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  1. added 2020-03-24
    Can Inclusion Policies Deliver Educational Justice for Children with Autism? An Ethical Analysis.Michael Merry - 2020 - Journal of School Choice 14 (1):9-25.
    In this essay I ask what educational justice might require for children with autism in educational settings where “inclusion” entails not only meaningful access, but also where the educational setting is able to facilitate a sense of belonging and further is conducive to well-being. I argue when we attempt to answer the question “do inclusion policies deliver educational justice?” that we pay close attention to the specific dimensions of well-being for children with autism. Whatever the specifics of individual cases, both (...)
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  2. added 2020-02-14
    Dialogues on Disability: Shelley Tremain Interviews Cecilea Mun.Cecilea Mun & Shelley Tremain - 2016 - Discrimination and Disadvantage Blog.
    Cecilea discusses with Shelley Tremain her experience as a first-generation U.S. citizen and first-generation university graduate; why she was motivated to study philosophy and become a professional philosopher; the launching of the new, open access, online journal, the Journal of Philosophy of Emotions (JPE); the “mismatch” between what she seemed like “on paper” and what she is is capable of; how societal, institutional, professional, and philosophical practices and policies must be adjusted to enable others like her to flourish as professional (...)
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  3. added 2020-01-04
    Educational Justice: Liberal Ideals, Persistent Inequality and the Constructive Uses of Critique.Michael Merry - 2020 - New York City, New York, Verenigde Staten: Palgrave Macmillan.
    In this book I examine the philosophical, motivational, and practical challenges of education theory, policy, and practice in the twenty-first century. There is a loud and persistent drum beat of support for schools, for citizenship, for diversity and inclusion, and increasingly for labor market readiness with very little critical attention to the assumptions underlying these agendas, let alone to their many internal contradictions. I argue that we must constructively critique some of our most cherished beliefs about education if we are (...)
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  4. added 2019-10-13
    Do Publics Share Experts’ Concerns About Brain–Computer Interfaces? A Trinational Survey on the Ethics of Neural Technology.Matthew Sample, Sebastian Sattler, David Rodriguez-Arias, Stefanie Blain-Moraes & Eric Racine - 2019 - Science, Technology, and Human Values 2019.
    Since the 1960s, scientists, engineers, and healthcare professionals have developed brain–computer interface (BCI) technologies, connecting the user’s brain activity to communication or motor devices. This new technology has also captured the imagination of publics, industry, and ethicists. Academic ethics has highlighted the ethical challenges of BCIs, although these conclusions often rely on speculative or conceptual methods rather than empirical evidence or public engagement. From a social science or empirical ethics perspective, this tendency could be considered problematic and even technocratic because (...)
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  5. added 2019-06-06
    “Deaf Spectators” and Democratic Elitism: Participation, Democracy, and Disability.Nate Jackson - 2019 - The Pluralist 14 (2):30.
    even a brief review of disability narratives shows that many people with disabilities, encompassing a diverse range of impairments, encounter disruptions in their everyday interactions. Individuals with disabilities report that strangers and neighbors alike fail to communicate with them.1 Instead, people defer to friends, partners, and caretakers to offer some command over the interaction. These experiences might be understood as mere annoyances, part of the experience of impairment insofar as it undermines non-disabled individuals’ modes of interaction, leaving them fumbling, seeking (...)
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  6. added 2019-06-05
    Is It Bad to Be Disabled?Vuko Andric & Joachim Wundisch - 2015 - Journal of Ethics and Social Philosophy 9 (3):1-17.
    This paper examines the impact of disability on wellbeing and presents arguments against the mere-difference view of disability. According to the mere-difference view, disability does not by itself make disabled people worse off on balance. Rather, if disability has a negative impact on wellbeing overall, this is only so because society is not treating disabled people the way it ought to treat them. In objection to the mere-difference view, it has been argued, roughly, that the view licenses the permissibility of (...)
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  7. added 2019-05-13
    Interdisciplinary Research and Critical Realism The Example of Disability Research.Berth Danermark - 2002 - Alethia 5 (1):56-64.
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  8. added 2019-05-12
    Significant Lives and Certain Blindness: William James and the Disability Paradox.Nate Jackson - 2019 - In Clifford S. Stagoll & Michael P. Levine (eds.), Pragmatism Applied: William James and the Challenges of Contemporary Life. Albany, New York, USA: SUNY Press. pp. 73-100.
  9. added 2019-04-05
    Wrongful Life Claims and Negligent Selection of Gametes or Embryos in Infertility Treatments: A Quest for Coherence.Noam Gur - 2014 - Journal of Law and Medicine 22:426-441.
    This article discusses an anomaly in the English law of reproductive liability: that is, an inconsistency between the law’s approach to wrongful life claims and its approach to cases of negligent selection of gametes or embryos in infertility treatments (the selection cases). The article begins with an account of the legal position, which brings into view the relevant inconsistency: while the law treats wrongful life claims as non- actionable, it recognises a cause of action in the selection cases, although the (...)
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  10. added 2019-03-11
    Disability in Practice: Attitudes, Policies, and Relationships.Adam Cureton & Hill Jr (eds.) - 2018 - Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Everyone is disabled in some respect - others can do things that we cannot - but significant limitations on pursuing major life activities pose special problems. This volume presents new philosophical engagements with moral attitudes and relationships involving disabilities, and with public policy and the deliberative framework for assessing it.
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  11. added 2019-02-19
    Causing Disability, Causing Non-Disability: What's the Moral Difference?Joseph A. Stramondo & Stephen M. Campbell - forthcoming - In Adam Cureton & David Wasserman (eds.), Oxford Handbook of Philosophy and Disability. Oxford University Press.
    It may seem obvious that causing disability in another person is morally problematic in a way that removing or preventing a disability is not. This suggests that there is a moral asymmetry between causing disability and causing non-disability. This chapter investigates whether there are any differences between these two types of actions that might explain the existence of a general moral asymmetry. After setting aside the possibility that having a disability is almost always bad or harmful for a person (a (...)
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  12. added 2018-11-26
    The Perceived Meaning of Life in the Case of Parents of Children with Intellectual Disabilities.Żaneta Stelter - 2015 - Diametros 46:92-110.
    The perceived meaning of life significantly affects the quality of human life. It is of particular significance in borderline situations. One of such situations is the birth of an intellectually disabled child. The article presents the results of the study concerning the perceived meaning of life in the case of parents who bring up a child with limited intellectual abilities. The study included 87 mothers and 65 fathers bringing up an intellectually disabled child. In the studied cases, parents perceived their (...)
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  13. added 2018-10-16
    Cognitive Disability and Embodied, Extended Minds.Zoe Drayson & Andy Clark - forthcoming - In David Wasserman & Adam Cureton (eds.), Oxford Handbook of Philosophy and Disability. OUP.
    Many models of cognitive ability and disability rely on the idea of cognition as abstract reasoning processes implemented in the brain. Research in cognitive science, however, emphasizes the way that our cognitive skills are embodied in our more basic capacities for sensing and moving, and the way that tools in the external environment can extend the cognitive abilities of our brains. This chapter addresses the implications of research in embodied cognition and extended cognition for how we think about cognitive impairment (...)
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  14. added 2018-10-15
    Autism, the Social Thinking Curriculum, and Moral Courage.Kenneth A. Richman - 2015 - Power and Education 7 (3):355-360.
    Michelle Garcia Winner’s Social Thinking Curriculum is widely used by schools across the USA and has garnered attention internationally. The curriculum addresses social language and behavior deficits among those on the autism spectrum. Although many embrace this curriculum without reservation, the emphasis on social conformity, including avoiding behaviors that make others uncomfortable, merits scrutiny. Individuals who have difficulty understanding social cues and conventions can derive tremendous benefit from learning to fit in, for example, or learning what is likely to make (...)
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  15. added 2018-10-08
    Bursting Bubbles? QALYs and Discrimination.Ben Davies - 2019 - Utilitas 31 (2):191-202.
    The use of Quality-Adjusted Life Years (QALYs) in healthcare allocation has been criticized as discriminatory against people with disabilities. This article considers a response to this criticism from Nick Beckstead and Toby Ord. They say that even if QALYs are discriminatory, attempting to avoid discrimination – when coupled with other central principles that an allocation system should favour – sometimes leads to irrationality in the form of cyclic preferences. I suggest that while Beckstead and Ord have identified a problem, it (...)
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  16. added 2018-08-17
    Philosophical Anthropology, Shame, and Disability: In Favor of an Interpersonal Theory of Shame.Matthew S. Rukgaber - 2016 - Res Philosophica 93 (4):743-765.
    This article argues against a leading cognitivist and moral interpretation of shame that is present in the philosophical literature. That standard view holds that shame is the felt-response to a loss of self-esteem, which is the result of negative self-assessment. I hold that shame is a heteronomous and primitive bodily affect that is perceptual rather than judgmental in nature. Shame results from the breakdown and thwarting of our desire for anonymous, unexceptional, and disattentive co-existence with others. I use the sociological (...)
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  17. added 2018-07-24
    Eugenics in Philosophy.Robert A. Wilson - 2017 - Oxford Bibliographies Online.
    Annotated bibliography on eugenics and philosophy.
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  18. added 2018-07-07
    Ways to Be Worse Off.Ian Stoner - 2016 - Res Philosophica 93 (4):921-949.
    Does disability make a person worse off? I argue that the best answer is yes and no, because we can be worse off in two conceptually distinct ways. Disabilities usually make us worse off in one way (typified by facing hassles) but not in the other (typified by facing loneliness). Acknowledging two conceptually distinct ways to be worse off has fundamental implications for philosophical theories of well-being.
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  19. added 2018-06-07
    Moral Status, Final Value, and Extrinsic Properties.Nicolas Delon - 2014 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 114 (3pt3):371-379.
    Starting from a distinction between intrinsic and final value, I explore the implications of the supervenience of final value on extrinsic properties regarding moral status. I make a case for ‘extrinsic moral status’ based on ‘extrinsic final value’. I show that the assumption of ‘moral individualism’, that moral status supervenes merely on intrinsic properties, is misguided, and results from a conflation of intrinsic with final value. I argue that at least one extrinsic property, namely vulnerability, can be the basis of (...)
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  20. added 2018-05-31
    Berufliche Inklusion von Menschen mit kognitiven Beeinträchtigungen durch technische Assistenz am Arbeitsplatz.Hauke Behrendt - 2018 - Zeitschrift Für Inklusion 12 (2).
    Der vorliegende Beitrag zielt auf eine Untersuchung der ethischen Implikationen von Assistenzsystemen am Arbeitsplatz – einer technischen Lösung für die Förderung der beruflichen Qualifikation von Menschen mit geistigen Behinderungen. Mein Ausgangspunkt ist die Feststellung, dass es durch den technologischen Fortschritt im Bereich der Mensch-Maschine-Interaktion heute möglich ist, solche technischen Assistenzsysteme am Arbeitsplatz einzusetzen. In diesem Beitrag entwickle ich eine These hinsichtlich des moralischen Werts solcher Systeme. Das Ergebnis meiner Untersuchung ist, dass Assistenzsysteme am Arbeitsplatz einzusetzen nicht nur moralisch erlaubt ist, (...)
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  21. added 2018-04-23
    Disability and First-Person Testimony.Hilary Yancey - 2018 - Southwest Philosophy Review 34 (1):141-151.
    It is widely agreed that first-person testimony is a good source of evidence, including testimony about the contents of mental states unobservable to others. Thus we generally think that an individual’s testimony is a good source of evidence about her wellbeing—after all, she experiences her quality of life and we don’t. However, some have argued that the first-person testimony of disabled individuals regarding their wellbeing is defeated: regardless of someone’s claim about how disability affects her overall wellbeing, other evidence about (...)
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  22. added 2018-03-23
    A Concise Argument: On the Wrongness of Killing.T. Douglas - 2013 - Journal of Medical Ethics 39 (1):1-2.
    In this issue, Walter Sinnott-Armstrong and Franklin G. Miller argue that what makes killing wrong, when it is wrong, is not that it ends life, but that it causes complete and irreversible disability—what they call total disability. They hold that the wrongness of killing should be explained by reference to the harm that killing causes to the person who dies. And the only harm of this sort that killing causes, they argue, is the harm of being totally disabled: once one (...)
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  23. added 2017-08-25
    Choosing Disability, Visualizing Care.Adams Rachel - 2017 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 27 (2):301-321.
    This article explores how visual images of dependency and care reflect and reinforce perceptions of people who are ill, disabled, or otherwise dependent, those who sustain them, and the meaning of the work they do. Scenes of care are a valuable index for understanding cultural assumptions about who is deserving of care, how and where care should be given, and who is obligated to serve as a giver of care. It positions these images in the context of the emphasis, within (...)
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  24. added 2017-07-08
    Disability Life Writing and the Problem of Dependency in The Autobiography of Gaby Brimmer.Rachel Adams - 2017 - Journal of Medical Humanities 38 (1):39-50.
    Independence was a core value of the movement for disability rights. People with disabilities did not have to be dependent, advocates claimed; they were robbed of autonomy by poverty, social prejudice, and architectural barriers. Recently, critics have noted that the emphasis on independence equates personhood with autonomy, reason, and self-awareness, thereby excluding those who are incapable of self-determination. The stigma of dependency is communicated to caregivers whose work is devalued and undercompensated. These values are echoed in the life writing of (...)
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  25. added 2017-02-07
    An Incomplete Inclusion of Non-Cooperators Into a Rawlsian Theory of Justice.Chong-Ming Lim - 2016 - Res Philosophica 93 (4):893-920.
    John Rawls’s use of the “fully cooperating assumption” has been criticized for hindering attempts to address the needs of disabled individuals, or non-cooperators. In response, philosophers sympathetic to Rawls’s project have extended his theory. I assess one such extension by Cynthia Stark, that proposes dropping Rawls’s assumption in the constitutional stage (of his four-stage sequence), and address the needs of non-cooperators via the social minimum. I defend Stark’s proposal against criticisms by Sophia Wong, Christie Hartley, and Elizabeth Edenberg and Marilyn (...)
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  26. added 2016-12-12
    When the Home Becomes a Prison: Living with a Severely Disabled Child.B. S. Brinchmann - 1999 - Nursing Ethics 6 (2):137-143.
    The aim of this study was to generate knowledge about how parents who have been part of an ethical decision-making process concerning a son or daughter in a neonatal unit experience life with a severely disabled child. A descriptive study design was chosen using 30 hours of field observations and seven in-depth interviews, carried out over a period of five months with parents who had been faced with ethical decisions concerning their own children in a neonatal unit. Strauss and Glaser’s (...)
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  27. added 2016-10-08
    Is Disability a Neutral Condition?Jeffrey M. Brown - 2016 - Journal of Social Philosophy 47 (2):188-210.
    The issue of whether biological and psychological properties associated with disability can be harmful, beneficial, or neutral brings up an important philosophical question about how we evaluate disability, and disability’s impact on well-being. The debate is usually characterized as between those who argue disability is intrinsically harmful, and disability rights advocates who argue that disability is just another way of being different, in part, because disability can also provide important benefits. I argue that this debate is a false one, as (...)
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  28. added 2016-05-10
    Assistant Professor.Joseph A. Stramondo - 2016 - Hastings Center Report 46 (3):22-30.
    The deeply entrenched, sometimes heated conflict between the disability movement and the profession of bioethics is well known and well documented. Critiques of prenatal diagnosis and selective abortion are probably the most salient and most sophisticated of disability studies scholars’ engagements with bioethics, but there are many other topics over which disability activists and scholars have encountered the field of bioethics in an adversarial way, including health care rationing, growth-attenuation interventions, assisted reproduction technology, and physician-assisted suicide. -/- The tension between (...)
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  29. added 2016-05-03
    Brain–Computer Interfaces and Disability: Extending Embodiment, Reducing Stigma?Sean Aas & David Wasserman - 2016 - Journal of Medical Ethics 42 (1):37-40.
  30. added 2016-04-26
    The Ableism of Quality of Life Judgments in Disorders of Consciousness: Who Bears Epistemic Responsibility?Joel Michael Reynolds - 2016 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 7 (1):59-61.
    In this peer commentary on L. Syd M. Johnson’s “Inference and Inductive Risk in Disorders of Consciousness,” I argue for the necessity of disability education as an integral component of decision-making processes concerning patients with DOC and, mutatis mutandis, all patients with disabilities. The sole qualification Johnson places on such decision-making is that stakeholders are educated about and “understand the uncertainties of diagnosis and prognosis.” Drawing upon research in philosophy of disability, social epistemology, and health psychology, I argue that this (...)
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  31. added 2016-03-09
    Dialogues on Disability.Shelley Tremain - 2014 - The Philosophers' Magazine 72 (1):109-110.
  32. added 2016-03-04
    Some Advantages to Having a Parent with a Disability.Adam Cureton - 2006 - Journal of Medical Ethics 42 (1):31-34.
    Fertility specialists, adoption agents, judges and others sometimes take themselves to have a responsibility to fairly adjudicate conflicts that may arise between the procreative and parenting interests of people with disabilities and the interests that their children or potential children have to be nurtured, cared for and protected. An underlying assumption is that having a disability significantly diminishes a person's parenting abilities. My aim is to challenge the claim that having a disability tends to make someone a bad parent by (...)
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  33. added 2016-02-28
    Training in Compensatory Strategies Enhances Rapport in Interactions Involving People with Möebius Syndrome.John Michael, Kathleen Bogart, Kristian Tylen, Joel Krueger, Morten Bech, John R. Ostergaard & Riccardo Fusaroli - 2015 - Frontiers in Neurology 6 (213):1-11.
    In the exploratory study reported here, we tested the efficacy of an intervention designed to train teenagers with Möbius syndrome (MS) to increase the use of alternative communication strategies (e.g., gestures) to compensate for their lack of facial expressivity. Specifically, we expected the intervention to increase the level of rapport experienced in social interactions by our participants. In addition, we aimed to identify the mechanisms responsible for any such increase in rapport. In the study, five teenagers with MS interacted with (...)
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  34. added 2016-02-28
    Gestural Coupling and Social Cognition: Moebius Syndrome as a Case Study.Joel Krueger - 2012 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 6.
    Social cognition researchers have become increasingly interested in the ways that behavioral, physiological, and neural coupling facilitate social interaction and interpersonal understanding. We distinguish two ways of conceptualizing the role of such coupling processes in social cognition: strong and moderate interactionism. According to strong interactionism (SI), low-level coupling processes are alternatives to higher-level individual cognitive processes; the former at least sometimes render the latter superfluous. Moderate interactionism (MI) on the other hand, is an integrative approach. Its guiding assumption is that (...)
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  35. added 2015-09-21
    Reason and Normative Embodiment: On the Philosophical Creation of Disability.Thomas Kiefer - 2014 - The Disability Studies Quarterly 34 (1).
    This essay attempts to explain the traditional and contemporary philosophical neglect of disability by arguing that the philosophical prioritization of rationality leads to a distinctly philosophical conception of disability as a negative category of non-normative embodiment. I argue that the privilege given to rationality as distinctive of what it means to be both a human subject and a moral agent informs supposedly rational norms of human embodiment. Non-normative types of embodiment in turn can only be understood in contradistinction to these (...)
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  36. added 2015-09-09
    Disability and Domination: Lessons From Republican Political Philosophy.Tom O’Shea - 2018 - Journal of Applied Philosophy.
    The republican ideal of non-domination identifies the capacity for arbitrary interference as a fundamental threat to liberty that can generate fearful uncertainty and servility in those dominated. I argue that republican accounts of domination can provide a powerful analysis of the nature of legal and institutional power that is encountered by people with mental disorders or cognitive disabilities. In doing so, I demonstrate that non-domination is an ideal which is pertinent, distinctive, and desirable in thinking through psychological disability. Finally, I (...)
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  37. added 2015-06-25
    Fat Stigma and Public Health: A Theoretical Framework and Ethical Analysis.Desiree Abu-Odeh - 2014 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 24 (3):247-265.
    This paper proposes a theoretical framework for understanding fat stigma and its impact on people’s well-being. It argues that stigma should never be used as a tool to achieve public health ends. Drawing on Bruce Link and Jo Phelan’s 2001 conceptualization of stigma as well as the works of Hilde Lindemann, Paul Benson, and Margaret Urban Walker on identity, positionality, and agency, this paper clarifies the mechanisms by which stigmatizing, oppressive conceptions of overweight and obesity damage identities and diminish moral (...)
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  38. added 2015-05-14
    Is Disability Conservationism Rooted in Status Quo Bias?Stephen M. Campbell & Lance Wahlert - 2015 - American Journal of Bioethics 15 (6):20-22.
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  39. added 2015-03-24
    The Grounds of Moral Status.Julie Tannenbaum & Agnieszka Jaworska - 2018 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy:0-0.
    This article discusses what is involved in having full moral status, as opposed to a lesser degree of moral status and surveys different views of the grounds of moral status as well as the arguments for attributing a particular degree of moral status on the basis of those grounds.
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  40. added 2015-03-23
    Health, Disability, and Well-Being.S. Andrew Schroeder - 2016 - In Guy Fletcher (ed.), Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of Well-Being. Routledge.
    Much academic work (in philosophy, economics, law, etc.), as well as common sense, assumes that ill health reduces well-being. It is bad for a person to become sick, injured, disabled, etc. Empirical research, however, shows that people living with health problems report surprisingly high levels of well-being - in some cases as high as the self-reported well-being of healthy people. In this chapter, I explore the relationship between health and well-being. I argue that although we have good reason to believe (...)
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  41. added 2014-12-10
    Rationality, Diagnosis and Patient Autonomy.Jillian Craigie & Lisa Bortolotti - 2014 - Oxford Handbook Psychiatric Ethics.
    In this chapter, our focus is the role played by notions of rationality in the diagnosis of mental disorders, and in the practice of overriding patient autonomy in psychiatry. We describe and evaluate different hypotheses concerning the relationship between rationality and diagnosis, raising questions about what features underpin psychiatric categories. These questions reinforce widely held concerns about the use of diagnosis as a justification for overriding autonomy, which have motivated a shift to mental incapacity as an alternative justification. However, this (...)
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  42. added 2014-09-24
    Bringing Elsewhere Home: A Song of Ice and Fire’s Ethics of Disability.Pascal Massie & Lauryn Mayer - 2014 - In Karl Fugelso (ed.), Studies in Medievalism. D S Brewer. pp. 45-60.
  43. added 2014-06-14
    Feeding Upon Death: Pain, Possibility, and Transformation in S. Kay Toombs and Kafka's The Vulture.Joel Michael Reynolds - 2014 - In Florian Steger & Bettina von Jagow (eds.), Jahrbuch Literatur und Medizin. Universitätsverlag Winter. pp. 135-54.
    In this paper, I argue that clinically-oriented practical and theoretical approaches to the problem of pain should more carefully heed narrative and phenomenological research. I begin with the work of S. Kay Toombs, contending that her phenomenological account of multiple sclerosis demonstrates how a degenerative condition attendant with pain ultimately effect a constriction of one’s world. Drawing upon two of artist Yosl Bergner’s depictions of the story, I then present a reading of Kafka’s “The Vulture” as a literary account of (...)
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  44. added 2014-04-28
    Modularity in Developmental Disorders: Evidence From Specific Language Impairment and Peripheral Dyslexias.Naama Friedmann & Aviah Gvion - 2002 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (6):756-757.
    Evidence from various subtypes of Specific Language Impairment and developmental peripheral dyslexias is presented to support the idea that even developmental disorders can be modular. However, in developmental letter position dyslexia and neglect dyslexia we show that additional errors can occur because of insufficient orthographic-lexical knowledge.
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