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  1. Need, Equity, and Accountability – Evidence on Third-Party Distribution Decisions From a Vignette Study.Alexander Max Bauer, Frauke Meyer, Jan Romann, Mark Siebel & Stefan Traub - 2022 - Social Choice and Welfare.
    We report the results of a vignette study with an online sample of the German adult population in which we analyze the interplay between need, equity, and accountability in third-party distribution decisions. We asked participants to divide firewood between two hypothetical persons who either differ in their need for heat or in their productivity in terms of their ability to chop wood. The study systematically varies the persons’ accountability for their neediness as well as for their productivity. We find that (...)
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  2. Against the Anticosmopolitan Basic Structure Argument: The Systemic Concept of Distributive Justice and Economic Divisions of Labor.Edward Andrew Greetis - 2022 - Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 25 (4):551-571.
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  3. Modelling Society on a Family and Its Implications for Inequalities.Thaddeus Metz - forthcoming - In Ingrid Robeyns (ed.), Economic and Ecological Inequalities: Pluralist Philosophical Perspectives. Oxford University Press.
    I investigate which inequalities are permissible on the supposition that an ideal society would be modelled on an ideal family. One idea salient in the African and East Asian philosophical traditions is that the right sort of socio-political interaction would be similar to the intuitive ways that family members ought to relate to each other. I answer the question of what principles implicit in familial relationships entail for economic and ecological inequalities, and contend that the implications are plausible.
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  4. Distributive Justice and Taxation.Jørgen Pedersen - 2020 - Routledge.
    "Providing a thorough examination of distributive justice, Distributive Justice and Taxation presents and discusses different theories of what constitutes a just society, and how goods should be distributed in such a society. The distribution of goods in society has direct and serious consequences on the lives of the people. There are therefore important questions to be asked regarding the justice of that distribution: Is it just that some people inherit large fortunes while others inherit nothing? Do rich people have additional (...)
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  5. Distributive Justice.Tom Campbell & Julian Lamont - 2012 - Routledge.
    This volume of seminal and recent articles by philosophers in the distributive justice debate covers a range of representative positions, including libertarian, egalitarian, desert and welfare theories. The introduction and articles are designed to allow students and professionals to see some of the most influential pieces that have shaped the field, as well as some key critics of these positions. The articles intersect in such a way as to develop an appreciation of the types of theories and the central issues (...)
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  6. Epistemic Equality: Distributive Epistemic Justice in the Context of Justification.Boaz Miller & Meital Pinto - forthcoming - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal.
    Social inequality may obstruct the generation of knowledge, as the rich and powerful may ‎bring about social acceptance of skewed views that suit their interests. Epistemic equality in ‎the context of ‎justification is a means of preventing such obstruction. Drawing on social ‎epistemology and theories of equality and distributive justice, we provide an account of ‎epistemic equality. We regard participation in, and influence over a ‎knowledge-generating ‎discourse in an epistemic community as a limited good that needs to be justly distributed (...)
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  7. Raqeeb, Haastrup, and Evans: Seeking Consistency Through a Distributive Justice-Based Approach to Limitation of Treatment in the Context of Dispute.James Cameron, Julian Savulescu & Dominic Wilkinson - 2022 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 50 (1):169-180.
    When is life-sustaining treatment not in the best interests of a minimally conscious child? This is an extremely difficult question that incites seemingly intractable debate. And yet, it is the question courts in England and Wales have set out to answer in disputes about appropriate medical treatment for children.
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  8. Thresholds and Limits in Theories of Distributive Justice (Thesis Summary).Dick Timmer - 2022 - Erasmus Journal for Philosophy and Economics 15 (1).
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  9. Private Duty Creation in Theories of Distributive Justice.Sergei Sazonov - 2022 - Social Theory and Practice 48 (2):379-401.
    Historical entitlement theories of property rights, which claim that individuals can acquire moral property rights over natural resources by appropriating them, traditionally face a strong objection: it is widely implausible that a single individual can unilaterally impose duties on everyone around him and yet, apparently, this is exactly what such theories allow. In this essay, I argue that the same problem appears in all other theories of distributive justice and if this problem was a reason to reject historical entitlement theories, (...)
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  10. The Mirage of Mark-to-Market: Distributive Justice and Alternatives to Capital Taxation.Charles Delmotte & Nick Cowen - 2022 - Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 25 (2):211-234.
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  11. The Supersession Thesis, Climate Change, and the Rights of Future People.Santiago Truccone-Borgogno - 2022 - Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 25 (3):364-379.
    In this article, I explore the relationship between the supersession thesis and the rights of future people. In particular, I show that changes in circumstances might supersede future people’s rights. I argue that appropriating resources that belong to future people does not necessarily result in a duty to return the resources in full. I explore how these findings are relevant for climate change justice. Assuming future generations of developing countries originally had a right to use a certain amount of the (...)
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  12. The Limits of Reallocative and Algorithmic Policing.Luke William Hunt - 2022 - Criminal Justice Ethics 41 (1):1-24.
    Policing in many parts of the world—the United States in particular—has embraced an archetypal model: a conception of the police based on the tenets of individuated archetypes, such as the heroic police “warrior” or “guardian.” Such policing has in part motivated moves to (1) a reallocative model: reallocating societal resources such that the police are no longer needed in society (defunding and abolishing) because reform strategies cannot fix the way societal problems become manifest in (archetypal) policing; and (2) an algorithmic (...)
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  13. The Loving State.Adam Lovett - 2022 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy.
    I explore the idea that the state should love its citizens. It should not be indifferent towards them. Nor should it merely respect them. It should love them. We begin by looking at the bases of this idea. First, it can be grounded by a concern with state subordination. The state has enormous power over its citizens. This threatens them with subordination. Love ameliorates this threat. Second, it can be grounded by the state's lack of moral status. We all have (...)
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  14. Distributive Justice in Pre-Qin Confucianism: Equality, Priority, and Sufficiency.Chun Hin Tsoi - 2021 - In Robert A. Carleo & Yong Huang (eds.), Confucian Political Philosophy: Dialogues on the State of the Field. Springer Verlag. pp. 137-163.
    In Confucius, Rawls and the Sense of Justice, in addition to making an interesting comparison between Rawls’ and Confucius’ sense of justice, Erin M. Cline also tried to seek elements of distributive justice, or at least concern for distributive matters, in the Analects. I shall, in this essay, try to pursue the subject even further, by examining Confucianism’s attitude towards the contemporary distributive ideals in the analytical philosophy literature—egalitarianism, prioritarianism and sufficientarianism. This will be done by first closely examining Cline’s (...)
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  15. Justice for Millionaires?James Christensen, Tom Parr & David Axelsen - forthcoming - Economics and Philosophy.
    In recent years, much public attention has been devoted to the existence of pay discrepancies between men and women at the upper end of the income scale. For example, there has been considerable discussion of the ‘Hollywood gender pay gap’. We can refer to such discrepancies as cases of millionaire inequality. These cases generate conflicting intuitions. On the one hand, the unequal remuneration involved looks like a troubling case of gender injustice. On the other, it’s natural to feel uneasy when (...)
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  16. Egalitarian Trade Justice.James Christensen - forthcoming - Moral Philosophy and Politics.
    This article begins by distinguishing between two approaches to egalitarian trade justice – the explicative approach and the applicative approach – and notes that the former has been used to defend conclusions that are less strongly egalitarian than those defended by advocates of the latter. The article then engages with the primary explicative account of trade egalitarianism – that offered by Aaron James – and argues that its egalitarian conclusions are unduly minimalistic. The aim of the article is not to (...)
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  17. Rawlsian and Confucian Distributive Justice and the Worst Off.Hui Jin - forthcoming - Philosophia:1-18.
    In any complex human society, distinct persons may have strikingly different standards of living. Those who lead the most undesirable, poorest lives in society can be called the worst off. Given that we almost always do not want to be, but some have to be, the worst off, we may want to find a right way to treat the worst off. In the West, John Rawls has proposed a conception of justice as fairness, and in the East, Confucius and Mencius (...)
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  18. Debating a Post-Work Future: Perspectives From Philosophy and the Social Sciences.Kory P. Schaff, Michael Cholbi, Jean-Phillipe Deranty & Denise Celentano (eds.) - forthcoming - New York, NY, USA: Routledge.
    Growing economic inequality, workforce precarity, the perceived meaninglessness of many jobs, and the prospect of widespread technological unemployment have led to an unprecedented level of critical scrutiny of the institution of work. Some scholars go so far as to propose that we should take seriously, or even embrace, a “post-work” future. This volume aims to provide the first critical overview of the scholarly arguments about the design and desirability of such a “post-work” world. Topics addressed in its chapters include the (...)
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  19. Legitimate Expectations: Assessing Policies of Transformation to a Low-Carbon Society.Lukas H. Meyer & Santiago Truccone-Borgogno - 2022 - Environmental Values 31:1-20.
    Legitimate expectations should be considered in the transition to a low-carbon society. After explaining under what conditions and circumstances expectations are legitimate, this paper shows that those expectations whose frustration undermines the ability to plan, infringes basic moral rights, or is extremely costly for its bearer might justify a deviation in the baseline of justice in favour of the expectation holder. People should be notified about the likely frustration of their expectations so that they can avoid the frustration of their (...)
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  20. Allocating Medicine Fairly in an Unfair Pandemic.Govind Persad - 2021 - University of Illinois Law Review 2021 (3):1085-1134.
    America’s COVID-19 pandemic has both devastated and disparately harmed minority communities. How can the allocation of scarce treatments for COVID-19 and similar public health threats fairly and legally respond to these racial disparities? Some have proposed that members of racial groups who have been especially hard-hit by the pandemic should receive priority for scarce treatments. Others have worried that this prioritization misidentifies racial disparities as reflecting biological differences rather than structural racism, or that it will generate mistrust among groups who (...)
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  21. A History of Utilitarian Ethics: Studies in Private Motivation and Distributive Justice, 1700–1875.Samuel Hollander - 2019 - London: Routledge.
    In this landmark volume, Samuel Hollander presents a fresh and compelling history of moral philosophy from Locke to John Stuart Mill, showing that a ‘moral sense’ can actually be considered compatible with utilitarianism. The book also explores the link between utilitarianism and distributive justice. Hollander engages in close textual exegesis of the works relating to individual authors, while never losing sight of the intellectual relationships between them. Tying together the greatest of the British moral philosophers, this volume reveals an unexpected (...)
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  22. The Choice of Efficiencies and the Necessity of Politics.Michael Bennett - 2020 - Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy:1-20.
    Efficiency requires legislative political institutions. There are many ways efficiency can be promoted, and so an ongoing legislative institution is necessary to resolve this choice in a politically sustainable and economically flexible way. This poses serious problems for classical liberal proposals to constitutionally protect markets from government intervention, as seen in the work of Ilya Somin, Guido Pincione & Fernando Tesón and others. The argument for the political nature of efficiency is set out in terms of both Pareto optimality and (...)
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  23. Social Cooperation as Institutional Rule-Following.Chris Melenovsky - 2020 - Public Affairs Quarterly 1 (34):26-49.
    The idea that society is a cooperative venture has been used by contractualists, contractarians, and deliberative democrats to justify the burdens of society to each member. In such a coop- erative venture, those who benefit from society owe a contribution and those that contribute are owed benefits. Even though this idea is quite intuitive, there are deep disagreements about what makes society cooperative. Some focus on acts of production, others on fair interaction, and still others on the intention to contribute (...)
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  24. Give What You Can, Take What You Need – The Effect of Framing on Rule-Breaking Behavior in Social Dilemmas.Marc Wyszynski & Alexander Max Bauer - manuscript
    To investigate the impact of framing on rule-breaking behavior in social dilemmas, we incorporated a rule in a one-shot resource game with two framing-treatments: One frame was a give-some dilemma (i.e., a variant of a public goods game) and the other frame a take-some dilemma (i.e., a variant of a commons dilemma game). In each frame, all participants were part of one single collective sharing a common good. Each participant was initially equipped with one of five different endowments of points (...)
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  25. Sylvie Loriaux, Kant and Global Distributive Justice Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2020 Pp. 64 ISBN 9781108729062 (Pbk) $20.00. [REVIEW]Milla Vaha - 2021 - Kantian Review 26 (4):671-675.
  26. The Scope of the Means Principle.Jonathan Parry - forthcoming - Journal of Moral Philosophy.
    This paper focuses on Quong’s account of the scope of the means principle (the range of actions over which the special constraint on using a person applies). One the key ideas underpinning Quong’s approach is that the means principle is downstream from an independent and morally prior account of our rights over the world and against one another. I raise three challenges to this ‘rights first’ approach. First, I consider Quong’s treatment of harmful omissions and argue that Quong’s view generates (...)
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  27. Sidgwick and Rawls on Distributive Justice and Desert.David Miller - 2021 - Politics, Philosophy and Economics 20 (4):385-408.
    This article explores, comparatively and critically, Sidgwick’s and Rawls’s reasons for rejecting desert as a principle of distributive justice. Their ethical methods, though not identical, each re...
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  28. Priority, Ethical Principle, and Allocation of Scarce Medical Resources. Di Wu - 2021 - Studies in Dialectics of Nature 11 (37):62-68.
    Aiming at the allocation of scarce medical resources, Immanuel and other scholars have put forward a set of influential ethical values and guiding principles. It assigns the priority of resource allocation to those whose lives can be saved and maximized, those who can bring the greatest instrumental value, and those who are the worse off. For other members of society, random selection under the same conditions is adopted. Following the Rawlsian "lexical order, lexicographical" rule, this priority arrangement requires that the (...)
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  29. Must Egalitarians Rely on the State to Attain Distributive Justice?Kaveh Pourvand - forthcoming - Social Philosophy and Policy.
    It is widely accepted among egalitarian political philosophers that distributive justice should be promoted by the state. This paper challenges this presumption by making two key claims. First, the state is not the only possible mechanism for attaining distributive justice. We could rely alternatively on the voluntary efforts and interactions of individuals and associations in civil society. The question of which mechanism we should rely upon is a comparative and empirical one. What matters is which better promotes distributive justice. We (...)
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  30. Fair Machine Learning Under Partial Compliance.Jessica Dai, Sina Fazelpour & Zachary Lipton - 2021 - In Proceedings of the 2021 AAAI/ACM Conference on AI, Ethics, and Society. pp. 55–65.
    Typically, fair machine learning research focuses on a single decision maker and assumes that the underlying population is stationary. However, many of the critical domains motivating this work are characterized by competitive marketplaces with many decision makers. Realistically, we might expect only a subset of them to adopt any non-compulsory fairness-conscious policy, a situation that political philosophers call partial compliance. This possibility raises important questions: how does partial compliance and the consequent strategic behavior of decision subjects affect the allocation outcomes? (...)
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  31. Political Theory and the Nonprofit Sector.Theodore Lechterman & Rob Reich - 2020 - In The Nonprofit Sector: A Research Handbook. Stanford, CA, USA: pp. 171-91.
    This chapter defends an overarching ideal of liberal democracy—government for and by the people, where each is considered free and equal—and shows how different conceptions of this ideal lead to different visions of the nonprofit sector. The argument reflects a more fundamental point: that claims about the proper shape and scope of civil society, and certainly the dimensions of nonprofit organizations, are structured by larger political ideals. We cannot understand competing visions of the nonprofit sector without seeing it in relation (...)
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  32. Making Sense of Alternative Currencies: A Summary.Louis Larue - 2019 - Reflets Et Perspectives de la Vie Économique 57 (4):63-72.
    The main goal of this thesis is to provide a clear basis for the analysis of alternative currencies, such as Bitcoin, LETS, Local currencies, the WIR or Carbon currencies. It attempts to determine whether alternative currencies might constitute just and workable alternatives, either in the form of small-scale experiments or in the form of more radical reforms. The first chapter proposes a new way to classify currencies. The second examines the case in favour of monetary plurality. The third analyses the (...)
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  33. Marché.Louis Larue - 2019 - L'Encyclopédie Philosophique.
    Qu’est-ce que le marché ? A quelles conditions peut-il être juste ? Quelle place doit-il prendre dans notre société ? Cet article passe en revue les réponses principales qui ont été apportées à ces questions. En premier lieu, il insiste sur les éléments qui le définissent et le distinguent d’autres systèmes économiques. Ensuite, il étudie les principaux arguments éthiques émis en sa faveur et en sa défaveur. -/- Les arguments en faveur du marché font appel à l’efficacité, à l’égalité, au (...)
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  34. Is Faith in School Integration Bad Faith?Michael S. Merry - 2021 - On Education 4 (11):1-7.
  35. Distributive Justice for Democracies: A Needs-Based Sufficientarian Approach.Eleni K. Manis - 2010 - Dissertation, University of Michigan
    I argue that members of a democratic society owe one another, as a matter of justice, access to what they need to function as full and equal citizens. My view pairs the measure of citizens’ needs with a sufficientarian principle of distribution: that is, a principle aimed at moving individuals from a position of objective lack to a position of objective satisfaction. I argue that this pairing is fitting because citizens’ needs can be satisfied at an objective, finite level of (...)
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  36. A Use of Nozick’s Notion of Catastrophe: The Distributive Justice Problem of Environmental Refugees.Justin P. Holt - 2021 - Academia Letters 1061 (1061):1-5.
    This paper will focus on the problem of environmental refugees related to environmental decay and resource loss. Robert Nozick’s distributive justice theory will be used as a theoretical framework to analyze the problem of environmental refugees. The restrictive nature of Nozick’s theory of distribution is rather practical since it meets with many of the current mores regarding wealth accumulation, desert, and aspirations for inheritance. Given our current reluctance to redistribute to prevent the effects of environmental decay, and to pay to (...)
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  37. Defensive Liability: A Matter of Rights Enforcement, not Distributive Justice.Susanne Burri - forthcoming - Criminal Law and Philosophy:1-15.
    The Moral Responsibility Account of Liability to Defensive Harm states that an agent becomes liable to defensive harm if, and only if, she engages in a foreseeably risk-imposing activity that subsequently threatens objectively unjustified harm. Advocates of the account contend that liability to defensive harm is best understood as an aspect of distributive justice. Individuals who are liable to some harm are not wronged if the harm is imposed on them, and liability to defensive harm thus helps ensure that harm (...)
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  38. Thresholds and Limits in Theories of Distributive Justice.Dick Timmer - 2021 - Dissertation, Utrecht University
    Despite the prominence of thresholds and limits in theories of distributive justice, there is no general account of their role within such theories. This has allowed an ongoing lack of clarity and misunderstanding around threshold views in distributive justice. In this thesis, I develop an account of the conceptual structure of such views. Such an account helps understand and characterize threshold views, can subsume what may seem to be different debates about such views under one conceptual header, and can be (...)
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  39. Luck Egalitarianism and the History of Political Thought.Carl Knight - 2016 - In Camilla Boisen & Matthew C. Murray (eds.), Distributive Justice Debates in Political and Social Thought. Abingdon, UK: pp. 26-38.
    Luck egalitarianism is a family of egalitarian theories of distributive justice that give a special place to luck, choice, and responsibility. These theories can be understood as responding to perceived weaknesses in influential earlier theories of both the left – in particular Rawls’ liberal egalitarianism (1971) – and the right – Nozick’s libertarianism (1974) stands out here. Rawls put great emphasis on the continuity of his theory with the great social contract theories of modern political thought, particularly emphasising its Kantian (...)
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  40. Egalitarianism.Carl Knight & Andreas Albertsen - 2018 - Oxford Bibliographies in Political Science.
    Equality as a bare concept refers to two or more distinct things or people being the same in some dimension. Different forms of equality are distinguished by the dimension that is held to be the same. Within political theory, three main forms of equality can be distinguished: moral equality, political equality, and substantive equality. “Moral equality” refers to each individual having the same inherent dignity as a human being, and therefore being worthy of respect. “Political equality,” by contrast, refers to (...)
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  41. La Giustizia Globale al Tempo della Globalizzazione Convergente.Fausto Corvino - 2019 - Notizie di Politeia (136):185-204.
    Globalisation has come under severe pressure at the exact moment when some of those we used to regard as the winners of the global market have started to lose from it. Or, in other words, globalisation is going through the most serious drawback since the post-war era just when divergent growth between countries has inverted its trend, thus becoming convergent. In this article I argue that convergent globalisation poses a serious theoretical challenge to the idea of global justice. More precisely, (...)
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  42. Enough Is Too Much: The Excessiveness Objection to Sufficientarianism.Carl Knight - forthcoming - Economics and Philosophy.
    The standard version of sufficientarianism maintains that providing people with enough, or as close to enough as is possible, is lexically prior to other distributive goals. This article argues that this is excessive - more than distributive justice allows - in four distinct ways. These concern the magnitude of advantage, the number of beneficiaries, responsibility and desert, and above-threshold distribution. Sufficientarians can respond by accepting that providing enough unconditionally is more than distributive justice allows, instead balancing sufficiency against other considerations.
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  43. Distributive Justice as a Means of Combating Systemic Racism in Healthcare.Derek Soled - 2021 - Voices in Bioethics 7.
  44. Incorporating Health Equity Into COVID-19 Reopening Plans: Policy Experimentation in California.Emily A. Largent, Govind Persad, Michelle M. Mello, Danielle M. Wenner, Daniel B. Kramer, Brownsyne Tucker Edmonds & Monica Peek - 2021 - American Journal of Public Health 1 (1):e1-e8.
    California has focused on health equity in the state’s COVID-19 reopening plan. The Blueprint for a Safer Economy assigns each of California’s 58 counties into 1 of 4 tiers based on 2 metrics: test positivity rate and adjusted case rate. To advance to the next less-restrictive tier, counties must meet that tier’s test positivity and adjusted case rate thresholds. In addition, counties must have a plan for targeted investments within disadvantaged communities, and counties with more than 106 000 residents must (...)
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  45. Introducing Climate Ethics and a New Climate Principle.Kian Mintz-Woo - 2021 - American Philosophical Association Blog.
    [Blog Post] This blog post (1) introduces a fundamental debate in climate ethics (polluter pays v beneficiary pays v ability to pay principles) while (2) arguing for a new principle (polluter pays, then receives, or PPTR/"Peter", principle).
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  46. A Relational Theory of Justice.Thaddeus Metz - forthcoming - Oxford University Press.
    The core idea of A Relational Theory of Justice (RTJ) is that normative political and legal philosophy should be grounded on people’s relational features, roughly their ability to commune with others and be communed with by them. Usually, philosophers of justice in the West have based their views on people’s intrinsic features, ones that make no essential reference to others, such as their autonomy, self-ownership, or well-being. In addition, often critics of basing politics and law on justice, whether in the (...)
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  47. Recent Work in African Political and Legal Philosophy.Thaddeus Metz - 2021 - Philosophy Compass 16 (9):1-10.
    In this article I critically survey non-edited books on political and legal philosophy that have been composed by those working in the sub-Saharan African tradition and have appeared in print since 2016. These monographs principally address political, distributive, and criminal justice at the domestic level, with this article recounting the essentials of these texts as well as noting prima facie weaknesses in their positions and gaps in current research agendas. My aims are to enable readers to obtain a bird’s-eye picture (...)
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  48. Strategic Justice, Conventions, and Game Theory: Themes in the Philosophy of Peter Vanderschraaf.John Thrasher & Michael Moehler (eds.) - forthcoming - London/Berlin/New York: Springer.
    For more than twenty years, Peter Vanderschraaf’s work has combined rigorous game-theoretic analysis, innovative use of (social) scientific method, and normative analysis in the context of the social contract. Vanderschraaf’s work has influenced a significant interdisciplinary field of study and culminated in the publication of his book, Strategic Justice: Convention and Problems of Balancing Divergent Interests (OUP, 2019). Building upon his previous work, Vanderschraaf developed a new theory of justice (justice-as-convention) that, despite a mutual advantage approach, considers the most vulnerable (...)
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  49. Strategic Justice, Conventionalism, and Bargaining Theory.Michael Moehler - 2021 - Synthese 199 (3-4):8317-8334.
    Conventionalism as a distinct approach to the social contract received significant attention in the game-theoretic literature on social contract theory. Peter Vanderschraaf’s sophisticated and innovative theory of conventional justice represents the most recent contribution to this tradition and, in many ways, can be viewed as a culmination of this tradition. In this article, I focus primarily on Vanderschraaf’s defense of the egalitarian bargaining solution as a principle of justice. I argue that one particular formal feature of this bargaining solution, the (...)
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  50. Distributive Epistemic Justice in Science.Gürol Irzik & Faik Kurtulmus - 2021 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science.
    This article develops an account of distributive epistemic justice in the production of scientific knowledge. We identify four requirements: (a) science should produce the knowledge citizens need in order to reason about the common good, their individual good and pursuit thereof; (b) science should produce the knowledge those serving the public need to pursue justice effectively; (c) science should be organized in such a way that it does not aid the wilful manufacturing of ignorance; and (d) when making decisions about (...)
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