotion and Self-Efficacy During the COVID-19 Pandemic.Bin Zuo, Qi Wang, Yalan Qiao, Yu Ding & Fangfang Wen - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 12.
  6. Impact of Divergent Thinking Training on Teenagers’ Emotion and Self-Efficacy During the COVID-19 Pandemic.Bin Zuo, Qi Wang, Yalan Qiao, Yu Ding & Fangfang Wen - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 12.
    Currently due to the COVID-19 pandemic, young people are experiencing a decrease in self-efficacy and an increase in mental illness. Though previous studies have shown that self-efficacy and divergent thinking training are positively related, little is known about the impact of divergent thinking training on self-efficacy and emotions. Therefore, our study seeks this answer to support teenagers injured psychologically during disastrous periods. We randomly assigned 70 students to a 2 × 2 mixed design. Participants in the experimental group were given (...)
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  7. Community Violence Exposure and Externalizing Problem Behavior Among Chinese High School Students: The Moderating Role of Parental Knowledge.Yibo Zhang, Yuanyuan Chen & Wei Zhang - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 12.
    Adolescents' community violence exposure has been demonstrated with a range of behavioral and psychological problems, but the processes that explain these correlations are not clear. In our 2017 study, the mediating role of deviant peer affiliation in the relationship between CVE and externalizing problem behaviors has been confirmed. However, the moderating effect of parental factors is still unclear. Therefore, a new group was adopted in this study to further explore the moderating effect of parental knowledge based on also confirming the (...)
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  8. How Children Process Reduced Forms: A Computational Cognitive Modeling Approach to Pronoun Processing in Discourse.Margreet Vogelzang, Maria Teresa Guasti, Hedderik van Rijn & Petra Hendriks - 2021 - Cognitive Science 45 (4):e12951.
  9. A Dollar Is a Dollar Is a Dollar, or Is It? Insights From Children's Reasoning About “Dirty Money”.Arber Tasimi & Susan A. Gelman - 2021 - Cognitive Science 45 (4):e12950.
    Money can take many forms—a coin or a bill, a payment for an automobile or a prize for an award, a piece from the 1989 series or the 2019 series, and so on—but despite this, money is designed to represent an amount and only that. Thus, a dollar is a dollar, in the sense that money is fungible. But when adults ordinarily think about money, they think about it in terms of its source, and in particular, its moral source (e.g., (...)
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  10. The Effect of Cognitive Load on Intent‐Based Moral Judgment.Justin W. Martin, Marine Buon & Fiery Cushman - 2021 - Cognitive Science 45 (4):e12965.
    When making a moral judgment, people largely care about two factors: Who did it (causal responsibility), and did they intend to (intention)? Since Piaget's seminal studies, we have known that as children mature, they gradually place greater emphasis on intention, and less on mere bad outcomes, when making moral judgments. Today, we know that this developmental shift has several signature properties. Recently, it has been shown that when adults make moral judgments under cognitive load, they exhibit a pattern similar to (...)
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  11. Considering the Boundaries of Intellectual Disability: Using Philosophy of Science to Make Sense of Borderline Cases.Veerle Garrels - forthcoming - Philosophical Psychology:1-17.
    Who should be diagnosed with intellectual disability and who should not? For borderline cases, the answer to this question may be as difficult to decide on as determining the borderline between being bald or not. While going bald may be upsetting to some, it is also an inevitable and relatively undramatic course of nature. In contrast, getting a diagnosis of intellectual disability is likely to have more far-reaching consequences. This makes the question of where the cutoff point for intellectual disability (...)
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  12. The Role of Language in Building Abstract, Generalized Conceptual Representations of One- and Two-Place Predicates: A Comparison Between Adults and Infants.Mohinish Shukla & Jill de Villiers - forthcoming - Cognition:104705.
    Theories of relations between language and conceptual development benefit from empirical evidence for concepts available in infancy, but such evidence is comparatively scarce. Here, we examine early representations of specific concepts, namely, sets of dynamic events corresponding either to predicates involving two variables with a reversible, asymmetric relation between them (such as the set of all events that correspond to a linguistic phrase like “a dog is pushing a car,”) or to comparatively simpler, one-variable predicates (such as the set of (...)
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  13. Development, Resilience Engineering, Degeneracy, and Cognitive Practices.Alexander James Gillett - forthcoming - Review of Philosophy and Psychology:1-20.
    Drawing on a range of literature, I introduce two new concepts for understanding and exploring distributed cognition: resilience engineering and degeneracy. By re-examining Ed Hutchins’ ethnographic study of the navigation team I show how a focus on the developmental acquisition of cognitive practices can draw out several crucial insights that have been overlooked. Firstly, that the way in which agents learn and acquire cognitive practices enables a form of resilience engineering: the process by which the system is able to overcome (...)
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  14. Editorial: Multidisciplinary Approaches to Understanding Early Development of Spatial Skills: Advances in Linguistic, Behavioral, and Neuroimaging Studies.Hui Li, Jin Sun & Xiao Zhang - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 12.
  15. Strength or Nausea? Children’s Reasoning About the Health Consequences of Food Consumption.Damien Foinant, Jérémie Lafraire & Jean-Pierre Thibaut - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 12.
    Children’s reasoning on food properties and health relationships can contribute to healthier food choices. Food properties can either be positive or negative. One of the main challenges in public health is to foster children’s dietary variety, which contributes to a normal and healthy development. To face this challenge, it is essential to investigate how children generalize these positive and negative properties to other foods, including familiar and unfamiliar ones. In the present experiment, we hypothesized that children might rely on cues (...)
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  16. Review of Lawrence J. Hatab, Proto‑Phenomenology, Language Acquisition, Orality, and Literacy: Dwelling in Speech II. [REVIEW]Chris Drain - 2021 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 20:1-8.
  17. Supporting Acquisition of Spelling Skills in Different Orthographies Using an Empirically Validated Digital Learning Environment.Heikki Juhani Lyytinen, Margaret Semrud-Clikeman, Hong Li, Kenneth Pugh & Ulla Richardson - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 12.
    This paper discusses how the association learning principle works for supporting acquisition of basic spelling and reading skills using digital game-based learning environment with the Finland-based GraphoLearn technology. This program has been designed and validated to work with early readers of different alphabetic writing systems using repetition and reinforcing connections between spoken and written units. Initially GL was developed and found effective in training children at risk of reading disorders in Finland. Today GL training has been shown to support learning (...)
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  18. Consciousness Development in Rastafari: A Perspective From the Psychology of Religion.Christian Stokke - 2021 - Anthropology of Consciousness 32 (1):81-106.
    This paper explores a Rastafari perspective on consciousness development and relates this to developmental stage theories of consciousness evolution from the psychology of religion. The empirical material is from fieldwork on an online Rastafari community with global reach but run by a group based in Trinidad. The people on this particular forum align with the “spiritual, but not religious” trend in contemporary religiosity, which means they are more focused on interior questions of consciousness raising than on religious externals. This paper (...)
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  19. Home Learning Environments of Children in Mexico in Relation to Socioeconomic Status.María Inés Susperreguy, Carolina Jiménez Lira, Chang Xu, Jo-Anne LeFevre, Humberto Blanco Vega, Elia Verónica Benavides Pando & Martha Ornelas Contreras - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 12.
    We explored the home learning environments of 173 Mexican preschool children in relation to their numeracy performance. Parents indicated the frequency of their formal home numeracy and literacy activities, and their academic expectations for children’s numeracy and literacy performance. Children completed measures of early numeracy skills. Mexican parent–child dyads from families with either high- or low-socioeconomic status participated. Low-SES parents reported higher numeracy expectations than high-SES parents, but similar frequency of home numeracy activities. In contrast, high-SES parents reported higher frequency (...)
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  20. Impact of Divergent Thinking Training on Teenagers’ Emotion and Self-Efficacy During the COVID-19 Pandemic.Bin Zuo, Qi Wang, Lan Y. Qiao, Yu Ding & Fangfang Wen - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 12.
    Currently due to the COVID-19 pandemic, young people are experiencing a decrease in self-efficacy and an increase in mental illness. Though previous studies have shown that self-efficacy and divergent thinking training are positively related, little is known about the impact of divergent thinking training on self-efficacy and emotions. Therefore, our study seeks this answer to support teenagers injured psychologically during disastrous periods. We randomly assigned 70 students to a 2 × 2 mixed design. Participants in the experimental group were given (...)
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  21. IThree Learning Model (ITLM) to Improve Scholastic Performance- A Case Study.Gururaj Itagi - 2021 - International Journal of Case Studies in Business, IT, and Education (IJCSBE) 5 (1):50-60.
    This manuscript introduces I-Three Learning Model (ITLM) intervention to build competency among scholastically backward children by facilitating easy input, processing and output of information. Child receives information through sensory pathways, learning ability is the capacity of the children to collect, process, retain and retrieve information. Children are unique in mental maturity and learning ability. The reasoning is influenced by the auditory, visual, kinaesthetic and tactile inputs. The competency of children with poor social and emotional skills, learning adjustment and academic performance (...)
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  22. Attention Spreads Between Students in a Learning Environment.Noah D. Forrin, Alex C. Huynh, Alyssa C. Smith, Emily N. Cyr, David B. McLean, James Siklos-Whillans, Evan F. Risko, Daniel Smilek & Colin M. MacLeod - forthcoming - Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied.
    We propose a novel phenomenon, attention contagion, defined as the spread of attentive (or inattentive) states among members of a group. We examined attention contagion in a learning environment in which pairs of undergraduate students watched a lecture video. Each pair consisted of a participant and a confederate trained to exhibit attentive behaviors (e.g., leaning forward) or inattentive behaviors (e.g., slouching). In Experiment 1, confederates sat in front of participants and could be seen. Relative to participants who watched the lecture (...)
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  23. Contributions of Individual, Family, and School Characteristics to Chilean Students’ Social Well-Being at School.Verónica López, Javier Torres-Vallejos, Paula Ascorra, Luis González, Sebastián Ortiz & Marian Bilbao - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 12.
    Schools are an essential part of students’ lives and can promote and facilitate their well-being. Although research on well-being among school-aged children and adolescents has distinguished subjective well-being from social well-being, very few studies examined student’s social well-being at school. SWS is understood as students’ valuation of the circumstances and functioning of their school. This framework posits that the context of the schools can shape students’ perception of feeling integrated and making significant contributions to their schools. However, not much is (...)
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  24. How Do We Know What Babies Know? The Limits of Inferring Cognitive Representations From Visual Fixation Data.Isaac Davis - 2021 - Philosophical Psychology 34 (2):182-209.
    Most infant cognitive studies use visual fixation time as the measure of interest. There are, however, some serious methodological and theoretical concerns regarding what these studies reveal about infant cognition and how their results ought to be interpreted. We propose a Bayesian modeling framework which helps address these concerns. This framework allows us to more precisely formulate hypotheses about infants’ cognitive representations, formalize “linking hypotheses” that relate infants’ visual fixation behavior with stimulus complexity, and better determine what questions a given (...)
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  25. Online Education as a “Mental Institution”.Michelle Maiese - 2021 - Philosophical Psychology 34 (2):277-299.
    Work on situated cognition and affectivity holds that cognitive and affective processes always occur within, depend upon, and, perhaps, are even partially constituted by the surrounding social and environmental contexts. What some philosophers call a ‘mental institution’ consists of various tools and technologies that help people to solve a particular problem and scaffold their cognitive and affective processes in various ways. Examples include legal systems, scientific practice, and educational systems. I propose that insofar as it centers around technology and involves (...)
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  26. Psychometric Properties of the MSLQ-B for Adult Distance Education in China.Ying Zhou & Jianhua Wang - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 12.
    In the education context, The Motivational Strategies for Learning Questionnaire is extensively used in assessing self-regulated learning strategies. However, more research is needed to address whether it is applicable for distance education. The exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis were used to test the Chinese version of the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire part-B for distance learning using two samples totalling 385 participants. This paper substantiates MSLQ-B-DL's criterion-related, convergent, and factorial validity, as well as its internal consistency, in China. Specifically, the (...)
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  27. The Effect of School Psychologists and Social Workers on School Achievement and Failure: A National Multilevel Study in Chile.Verónica López, Karen Cárdenas & Luis González - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 12.
    School achievement and failure have become growing political and social concerns due to the negative consequences of school failure for individuals and society. The inclusive educational movement, which calls for equal access, permanence, participation, and promotion of all students worldwide, poses many challenges for schools and school systems. As a public policy strategy, some countries have provided additional funds for incorporating non-teaching professionals such as school psychologists and social workers in regular K-12 schools. However, there is lack of research on (...)
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  28. My Friend’s True Self: Children’s Concept of Personal Identity.Michaela Jirout Košová, Robin Kopecký, Pavel Oulovský, Matěj Nekvinda & Jaroslav Flegr - 2021 - Philosophical Psychology 34 (1):47-75.
    Our study explores the folk concept of personal identity in the developmental context. Two hundred and seventeen Czech children participated in an interview study based on a hypothetical scenario about a sudden change in their friend, someone they know, or some other unspecified person. The children were asked to judge to what extent particular changes (from six categories of traits) would change the identity core of their friend or some other person on a seven-point scale. We introduced both positive and (...)
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  29. Parental Involvement and Life Satisfaction in Early Adolescence.Mauricio Salgado, Luis González & Alejandra Yáñez - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 12.
    Early adolescence is a developmental stage that comprises some basic interactional processes with parents, which can be described as gaining autonomy while maintaining relatedness. Studying how maternal and paternal involvement influence the life satisfaction of sons and daughters during early adolescence is especially important while seeking to understand the challenges of this developmental stage. In this paper, we investigate the differential effects of maternal and paternal involvement, as assessed by sons and daughters, on their life satisfaction during early adolescence. We (...)
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  30. Infants’ Goal Prediction for Simple Action Events: The Role of Experience and Agency Cues.Birgit Elsner & Maurits Adam - 2021 - Topics in Cognitive Science 13 (1):45-62.
    Looking times and gaze behavior indicate that infants can predict the goal state of an observed simple action event (e.g., object‐directed grasping) already in the first year of life. The present paper mainly focuses on infants’ predictive gaze‐shifts toward the goal of an ongoing action. For this, infants need to generate a forward model of the to‐be‐obtained goal state and to disengage their gaze from the moving agent at a time when information about the action event is still incomplete. By (...)
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  31. Strawberries and Cream: The Relationship Between Food Rejection and Thematic Knowledge of Food in Young Children.Abigail Pickard, Jean-Pierre Thibaut & Jérémie Lafraire - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 12.
    Establishing healthy dietary habits in childhood is crucial in preventing long-term repercussions, as a lack of dietary variety in childhood leads to enduring impacts on both physical and cognitive health. Poor conceptual knowledge about food has recently been shown to be a driving factor of food rejection. The majority of studies that have investigated the development of food knowledge along with food rejection have mainly focused on one subtype of conceptual knowledge about food, namely taxonomic categories. However, taxonomic categorization is (...)
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  32. The Analysis of Mathematics Academic Burden for Primary School Students Based on PISA Data Analysis.Li Wang - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 12.
    To explore the impact of academic burden on the physical and mental health of primary school students, combined with the results of the Programme for International Student Assessment report in 2018, the relationship among the development of mathematical literacy, mathematics academic burden, and the physical and mental health of primary school students is studied. First, the relationship between mathematical literacy and mathematics anxiety is analyzed, and related influencing factors and measurement methods of mathematics anxiety are introduced. A questionnaire is then (...)
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  33. Adaptability and Social Support: Examining Links With Psychological Wellbeing Among UK Students and Non-Students.Andrew J. Holliman, Daniel Waldeck, Bethany Jay, Summayah Murphy, Emily Atkinson, Rebecca J. Collie & Andrew Martin - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 12.
    The purpose of this multi-study article was to investigate the roles of adaptability and social support in predicting a variety of psychological outcomes. Data were collected from Year 12 college students, university students, and non-studying members of the general public. Findings showed that, beyond variance attributable to social support, adaptability made a significant independent contribution to psychological wellbeing and psychological distress across all studies. Beyond the effects of adaptability, social support was found to make a significant independent contribution to most (...)
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  34. Crossmodal Spatial Distraction Across the Lifespan.Tiziana Pedale, Serena Mastroberardino, Michele Capurso, Andrew J. Bremner, Charles Spence & Valerio Santangelo - 2021 - Cognition 210:104617.
    The ability to resist distracting stimuli whilst voluntarily focusing on a task is fundamental to our everyday cognitive functioning. Here, we investigated how this ability develops, and thereafter declines, across the lifespan using a single task/experiment. Young children (5–7 years), older children (10–11 years), young adults (20–27 years), and older adults (62–86 years) were presented with complex visual scenes. Endogenous (voluntary) attention was engaged by having the participants search for a visual target presented on either the left or right side (...)
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  35. Social Sampling: Children Track Social Choices to Reason About Status Hierarchies.Isobel A. Heck, Tamar Kushnir & Katherine D. Kinzler - forthcoming - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General.
    We tested whether preschool-aged children (N = 280) track an agents’ choices of individuals from novel social groups (i.e., social choices) to infer an agent’s social preferences and the social status of the groups. Across experiments, children saw a box containing 2 groups (red and blue toy cats). In Experiment 1, children were randomly assigned to Social Selection in which items were described as “friends,” or to Object Selection in which items were described as “toys.” Within each selection type, the (...)
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  36. Culture Moderates the Relationship Between Self-Control Ability and Free Will Beliefs in Childhood.Xin Zhao, Adrienne Wente, María Fernández Flecha, Denise Segovia Galvan, Alison Gopnik & Tamar Kushnir - 2021 - Cognition 210:104609.
    We investigate individual, developmental, and cultural differences in self-control in relation to children's changing belief in “free will” – the possibility of acting against and inhibiting strong desires. In three studies, 4- to 8-year-olds in the U.S., China, Singapore, and Peru (N = 441) answered questions to gauge their belief in free will and completed a series of self-control and inhibitory control tasks. Children across all four cultures showed predictable age-related improvements in self-control, as well as changes in their free (...)
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  37. What is in a Name?: The Development of Cross-Cultural Differences in Referential Intuitions.Jincai Li, Liu Longgen, Elizabeth Chalmers & Jesse Snedeker - 2018 - Cognition 171: 108-111.
    Past work has shown systematic differences between Easterners' and Westerners' intuitions about the reference of proper names. Understanding when these differences emerge in development will help us understand their origins. In the present study, we investigate the referential intuitions of English- and Chinese-speaking children and adults in the U.S. and China. Using a truth-value judgment task modeled on Kripke's classic Gödel case, we find that the cross-cultural differences are already in place at age seven. Thus, these differences cannot be attributed (...)
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  38. When a Circle Becomes the Letter O: Young Children’s Conceptualization of Learning and Its Relation With Theory of Mind Development.Zhenlin Wang & Douglas A. Frye - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
    In two independent yet complementary studies, the current research explored the developmental changes of young children’s conceptualization of learning, focusing the role of knowledge change and learning intention, and its association with their developing theory of mind ability. In study 1, 75 children between 48 and 86 months of age judged whether a character with or without a genuine knowledge change had learned. The results showed that younger children randomly attributed learning between genuine knowledge change and accidental coincidence that did (...)
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  39. Longitudinal Performance in Basic Numerical Skills Mediates the Relationship Between Socio-Economic Status and Mathematics Anxiety: Evidence From Chile.Bárbara Guzmán, Cristina Rodríguez & Roberto A. Ferreira - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
    Socio-economic status and mathematical performance seem to be risk factors of mathematics anxiety in both children and adults. However, there is little evidence about how exactly these three constructs are related, especially during early stages of mathematical learning. In the present study, we assessed longitudinal performance in symbolic and non-symbolic basic numerical skills in pre-school and second grade students, as well as MA in second grade students. Participants were 451 children from 12 schools in Chile, which differed in school vulnerability (...)
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  40. How to Help Young Children Ask Better Questions?Azzurra Ruggeri, Caren M. Walker, Tania Lombrozo & Alison Gopnik - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
    In this paper, we investigate the informativeness of 4- to 6-year-old children’s questions using a combined qualitative and quantitative approach. Children were presented with a hierarchical version of the 20-questions game, in which they were given an array of objects that could be organized into three category levels based on shared features. We then tested whether it is possible to scaffold children’s question-asking abilities without extensive training. In particular, we supported children’s categorization performance by providing the object-related features needed to (...)
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  41. Re-conceptualizing the role of stimuli: an enactive, ecological explanation of spontaneous-response tasks.Alan Jurgens - forthcoming - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences:1-20.
    This paper addresses a challenge proposed against non-mindreading explanations of infant spontaneous-response task data. The challenge is a foundational assumption of mindreading explanations best summed up by Carruthers : 141-172, 2013, Consciousness and Cognition, 36: 498-507, 2015) claim that only by appealing to a theory of mind is it possible to explain infant responses in spontaneous-response false-belief tasks when there are no one-to-one correspondences between observable behavior and mental states. Heyes, 131–143, 2014a, Developmental Science, 17, 647–659. b) responds to this (...)
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  42. The Interpretation of Disjunction in the Scope of Dou in Child Mandarin.Shasha An, Peng Zhou & Stephen Crain - 2020 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
    A recent theory provides a unified cross-linguistic analysis of the interpretations that are assigned to expressions for disjunction, Negative Polarity Items, Free Choice Items, and the non-interrogative uses of wh-phrases in languages such as Mandarin Chinese. If this approach is on the right track, children should be expected to demonstrate similar patterns in the acquisition of these linguistic expressions. Previous research has found that, by age four, children have acquired the knowledge that both the existential indefinite renhe “any” and wh-words (...)
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  43. Determining the Function of Social Referencing: The Role of Familiarity and Situational Threat.Samantha Ehli, Julia Wolf, Albert Newen, Silvia Schneider & Babett Voigt - 2020 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
    In ambiguous situations, infants have the tendency to gather information from a social interaction partner to regulate their behavior [social referencing ]. There are two main competing theories concerning SR’s function. According to social-cognitive information-seeking accounts, infants look at social interaction partners to gain information about the ambiguous situation. According to co-regulation accounts, infants look at social interaction partners to receive emotional support. This review provides an overview of the central developments in SR literature in the past years. We focus (...)
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  44. Effects of Acute and Chronic Exercises on Executive Function in Children and Adolescents: A Systemic Review and Meta-Analysis.Shijie Liu, Qian Yu, Zaimin Li, Paolo Marcello Cunha, Yanjie Zhang, Zhaowei Kong, Wang Lin, Sitong Chen & Yujun Cai - 2020 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
    Background: Physical exercises can affect executive function both acutely and chronically, with different mechanisms for each moment. Currently, only a few reviews have elaborated on the premise that different types of exercises have different mechanisms for improving executive function. Therefore, the primary purpose of our systematic review was to analyze the effects of acute and chronic exercises on executive function in children and adolescents.Objective: We identified acute and chronic exercise studies and randomized controlled trials of executive function in children and (...)
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  45. Validation of the Weight Bias Internalization Scale for Mainland Chinese Children and Adolescents.Hao Chen & Yi-duo Ye - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
    Weight stigma internalization among adolescents across weight categories leads to adverse psychological consequences. This study aims to adapt and validate a Chinese version of the Weight Bias Internalization Scale for Mainland Chinese children and adolescents. A total of 464 individuals aged 9 to 15 years participated in the present study. Based on item response theory and classical test theory, we selected the items for the C-WBIS and evaluated its reliability and validity. The item response theory yields support for the one-dimensional (...)
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  46. Complex Inferential Processes Are Needed for Implicature Comprehension, but Not for Implicature Production.Irene Mognon, Simone A. Sprenger, Sanne J. M. Kuijper & Petra Hendriks - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
    Upon hearing “Some of Michelangelo’s sculptures are in Rome,” adults can easily generate a scalar implicature and infer that the intended meaning of the utterance corresponds to “Some but not all Michelangelo’s sculptures are in Rome.” Comprehension experiments show that preschoolers struggle with this kind of inference until at least 5 years of age. Surprisingly, the few studies having investigated children’s production of scalar expressions like some and all suggest that production is adult-like already in their third year of life. (...)
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  47. Stem Similarity Modulates Infants' Acquisition of Phonological Alternations.Megha Sundara, James White, Yun Jung Kim & Adam J. Chong - 2021 - Cognition 209:104573.
    Phonemes have variant pronunciations depending on context. For instance, in American English, the [t] in pat [pæt] and the [d] in pad [pæd] are both realized with a tap [ɾ] when the –ing suffix is attached, [pæɾɪŋ]. We show that despite greater distributional and acoustic support for the [t]-tap alternation, 12-month-olds successfully relate taps to stems with a perceptually-similar final [d], not the dissimilar final-[t]. Thus, distributional learning of phonological alternations is constrained by infants' preference for the alternation of perceptually-similar (...)
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  48. When Can Young Children Reason About an Exclusive Disjunction? A Follow Up To.Shalini Gautam, Thomas Suddendorf & Jonathan Redshaw - 2021 - Cognition 207:104507.
    Mody and Carey (2016) investigated children's capacity to reason by the disjunctive syllogism by hiding stickers within two pairs of cups (i.e., there is one sticker in cup A or B, and one in cup C or D) and then showing one cup to be empty. They found that children as young as 3 years of age chose the most likely cup (i.e., not A, therefore choose B; and disregard C and D) and suggested that these children were representing the (...)
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  49. The Impact of Cognitive Aging on Route Learning Rate and the Acquisition of Landmark Knowledge.Christopher Hilton, Andrew Johnson, Timothy J. Slattery, Sebastien Miellet & Jan M. Wiener - 2021 - Cognition 207:104524.
    Aging is accompanied by changes in general cognitive functioning which may impact the learning rate of older adults; however, this is often not controlled for in cognitive aging studies. We investigated the contribution of differences in learning rates to age-related differences in landmark knowledge acquired from route learning. In Experiment 1 we used a standard learning procedure in which participants received a fixed amount of exposure to a route. Consistent with previous research, we found age-related deficits in associative cue and (...)
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  50. Math Is for Me: A Field Intervention to Strengthen Math Self-Concepts in Spanish-Speaking 3rd Grade Children.Dario Cvencek, Jesús Paz-Albo, Allison Master, Cristina V. Herranz Llácer, Aránzazu Hervás-Escobar & Andrew N. Meltzoff - 2020 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
    Children’s math self-concepts—their beliefs about themselves and math—are important for teachers, parents, and students, because they are linked to academic motivation, choices, and outcomes. There have been several attempts at improving math achievement based on the training of math skills. Here we took a complementary approach and conducted an intervention study to boost children’s math self-concepts. Our primary objective was to assess the feasibility of whether a novel multicomponent intervention—one that combines explicit and implicit approaches to help children form more (...)
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