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Specific to papers included in Developmental Systems Theory (DST) is the belief that the study of development requires a systems-level model. Such a model would abstract away from the specific biological details of any particular developmental process in order to isolate the general properties of developing systems.  Contrasting with Developmental Modularity, DST maintains that identifying the function of individual developmental modules at the cellular and molecular levels is intractably complicated and is incapable of representing the structure found at the abstract systems-level, systems properties are emergent. However, reflecting an internal dispute, the systems studied are either individual developing organisms (expressing particular phenotypes) or systems of ecologically-coupled populations of developing organisms (as they co-evolve with each other).

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  1. added 2020-02-12
    Essence in the Age of Evolution: A New Theory of Natural Kinds.Christopher J. Austin - 2018 - London, UK: Routledge.
    This book offers a novel defence of a highly contested philosophical position: biological natural kind essentialism. This theory is routinely and explicitly rejected for its purported inability to be explicated in the context of contemporary biological science, and its supposed incompatibility with the process and progress of evolution by natural selection. Christopher J. Austin challenges these objections, and in conjunction with contemporary scientific advancements within the field of evolutionary-developmental biology, the book utilises a contemporary neo-Aristotelian metaphysics of "dispositional properties", or (...)
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  2. added 2019-06-05
    The Power of Mathematical Modeling in Developmental Biology: Biological Physics of the Developing Embryo Gabor Forgacs and Stuart A. Newman Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005 (337 Pp; $ 64 Hbk; ISBN 0-521-78337-2).Diego Rasskin-Gutman - 2007 - Biological Theory 2 (1):108-111.
  3. added 2019-05-30
    Investigating Metalloproteinases MMP-2 and MMP-9 Mechanosensitivity to Feedback Loops Involved in the Regulation of In Vitro Angiogenesis by Endogenous Mechanical Stresses. [REVIEW]Minh-Uyen Dao Thi, Candice Trocmé, Marie-Paule Montmasson, Eric Fanchon, Bertrand Toussaint & Philippe Tracqui - 2012 - Acta Biotheoretica 60 (1-2):21-40.
    Angiogenesis is a complex morphogenetic process regulated by growth factors, but also by the force balance between endothelial cells traction stresses and extracellular matrix viscoelastic resistance. Studies conducted with in vitro angiogenesis assays demonstrated that decreasing ECM stiffness triggers an angiogenic switch that promotes organization of EC into tubular cords or pseudo-capillaries. Thus, mechano-sensitivity of EC with regard to proteases secretion, and notably matrix metalloproteinases , should likely play a pivotal role in this switching mechanism. While most studies analysing strain (...)
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  4. added 2018-12-17
    Critical Notice: Cycles of Contingency '€“ Developmental Systems and Evolution.J. M. H. Griesemer, G. Haber & Yamashita - 2005 - Biology and Philosophy 20 (2-3):517.
    The themes, problems and challenges of developmental systems theory as described in Cycles of Contingency are discussed. We argue in favor of a robust approach to philosophical and scientific problems of extended heredity and the integration of behavior, development, inheritance, and evolution. Problems with Sterelny's proposal to evaluate inheritance systems using his `Hoyle criteria' are discussed and critically evaluated. Additional support for a developmental systems perspective is sought in evolutionary studies of performance and behavior modulation of fitness. -/- .
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  5. added 2018-10-19
    Causal Specificity, Biological Possibility and Non-Parity About Genetic Causes.Marcel Weber - manuscript
    Several authors have used the notion of causal specificity in order to defend non-parity about genetic causes (Waters 2007, Woodward 2010, Weber 2017, forthcoming). Non-parity in this context is the idea that DNA and some other biomolecules that are often described as information-bearers by biologists play a unique role in life processes, an idea that has been challenged by Developmental Systems Theory (e.g., Oyama 2000). Indeed, it has proven to be quite difficult to state clearly what the alleged special role (...)
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  6. added 2018-10-19
    The Central Dogma as a Thesis of Causal Specificity.Marcel Weber - 2006 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 28 (4):595-610.
    I present a reconstruction of F.H.C. Crick's two 1957 hypotheses "Sequence Hypothesis" and "Central Dogma" in terms of a contemporary philosophical theory of causation. Analyzing in particular the experimental evidence that Crick cited, I argue that these hypotheses can be understood as claims about the actual difference-making cause in protein synthesis. As these hypotheses are only true if restricted to certain nucleic acids in certain organisms, I then examine the concept of causal specificity and its potential to counter claims about (...)
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  7. added 2018-10-13
    Discussion: Three Ways to Misunderstand Developmental Systems Theory.Paul E. Griffiths & Russell D. Gray - 2005 - Biology and Philosophy 20 (2-3):417.
    Developmental systems theory (DST) is a general theoretical perspective on development, heredity and evolution. It is intended to facilitate the study of interactions between the many factors that influence development without reviving `dichotomous' debates over nature or nurture, gene or environment, biology or culture. Several recent papers have addressed the relationship between DST and the thriving new discipline of evolutionary developmental biology (EDB). The contributions to this literature by evolutionary developmental biologists contain three important misunderstandings of DST.
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  8. added 2018-10-11
    Ontological Issues in the Life Sciences: Third European Advanced Seminar in the Philosophy of the Life Sciences, Klosterneuburg, Austria, 1–5 September 2014.James DiFrisco, Gaëlle Pontarotti, Federico Boem, Guillaume Schlaepfer, Ewelina Sokolowska & Eva Fernández-Labandera - 2015 - Biological Theory 10 (2):176-181.
  9. added 2018-04-10
    Programming the Emergence in Morphogenetically Architected Complex Systems.Franck Varenne, Pierre Chaigneau, Jean Petitot & René Doursat - 2015 - Acta Biotheoretica 63 (3):295-308.
    Large sets of elements interacting locally and producing specific architectures reliably form a category that transcends the usual dividing line between biological and engineered systems. We propose to call them morphogenetically architected complex systems (MACS). While taking the emergence of properties seriously, the notion of MACS enables at the same time the design (or “meta-design”) of operational means that allow controlling and even, paradoxically, programming this emergence. To demonstrate our claim, we first show that among all the self-organized systems studied (...)
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  10. added 2018-04-07
    Контуры нового мирового порядка.Leonid Grinin - 2015 - Философия И Общество 3 (4):7-33.
    Мировой порядок как система определенных идей и правил, господ-ствующих в международной политике, стал формироваться в Европе начиная с XVI в., окончательно утвердившись в XIX столетии. Однако этот порядок держится обычно в пределах трех-четырех десятилетий, а затем под влиянием изменившихся обстоятельств и нового баланса сил меняется. В настоящее время мы как раз переживаем период смены ми-рового порядка и начала формирования новой его системы. В статье анализируется начало ослабления мирового порядка, основанного на американской гегемонии, рассматриваются характерные черты и методы, которые используют США (...)
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  11. added 2017-10-22
    Towards Philosophical Foundations of Systems Biology: Introduction.Fred C. Boogerd, Frank J. Bruggeman, Jan-Hendrik S. Hofmeyr & Hans V. Westerhoff - 2007 - In Fred C. Boogerd, Frank J. Bruggeman, Jan-Hendrik S. Hofmeyr & Hans V. Westerhoff (eds.), Systems Biology: Philosophical Foundations. Elsevier.
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  12. added 2017-10-22
    Afterthoughts as Foundations for Systems Biology.Fred C. Boogerd, Frank J. Bruggeman, Jan-Hendrik S. Hofmeyr & Hans V. Westerhoff - 2007 - In Fred C. Boogerd, Frank J. Bruggeman, Jan-Hendrik S. Hofmeyr & Hans V. Westerhoff (eds.), Systems Biology: Philosophical Foundations. Elsevier.
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  13. added 2017-09-25
    Possible Involvement of Gradients in Guidance of Receptor Cell Axons Towards Their Target Position on the Olfactory Bulb.Alfred Gierer - 1998 - European Journal of Neuroscience 10:388-391.
    There is increasing evidence for directional guidance of growing axons by molecular gradients in target tissues. Aside from biochemical studies on gradients and their role, the capability of axons to approach their target position from different aspects of a two-dimensional field is itself an indication for guidance by gradients. According to this criterion, such guidance is expected to be involved not only in map-formation in the visual system but also in targeting of receptor cell axons in the olfactory bulb. In (...)
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  14. added 2017-08-31
    Causal Selection Versus Causal Parity in Biology: Relevant Counterfactuals and Biologically Normal Interventions.Marcel Weber - forthcoming - In C. Kenneth Waters & James Woodward (eds.), Philosophical Perspectives on Causal Reasoning in Biology. Minnesota Studies in Philosophy of Science. Vol. XXI. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
    Causal selection is the task of picking out, from a field of known causally relevant factors, some factors as elements of an explanation. The Causal Parity Thesis in the philosophy of biology challenges the usual ways of making such selections among different causes operating in a developing organism. The main target of this thesis is usually gene centrism, the doctrine that genes play some special role in ontogeny, which is often described in terms of information-bearing or programming. This paper is (...)
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  15. added 2017-05-19
    A Developmental Systems Account of Human Nature.Karola Stotz & Paul Edmund Griffiths - 2018 - In Tim Lewens & Elizabeth Hannon (eds.), Why we disagree about human nature. Oxford & New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 00-00.
    It is now widely accepted that a scientifically credible conception of human nature must reject the folkbiological idea of a fixed, inner essence that makes us human. We argue here that to understand human nature is to understand the plastic process of human development and the diversity it produces. Drawing on the framework of developmental systems theory and the idea of developmental niche construction we argue that human nature is not embodied in only one input to development, such as the (...)
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  16. added 2017-05-12
    Developmental Systems Theory as a Process Theory.Paul Edmund Griffiths & Karola Stotz - forthcoming - In Daniel J. Nicholson & John Dupre (eds.), Everything Flows: Towards a Processual Philosophy of Biology. Oxford & New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 00-00.
    Griffiths and Russell D. Gray (1994, 1997, 2001) have argued that the fundamental unit of analysis in developmental systems theory should be a process – the life cycle – and not a set of developmental resources and interactions between those resources. The key concepts of developmental systems theory, epigenesis and developmental dynamics, both also suggest a process view of the units of development. This chapter explores in more depth the features of developmental systems theory that favour treating processes as fundamental (...)
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  17. added 2017-03-02
    From Arabidopsis and Antirrhinum to Arabia and Antioch. [REVIEW]A. C. Love - 2013 - Evolution & Development 15:158-159.
    From Arabidopsis and Antirrhinum to Arabia and Antioch: a review of cells to civilizations: the principles of change that shape life -/- Cells to Civilizations: The Principles of Change That Shape Life, Coen, E. 2012. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ. 312 pp. ISBN 978-0-691-14967-7.
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  18. added 2017-02-16
    Plant Morphogenesis: A Geometrical Model for the Ramification.Michel Ferré & Hervé Le Guyader - 1990 - Acta Biotheoretica 38 (3-4):181-206.
    A geometrical model is proposed that describes the emergence of a primordium at the shoot apex in Dicotyledons. It is based on recent fundamental results on plant morphogenesis, viz.:the emergence is preceded by the reorganization of the microtubules of the cortical cytoskeleton, leading to a new orientation of the synthesis of the cell wall microfibrils;the resulting global stress is related to the general orientation of the cell growth;The model sums up the continuous interactions that link the microtubules, the microfibrils and (...)
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  19. added 2017-02-14
    Developmental and Educational Perspectives on Theory Change: To Have and Hold, or To Have and Hone?Richard A. Duschl, Gedeon O. Deaák, Kirsten M. Ellenbogen & Douglas L. Holton - 1999 - Science & Education 8 (5):525-542.
  20. added 2017-02-12
    Adaptive Responses to Genotoxic Damage: Bacterial Strategies to Prevent ‐Mutation and Cell Death.Bruce Demple - 1987 - Bioessays 6 (4):157-160.
  21. added 2017-02-12
    Developmental Logic and its Evolution.Stuart A. Kauffman - 1987 - Bioessays 6 (2):82-87.
  22. added 2017-02-09
    Extending and Expanding the Darwinian Synthesis: The Role of Complex Systems Dynamics.Bruce H. Weber - 2011 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 42 (1):75-81.
    Darwinism is defined here as an evolving research tradition based upon the concepts of natural selection acting upon heritable variation articulated via background assumptions about systems dynamics. Darwin’s theory of evolution was developed within a context of the background assumptions of Newtonian systems dynamics. The Modern Evolutionary Synthesis, or neo-Darwinism, successfully joined Darwinian selection and Mendelian genetics by developing population genetics informed by background assumptions of Boltzmannian systems dynamics. Currently the Darwinian Research Tradition is changing as it incorporates new information (...)
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  23. added 2017-02-09
    Moral Fibre: The Negotiation of Microscopic Facts in Victorian Britain. [REVIEW]L. S. Jacyna - 2003 - Journal of the History of Biology 36 (1):39 - 85.
    During the 1840s and 1850s the British embryologist and histologist Martin Barry (1802-1855) propounded a bold and original thesis about the microscopic structure of animal and vegetable tissue. He maintained that minute double spirals were virtually ubiquitous in the makeup of a wide range of structures. This paper considers how a claim of this kind was consonant with a romantic image of scientific creativity with which Barry identified. It describes his partially successful strategies to convince contemporaries of the veracity of (...)
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  24. added 2017-02-09
    Cell Lineage, Ancestral Reminiscence, and the Biogenetic Law.Jane Maienschein - 1978 - Journal of the History of Biology 11 (1):129 - 158.
  25. added 2017-02-03
    On Griffiths and Gray’s Concept of Expanded and Diffused Inheritance.Francesca Merlin - 2010 - Biological Theory 5 (3):206-215.
    Developmental System Theory is a theoretical reinterpretation of biological phenomena challenging the conventional gene-centered account of development and evolution. In this paper, I focus on Griffiths and Gray’s version of Developmental Systems Theory and I particularly analyze their reconceptualization of inheritance. First, I present their concept of expanded and diffused inheritance; then, I examine and criticize their refusal of the multiple inheritance system model; finally, I present and contrast Griffiths and Gray’s extension of what they call the “causal parity thesis” (...)
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  26. added 2017-02-01
    Simple Systems and Phylogenetic Diversity.William C. Wimsatt - 1998 - Philosophy of Science 65 (2):267-275.
    The simple systems methodology is a powerful reductionistic research strategy. It has problems as implemented in developmental genetics because the organisms studied are few and unrepresentative. Stronger inferences require independent arguments that key traits are widely distributed phylogenetically. Evolutionary and developmental mechanisms of generative entrenchment and self-organization provide possible support, and are also necessary components of a developmental systems approach.
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  27. added 2017-02-01
    From Presentation to Representation in E. B. Wilson's the Cell.Jane Maienschein - 1991 - Biology and Philosophy 6 (2):227-254.
    Diagrams make it possible to present scientific facts in more abstract and generalized form. While some detail is lost, simplified and accessible knowledge is gained. E. B. Wilson's work in cytology provides a case study of changing uses of diagrams and accompanying abstraction. In his early work, Wilson presented his data in photographs, which he saw as coming closest to “fact.” As he gained confidence in his interpretations, and as he sought to provide a generalized textbook account of cell development, (...)
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  28. added 2017-02-01
    The Simultaneous Growth of Interacting Systems.J. G. Skellam, M. V. Brian & J. R. Proctor - 1959 - Acta Biotheoretica 13 (2-3):131-144.
    The rôle of mathematical models in growth studies is discussed and a distinction made between the structural and descriptive aspects of a mathematical formulation. A simple scheme is set up to represent in broad outline the simultaneous growth and interaction of larval and adult systems inMyrmica rubra and is matched against observed results.
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  29. added 2017-01-29
    The Comet Cometh: Evolving Developmental Systems.Johannes Jaeger, Manfred Laubichler & Werner Callebaut - 2015 - Biological Theory 10 (1):36-49.
    In a recent opinion piece, Denis Duboule has claimed that the increasing shift towards systems biology is driving evolutionary and developmental biology apart, and that a true reunification of these two disciplines within the framework of evolutionary developmental biology may easily take another 100 years. He identifies methodological, epistemological, and social differences as causes for this supposed separation. Our article provides a contrasting view. We argue that Duboule’s prediction is based on a one-sided understanding of systems biology as a science (...)
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  30. added 2017-01-28
    Evolution of Nerves and Nervo-Systems.Romanes Romanes - 1877 - Mind 2:565.
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  31. added 2017-01-27
    Rethinking Ethical Naturalism: The Implications of Developmental Systems Theory.Jared J. Kinggard - unknown
    Biological research has the capacity to inform ethical discussions. There are numerous questions about the nature of sexual orientation, intelligence, gender identity, etc., and many of these questions are commonly approached with the benefit of implicit or explicit biological commitments. The answers to these sorts of questions can have a powerful impact on social, ethical, and political positions. In this project I examine the prospect of naturalizing ethics under the umbrella of developmental systems theory. If one is committed to DST, (...)
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  32. added 2017-01-24
    The Radial‐Symmetric Hydra and the Evolution of the Bilateral Body Plan: An Old Body Became a Young Brain.Hans Meinhardt - 2002 - Bioessays 24 (2):185-191.
  33. added 2017-01-19
    Constant Factors and Hedgeless Hedges: On Heuristics and Biases in Biological Research.Jason Scott Robert - 2003 - Philosophy of Science 70 (5):975-988.
    How does a complex organism develop from a relatively simple, homogeneous mass? The usual answer is: through the (context‐dependent) execution of species‐specific genetic instructions specifying the development of that organism. Commentators are sometimes skeptical of this usual answer, but of course not all commentators, and not always for the same reasons. Here I attempt to lay bare the logical structure of the usual answer through an extended analysis of the heuristics and methodological principles at play in the exploration and explanation (...)
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  34. added 2017-01-19
    An Elementary Approach to Cell Cycle Analysis.C. Wiedemann & H. A. Moser - 1988 - Acta Biotheoretica 37 (2):205-236.
    An elementary semistochastic model for cell cycle analysis is presented. Various independently generated experimental data sets are compared with the theory in which for the first time, a consistent consideration of non-proliferating cells has also been taken into account.
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  35. added 2017-01-18
    DDS: Dynamics of Developmental Systems. [REVIEW]Evelyn Fox Keller - 2005 - Biology and Philosophy 20 (2-3):409-416.
    The acronym Developmental systems theory (DST) has been introduced into the literature on development in at least three different contexts in recent years – twice for DST, and before that, for Dynamical Systems Theory – and in all cases, to designate a new perspective for understanding development. Subtle but significant differences in argument and aims distinguish these uses, and confound the difficulty of saying just what DST is. My aim in this paper is to disambiguate these different terms – both (...)
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  36. added 2017-01-18
    Development, Culture, and the Units of Inheritance.James Griesemer - 2000 - Philosophy of Science 67 (3):368.
    Developmental systems theory (DST) expands the unit of replication from genes to whole systems of developmental resources, which DST interprets in terms of cycling developmental processes. Expansion seems required by DST's argument against privileging genes in evolutionary and developmental explanations of organic traits. DST and the expanded replicator brook no distinction between biological and cultural evolution. However, by endorsing a single expanded unit of inheritance and leaving the classical molecular notion of gene intact, DST achieves only a nominal reunification of (...)
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  37. added 2017-01-18
    A Mechanical Model for the Formation of Vascular Networks in Vitro.D. Manoussaki, S. R. Lubkin, R. B. Vemon & J. D. Murray - 1996 - Acta Biotheoretica 44 (3-4):271-282.
    Endothelial cells, when cultured on gelled basement membrane matrix exert forces of tension through which they deform the matrix and at the same time they aggregate into clusters. The cells eventually form a network of cord-like structures connecting cell aggregates. In this network, almost all of the matrix has been pulled underneath the cell cords and cell clusters. This phenomenon has been proposed as a possible model for the growth and development of planar vascular systems in vitro. Our hypothesis is (...)
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  38. added 2017-01-18
    Stochastic Development of Cell Populations Under Non-Homogeneous Conditions.MiloŠ Jílek - 1975 - Acta Biotheoretica 24 (3-4):108-119.
    Studies on the development of cell populations are often based on results of the theory of stochastic birth- and death-processes (continuous or discrete (seee.g. references inVogel, Niewisch &Matioli (1969), in some cases, death may be interpreted not as actual death of the cell bute.g. as a recruitment of the cell considered into another cell compartment, etc.). It is usually assumed that the conditions for the development are homogeneous,i.e. that the probabilities of births and deaths are independent on the time. However, (...)
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  39. added 2017-01-16
    Our Plastic Nature.Paul E. Griffiths - 2011 - In Snait Gissis & Eva Jablonka (eds.), Transformations of Lamarckism: From Subtle Fluids to Molecular Biology. MIT Press. pp. 319--330.
    This chapter analyzes the notion of human nature and the concept of inner nature from the perspective of developmental systems theory. It explores the folkbiology of human nature and looks at three features associated with traits that are expressions of the inner nature that organisms inherit from their parents: fixity, typicality, teleology.
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  40. added 2017-01-16
    Introduction: What is Developmental Systems Theory?Susan Oyama, Paul Griffiths & Russell D. Gray - 2001 - In Susan Oyama, Paul Griffiths & Russell D. Gray (eds.), Cycles of Contingency: Developmental Systems and Evolution. MIT Press. pp. 1-11.
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  41. added 2017-01-16
    Developmental Systems and Evolutionary Explanation.P. E. Griffiths & R. D. Gray - 1994 - Journal of Philosophy 91 (6):277-304.
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  42. added 2017-01-15
    The Role of Self-Organization in Developmental Systems Theory and the Neo-Darwinian Theory of Evolution.Anouk Barberousse - 2010 - Biological Theory 5 (3):202-205.
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  43. added 2017-01-15
    The Organism in Developmental Systems Theory.Thomas Pradeu - 2009 - Biological Theory 5 (3):216-222.
    In this article, I address the question of what Developmental Systems Theory aims at explaining. I distinguish two lines of thought in DST, one that deals specifically with development and tries to explain the development of the individual organism, and the other that presents itself as a reconceptualization of evolution and tries to explain the evolution of populations of developmental systems. I emphasize that, despite the claim of the contrary by DST proponents, there are two very different definitions of the (...)
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  44. added 2017-01-15
    On Griffiths and Gray’s Concept of Expanded and Diffused Inheritance.Francesca Merlin - 2007 - Biological Theory 5 (3):206-215.
    Developmental Systems Theory is a theoretical reinterpretation of biological phenomena that challenges the conventional gene-centered account of development and evolution. In this article, I focus on Griffiths and Gray’s version of DST and particularly analyze their reconceptualization of inheritance. First, I present their concept of expanded and diffused inheritance; then, I examine and criticize their rejection of the multiple inheritance system model; finally, I present and oppose Griffiths and Gray’s extension of what they call the “causal parity thesis” from development (...)
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  45. added 2016-12-08
    How Many Processes Are Responsible for Phenotypic Evolution?Giuseppe Fusco - 2001 - Evolution & Development 3 (4):279-286.
    In addressing phenotypic evolution, this article reconsiders natural selection, random drift, developmental constraints, and internal selection in the new extended context of evolutionary developmental biology. The change of perspective from the "evolution of phenotypes" toward an "evolution of ontogenies" (evo-devo perspective) affects the reciprocal relationships among these different processes. Random drift and natural selection are sibling processes: two forms of post-productional sorting among alternative developmental trajectories, the former random, the latter nonrandom. Developmental constraint is a compound concept; it contains even (...)
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  46. added 2016-08-30
    Which Kind of Causal Specificity Matters Biologically?Marcel Weber - 2017 - Philosophy of Science 84 (3):574-585.
    Griffiths et al. (2015) have proposed a quantitative measure of causal specificity and used it to assess various attempts to single out genetic causes as being causally more specific than other cellular mechanisms, for example, alternative splicing. Focusing in particular on developmental processes, they have identified a number of important challenges for this project. In this discussion note, I would like to show how these challenges can be met.
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  47. added 2016-05-30
    Organogenesis at the Shoot Apex: An Attempt at Modelization.Herve Guyader & Michel Ferre - 1988 - Acta Biotheoretica 37 (1).
    A geometrical model of the emergence of a primordium at the shoot apex in dicotyledons is proposed. It is based on recent fundamental results on plant morphogenesis, i.e.:- the emergence is preceded by the reorganization of the microtubules of the cortical cytoskeleton, leading to a new orientation of the synthesis of the cell wall microfibrils; - the resulting global stress is related to the general orientation of the cell growth. So the model sums up the continuous interactions linking the microtubules, (...)
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  48. added 2016-05-24
    Conrad H. Waddington: Towards a Theoretical Biology.Brian K. Hall & Manfred D. Laubichler - 2008 - Biological Theory 3 (3):233-237.
  49. added 2016-05-24
    Evolvability, Stabilizing Selection, and the Problem of Stasis.Thomas F. Hansen & David Houle - 2004 - In Massimo Pigliucci & Katherine Preston (eds.), Phenotypic Integration: Studying the Ecology and Evolution of Complex Phenotypes. Oxford University Press.
  50. added 2016-05-16
    The Evolution of Epigenetics.Gary Felsenfeld - 2014 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 57 (1):132-148.
    Since the early days of embryology, a central puzzle for biologists has been how a fertilized egg can execute a clearly defined and reproducible program that leads ultimately to a complex organism. It was clear that all of the information necessary to create the adult must already reside in the zygote, but how that information was translated into a complex organism was obscure. Even as recently as the late 1940s, the molecular mechanisms associated with early development were unknown and, in (...)
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