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541 found
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1 — 50 / 541
  1. added 2018-12-21
    Ethical Issues Related to End of Life Treatment in Patients with Advanced Dementia – The Case of Artificial Nutrition and Hydration.Esther-Lee Marcus, Ofra Golan & David Goodman - 2016 - Diametros 50:118-137.
    Patients with advanced dementia suffer from severe cognitive and functional impairment, including eating disorders. The focus of our research is on the issue of life-sustaining treatment, specifically on the social and ethical implications of tube feeding. The treatment decision, based on values of life and dignity, involves sustaining lives that many people consider not worth living. We explore the moral approach to caring for these patients and review the history of the debate on artificial nutrition and hydration showing the impact (...)
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  2. added 2018-09-20
    Justifying Public Health Surveillance: Basic Interests, Unreasonable Exercise, and Privacy.Alan Rubel - 2012 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 22 (1):1-33.
    Surveillance plays a crucial role in public health, and for obvious reasons conflicts with individual privacy. This paper argues that the predominant approach to the conflict is problematic, and then offers an alternative. It outlines a Basic Interests Approach to public health measures, and the Unreasonable Exercise Argument, which sets forth conditions under which individuals may justifiably exercise individual privacy claims that conflict with public health goals. The view articulated is compatible with a broad range conceptions of the value of (...)
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  3. added 2018-09-06
    Narrative Self-Constitution and Vulnerability to Co-Authoring.Doug McConnell - 2016 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 37 (1):29-43.
    All people are vulnerable to having their self-concepts shaped by others. This article investigates that vulnerability using a theory of narrative self-constitution. According to narrative self-constitution, people depend on others to develop and maintain skills of self-narration and they are vulnerable to having the content of their self-narratives co-authored by others. This theoretical framework highlights how vulnerability to co-authoring is essential to developing a self-narrative and, thus, the possibility of autonomy. However, this vulnerability equally entails that co-authors can undermine autonomy (...)
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  4. added 2018-09-04
    Loving Noncompliance: Determining Medical Neglect by Parents of HIV-Positive Children.R. Bourne - 2000 - Journal of Clinical Ethics 11 (2):121-125.
  5. added 2018-08-30
    On Defining Bruxism.W. Ceusters & B. Smith - 2018 - Studies in Health Technology and Informatics 247:551-555.
    In a series of recent publications, orofacial researchers have debated the question of how ‘bruxism’ should be defined for the purposes of accurate diagnosis and reliable clinical research. Following the principles of realism-based ontology, we performed an analysis of the arguments involved. This revealed that the disagreements rested primarily on inconsistent use of terms, so that issues of ontology were thus obfuscated by shortfalls in terminology. In this paper, we demonstrate how bruxism terminology can be improved by paying attention to (...)
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  6. added 2018-06-20
    Disability, Disease, and Health Sufficiency.Sean Aas - 2016 - In Carina Fourie & Annette Rid (eds.), What is Enough?: Sufficiency, Justice, and Health. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    This chapter argues that standard accounts of health are ill-suited to constructing a plausible theory of health justice, particularly a sufficientarian theory. The problem in these accounts is revealed by their treatment of disability. Theorists of health justice need to define “health” more narrowly to capture the legitimate claims of people with disabilities. Following Ronald Amundson and Peter Hucklenbroich, this chapter proposes such a definition. Health, as defined in this chapter, is the absence of conditions that directly cause, or threaten (...)
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  7. added 2018-05-18
    A Sartrean Account of Mental Health.Jelena Krgovic - 2017 - Theoria: Beograd 60:17-31.
  8. added 2018-05-17
    Book Reviews:The Society of Cells : Cancer and Control of Cell Proliferation and What Genes Can't Do. [REVIEW]Adam S. Wilkins - 2004 - Bioessays 26 (8):926-927.
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  9. added 2018-05-17
    Animal Models of Parkinson's Disease.Ranjita Betarbet, Todd B. Sherer & J. Timothy Greenamyre - 2002 - Bioessays 24 (4):308-318.
  10. added 2018-05-17
    Mathematical Models of HIV Pathogenesis and Treatment.Dominik Wodarz & Martin A. Nowak - 2002 - Bioessays 24 (12):1178-1187.
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  11. added 2018-03-30
    Bridging the Gap Between Medical and Bioinformatics: An Ontological Case Study in Colon Carcinoma.Anand Kumar, Yum Lina Yip, Barry Smith & Pierre Grenon - 2006 - Computers in Biology and Medicine 36 (7):694--711.
    Ontological principles are needed in order to bridge the gap between medical and biological information in a robust and computable fashion. This is essential in order to draw inferences across the levels of granularity which span medicine and biology, an example of which include the understanding of the roles of tumor markers in the development and progress of carcinoma. Such information integration is also important for the integration of genomics information with the information contained in the electronic patient records in (...)
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  12. added 2018-03-30
    Oncology Ontology in the NCI Thesaurus.Anand Kumar & Barry Smith - 2005 - Artificial Intelligence in Medicine:213-220.
    The National Cancer Institute’s Thesaurus (NCIT) has been created with the goal of providing a controlled vocabulary which can be used by specialists in the various sub-domains of oncology. It is intended to be used for purposes of annotation in ways designed to ensure the integration of data and information deriving from these various sub-domains, and thus to support more powerful cross-domain inferences. In order to evaluate its suitability for this purpose, we examined the NCIT’s treatment of the kinds of (...)
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  13. added 2018-03-25
    Quarantine, Isolation and the Duty of Easy Rescue in Public Health.Alberto Giubilini, Thomas Douglas, Hannah Maslen & Julian Savulescu - 2018 - Developing World Bioethics 18 (2):182-189.
    We address the issue of whether, why and under what conditions, quarantine and isolation are morally justified, with a particular focus on measures implemented in the developing world. We argue that the benefits of quarantine and isolation justify some level of coercion or compulsion by the state, but that the state should be able to provide the strongest justification possible for implementing such measures. While a constrained form of consequentialism might provide a justification for such public health interventions, we argue (...)
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  14. added 2018-02-16
    Rationality and Sanity: The Role of Rationality Judgments in Understanding Psychiatric Disorders.Lisa Bortolotti - 2012 - In K. W. M. Fulford (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy and Psychiatry. Oxford University Press. pp. 480.
    The main objective in this chapter is to examine the role of judgments of rationality in the current understanding of psychiatric disorders. To what extent are the criteria for classification and diagnosis independent of judgments of rationality? The typical symptoms of many psychiatric disorders are described as instances of epistemic, procedural, or emotional irrationality, and references to such forms of irrationality are frequently made in the current classificatory and diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia, dementia, depression, and personality disorders. That said, the (...)
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  15. added 2017-12-11
    Malaria Diagnosis and the Plasmodium Life Cycle: The BFO Perspective.Werner Ceusters & Barry Smith - 2010 - In Interdisciplinary Ontology. Proceedings of the Third Interdisciplinary Ontology Meeting. Tokyo: Keio University Press. pp. 25-34.
    Definitive diagnosis of malaria requires the demonstration through laboratory tests of the presence within the patient of malaria parasites or their components. Since malaria parasites can be present even in the absence of malaria manifestations, and since symptoms of malaria can be manifested even in the absence of malaria parasites, malaria diagnosis raises important issues for the adequate understanding of disease, etiology and diagnosis. One approach to the resolution of these issues adopts a realist view, according to which the needed (...)
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  16. added 2017-12-08
    Applications of the ACGT Master Ontology on Cancer.Mathias Brochhausen, Gabriele Weiler, Luis Martín, Cristian Cocos, Holger Stenzhorn, Norbert Graf, Martin Dörr, Manolis Tsiknakis & Barry Smith - 2008 - In R. Meersman & P. Herrero (eds.), Proceedings of 4th International IFIP Workshop On Semantic Web and Web Semantics (OTM 2008: Workshops), LNCS 5333. pp. 1046–1055.
    In this paper we present applications of the ACGT Master Ontology (MO) which is a new terminology resource for a transnational network providing data exchange in oncology, emphasizing the integration of both clinical and molecular data. The development of a new ontology was necessary due to problems with existing biomedical ontologies in oncology. The ACGT MO is a test case for the application of best practices in ontology development. This paper provides an overview of the application of the ontology within (...)
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  17. added 2017-12-01
    A Plant Disease Extension of the Infectious Disease Ontology.Ramona Walls, Barry Smith, Elser Justin, Goldfain Albert & W. Stevenson Dennis - 2012 - In Proceeedings of the Third International Conference on Biomedical Ontology (CEUR 897). pp. 1-5.
    Plants from a handful of species provide the primary source of food for all people, yet this source is vulnerable to multiple stressors, such as disease, drought, and nutrient deficiency. With rapid population growth and climate uncertainty, the need to produce crops that can tolerate or resist plant stressors is more crucial than ever. Traditional plant breeding methods may not be sufficient to overcome this challenge, and methods such as highOthroughput sequencing and automated scoring of phenotypes can provide significant new (...)
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  18. added 2017-11-24
    Ontological Representation of CDC Active Bacterial Core Surveillance Case Reports.Albert Goldfain, Barry Smith & Lindsay G. Cowell - 2014 - Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Biomedical Ontology 1327:74-77.
    The Center for Disease Control and Prevention’s Active Bacterial Core Surveillance (CDC ABCs) Program is a collaborative effort betweeen the CDC, state health departments, laboratories, and universities to track invasive bacterial pathogens of particular importance to public health [1]. The year-end surveillance reports produced by this program help to shape public policy and coordinate responses to emerging infectious diseases over time. The ABCs case report form (CRF) data represents an excellent opportunity for data reuse beyond the original surveillance purposes.
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  19. added 2017-11-13
    Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (DC/TMD) for Clinical and Research Applications.Eric Schiffman, Richard Ohrbach, E. Truelove, Edmond Truelove, John Look, Gary Anderson, Werner Ceusters, Barry Smith & Others - 2014 - Journal of Oral and Facial Pain and Headache 28 (1):6-27.
    Aims: The Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandi¬bular Disorders (RDC/TMD) Axis I diagnostic algorithms were demonstrated to be reliable but below target sensitivity and specificity. Empirical data supported Axis I algorithm revisions that were valid. Axis II instruments were shown to be both reliable and valid. An international consensus workshop was convened to obtain recommendations and finalization of new Axis I diagnostic algorithms and new Axis II instruments. Methods: A comprehensive search of published TMD diagnostic literature was followed by review and (...)
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  20. added 2017-11-13
    Constructing a Lattice of Infectious Disease Ontologies From a Staphylococcus Aureus Isolate Repository.Albert Goldfain, Lindsay G. Cowell & Barry Smith - 2012 - In Proceeedings of the Third International Conference on Biomedical Ontology (CEUR 897).
    A repository of clinically associated Staphylococcus aureus (Sa) isolates is used to semi‐automatically generate a set of application ontologies for specific subfamilies of Sa‐related disease. Each such application ontology is compatible with the Infectious Disease Ontology (IDO) and uses resources from the Open Biomedical Ontology (OBO) Foundry. The set of application ontologies forms a lattice structure beneath the IDO‐Core and IDO‐extension reference ontologies. We show how this lattice can be used to define a strategy for the construction of a new (...)
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  21. added 2017-11-09
    On the Proper Treatment of Pathologies in Biomedical Ontologies.Barry Smith & Anand Kumar - 2005 - In Proceedings of the Bio-Ontologies Workshop, Intelligent Systems for Molecular Biology (ISMB 2005). Detroit: pp. 22-23.
    In previous work on biomedical ontologies we showed how the provision of formal definitions for relations such as is_a and part_of can support new types of auto-mated reasoning about biomedical phenomena. We here extend this approach to the transformation_of characteristic of pathologies.
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  22. added 2017-11-02
    Representing Disease Courses: An Application of the Neurological Disease Ontology to Multiple Sclerosis Typology.Mark Jensen, Alexander P. Cox, Barry Smith & Alexander Diehl - 2013 - In Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Biomedical Ontology (ICBO), CEUR, vol. 1060.
    The Neurological Disease Ontology (ND) is being developed to provide a comprehensive framework for the representation of neurological diseases (Diehl et al., 2013). ND utilizes the model established by the Ontology for General Medical Science (OGMS) for the representation of entities in medicine and disease (Scheuermann et al., 2009). The goal of ND is to include information for each disease concerning its molecular, genetic, and environmental origins, the processes involved in its etiology and realization, as well as its clinical presentation (...)
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  23. added 2017-10-29
    Mistakes in Medical Ontologies: Where Do They Come From and How Can They Be Detected?Werner Ceusters, Barry Smith, Anand Kumar & Christoffel Dhaen - 2004 - Studies in Health and Technology Informatics 102:145-164.
    We present the details of a methodology for quality assurance in large medical terminologies and describe three algorithms that can help terminology developers and users to identify potential mistakes. The methodology is based in part on linguistic criteria and in part on logical and ontological principles governing sound classifications. We conclude by outlining the results of applying the methodology in the form of a taxonomy different types of errors and potential errors detected in SNOMED-CT.
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  24. added 2017-10-13
    Labelled Bodies: Classification of Diseases and the Medical Way of Knowing.Ilana Lowy - 2011 - History of Science 49 (3):299-315.
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  25. added 2017-09-10
    The Medical Nonnecessity of In Vitro Fertilization.Carolyn McLeod - 2017 - Ijfab: International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 10 (1):78-102.
    Whether in vitro fertilization is medically necessary determines, in many jurisdictions, whether it ought to be funded through public health insurance. This is certainly the case in Canada, where the Canada Health Act requires that provinces pay for all medically necessary health care services. Debate raged recently in Ontario, my own province, over whether IVF should be deemed medically necessary and therefore covered under Ontario’s Health Insurance Plan. Advocates for public funding insisted that Ontario, along with most other provinces in (...)
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  26. added 2017-07-24
    Decision and Discovery in Defining “Disease”.Peter H. Schwartz - 2007 - In Harold Kincaid & Jennifer McKitrick (eds.), Establishing medical reality: Methodological and metaphysical issues in philosophy of medicine. Dordrecht: Springer. pp. 47-63.
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  27. added 2017-07-14
    Risk and Disease.Peter H. Schwartz - 2008 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 51 (3):320-334.
    The way that diseases such as high blood pressure (hypertension), high cholesterol, and diabetes are defined is closely tied to ideas about modifiable risk. In particular, the threshold for diagnosing each of these conditions is set at the level where future risk of disease can be reduced by lowering the relevant parameter (of blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein, or blood glucose, respectively). In this article, I make the case that these criteria, and those for diagnosing and treating other “risk-based diseases,” reflect (...)
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  28. added 2017-05-13
    Functions in Basic Formal Ontology.Andrew Spear, Werner Ceusters & Barry Smith - 2016 - Applied Ontology 11 (2):103-128.
    The notion of function is indispensable to our understanding of distinctions such as that between being broken and being in working order (for artifacts) and between being diseased and being healthy (for organisms). A clear account of the ontology of functions and functioning is thus an important desideratum for any top-level ontology intended for application to domains such as engineering or medicine. The benefit of using top-level ontologies in applied ontology can only be realized when each of the categories identified (...)
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  29. added 2017-03-13
    Disease as a Vague and Thick Cluster Concept.Geert Keil & Ralf Stoecker - 2017 - In Geert Keil, Lara Keuck & Rico Hauswald (eds.), Vagueness in Psychiatry. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 46-74.
    This chapter relates the problem of demarcating the pathological from the non-pathological in psychiatry to the general problem of defining ‘disease’ in the philosophy of medicine. Section 2 revisits three prominent debates in medical nosology: naturalism versus normativism, the three dimensions of illness, sickness, and disease, and the demarcation problem. Sections 3–5 reformulate the demarcation problem in terms of semantic vagueness. ‘Disease’ exhibits vagueness of degree by drawing no sharp line in a continuum and is combinatorially vague because there are (...)
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  30. added 2017-03-02
    Fragility, Uncertainty, and Healthcare.Wendy A. Rogers & Mary J. Walker - 2016 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 37 (1):71-83.
    Medicine seeks to overcome one of the most fundamental fragilities of being human, the fragility of good health. No matter how robust our current state of health, we are inevitably susceptible to future illness and disease, while current disease serves to remind us of various frailties inherent in the human condition. This article examines the relationship between fragility and uncertainty with regard to health, and argues that there are reasons to accept rather than deny at least some forms of uncertainty. (...)
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  31. added 2017-02-16
    Seuchenkonzepte Und Frühneuzeitliche Gesellschaft: Deutungen von „Pestilenzen” Und Städtischer Alltag†.Annemarie Kinzelbach - 1997 - Berichte Zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte 20 (2-3):253-265.
    This study shows how the different concepts of epidemic diseases met with the everyday needs of the late medieval and early modern society. The analysis of practice and discourse in the context of „pestilences” covers broad social strata from representatives of the authorities and medical doctors to artisans and the „poor” in German Imperial Towns and their territories. Generally, those persons acted according to a variety of concepts. Their seemingly contradictory actions cannot be explained refering to their ignorance about infection, (...)
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  32. added 2017-02-16
    Heavy Drinking: The Myth of Alcoholism as a Disease.Herbert Fingarette - 1991 - Philosophical Review 100 (3):493-498.
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  33. added 2017-02-16
    The Diseases of Personality.Th Ribot - 1894 - Philosophical Review 3:763.
  34. added 2017-02-15
    Biological Pathology From an Organizational Perspective.Cristian Saborido & Alvaro Moreno - 2015 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 36 (1):83-95.
    In contrast to the “normativist” view, “naturalist” theorists claim that the concept of health refers to natural or normal states and propose different characterizations of healthy and diseased conditions that are meant to be objectivist and biologically grounded. In this article, we examine the core concept of these naturalist accounts of disease, i.e., the concept of biological malfunction, and develop a new formulation of the notion of malfunction following the recent organizational approach to functions in the philosophy of biology. We (...)
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  35. added 2017-02-15
    Reframing the Disease Debate and Defending the Biostatistical Theory.Peter H. Schwartz - 2014 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 39 (6):572-589.
    Similarly to other accounts of disease, Christopher Boorse’s Biostatistical Theory (BST) is generally presented and considered as conceptual analysis, that is, as making claims about the meaning of currently used concepts. But conceptual analysis has been convincingly critiqued as relying on problematic assumptions about the existence, meaning, and use of concepts. Because of these problems, accounts of disease and health should be evaluated not as claims about current meaning, I argue, but instead as proposals about how to define and use (...)
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  36. added 2017-02-15
    Using the Ebola Outbreak as an Opportunity to Educate on Vaccine Utility.Brandon Brown - 2014 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 11 (4):415-416.
    The first domestic death from Ebola in the United States occurred in Texas in October 2014. Family members who were potentially exposed to the infected individual were legally and involuntarily quarantined. Quarantine may not be a recent normal practice in the United States, but it was used extensively during the influenza pandemic in the early 20th century. However, health care ethics comes into play when we quarantine someone whose infection status is unknown versus active. To prevent the spread of a (...)
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  37. added 2017-02-15
    Confronting Contagion: Our Evolving Understanding of Disease.Melvin Santer - 2014 - Oup Usa.
    A history of disease theory, from Classical Antiquity to modern times, discussing the various supposed causes to which people of different eras attributed disease.
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  38. added 2017-02-15
    Melancholia: The Disease of the Soul.D. Skorzewski & A. Wiercinski (eds.) - 2014 - KUL.
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  39. added 2017-02-15
    Ebola, Ethics, and the Question of Culture.Paul Komesaroff & Ian Kerridge - 2014 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 11 (4):413-414.
    The Ebola virus disease epidemic in Western Africa has, in recent months, aroused growing alarm in Western countries. Attention has been drawn to the threat posed to the inhabitants of the region by what has undoubtedly become a major health emergency. As the death toll has mounted, increasingly strident calls for action have been voiced by nongovernmental organizations and international agencies active in the area, such as Médecins Sans Frontières and the World Health Organization and, more recently, even by the (...)
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  40. added 2017-02-15
    Christopher Boorse and the Philosophy of Medicine.Thomas Schramme - 2014 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 39 (6):565-571.
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  41. added 2017-02-15
    Naturalism About Health and Disease: Adding Nuance for Progress.Elselijn Kingma - 2014 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 39 (6):590-608.
    The literature on health and diseases is usually presented as an opposition between naturalism and normativism. This article argues that such a picture is too simplistic: there is not one opposition between naturalism and normativism, but many. I distinguish four different domains where naturalist and normativist claims can be contrasted: (1) ordinary usage, (2) conceptually clean versions of “health” and “disease,” (3) the operationalization of dysfunction, and (4) the justification for that operationalization. In the process I present new arguments in (...)
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  42. added 2017-02-15
    Ebola, Epidemics, and Ethics - What We Have Learned.G. K. Donovan - 2014 - Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 9:15.
    The current Ebola epidemic has presented challenges both medical and ethical. Although we have known epidemics of untreatable diseases in the past, this particular one may be unique in the intensity and rapidity of its spread, as well as ethical challenges that it has created, exacerbated by its geographic location. We will look at the infectious agent and the epidemic it is causing, in order to understand the ethical problems that have arisen.
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  43. added 2017-02-15
    Cracking the ANP32 Whips: Important Functions, Unequal Requirement, and Hints at Disease Implications.Patrick T. Reilly, Yun Yu, Ali Hamiche & Lishun Wang - 2014 - Bioessays 36 (11):1062-1071.
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  44. added 2017-02-15
    Art, Visibility, and Ebola.Leigh E. Rich, Michael A. Ashby & David M. Shaw - 2014 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 11 (4):405-411.
    [V]isibility is central to the shaping of political, medical, and socioeconomic decisions. Who will be treated—how and where—are the central questions whose answers are often entwined with issues of visibility … [and] the effects that media visibility has on the perception of particular bodies .In a documentary entitled Paris: The Luminous Years , writer Janet Flanner describes the intense friendship of Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque. Both were inspired by Paul Cézanne and his retrospective at the 1907 Salon d’Automne—which, according (...)
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  45. added 2017-02-15
    Diseases of the Imagination and Imaginary Disease in the Early Modern Period. [REVIEW]Nicole Archambeau - 2012 - The Medieval Review 10.
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  46. added 2017-02-15
    Taking Disease Seriously: Beyond "Pragmatic" Nosology.S. Nassir Ghaemi - 2012 - In Kenneth S. Kendler & Josef Parnas (eds.), Philosophical Issues in Psychiatry Ii: Nosology. Oxford University Press.
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  47. added 2017-02-15
    Disease and the Modern World: 1500 to the Present Day. [REVIEW]Roberta Bivins - 2006 - British Journal for the History of Science 39 (2):282-283.
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  48. added 2017-02-15
    Spreading Germs: Disease Theories and Medical Practice in Britain, 1865–1900. [REVIEW]Kenneth Kiple - 2004 - British Journal for the History of Science 37 (4):480-481.
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  49. added 2017-02-15
    The Age of Immunology: Conceiving a Future in an Alienating World.A. David Napier - 2003 - University of Chicago Press.
    In this fascinating and inventive work, A. David Napier argues that the central assumption of immunology—that we survive through the recognition and elimination of non-self—has become a defining concept of the modern age. Tracing this immunological understanding of self and other through an incredibly diverse array of venues, from medical research to legal and military strategies and the electronic revolution, Napier shows how this defensive way of looking at the world not only destroys diversity but also eliminates the possibility of (...)
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  50. added 2017-02-15
    Disease and the Deceased-Response.W. Vaught & B. B. O'Connor - 1998 - Hastings Center Report 28 (6):4-4.
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1 — 50 / 541