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  1. Sated but Thirsty – Towards a Multidimensional Measure of Need-Based Justice.Alexander Max Bauer - manuscript
    Measures of need-based justice that have been proposed lately rely on a single dimension of need that is taken into account. This is shown to be problematic since humans experience different kinds of need that appear to be incommensurable.
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  2. Defense of Rawls: A Reply to Brock.Paul Fryfogle - manuscript
    Cosmopolitans like Gillian Brock, Charles Beitz, and Thomas Pogge argue that the principles of justice selected and arranged in lexical priority in Rawls’ first original position would—and should for the same reasons as in the first—also be selected in Rawls’ second original position. After all, the argument goes, what reasons other than morally arbitrary ones do we have for selecting a second set of principles? A different, though undoubtedly related, point of contention is the cosmopolitan charge that Rawls fails to (...)
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  3. Fairness, Distributive Justice and Global Justice.Adam Hosein - manuscript
    In this paper I discuss justice in the distribution of resources, both within states and across different states. On one influential view, it is always unjust for one person to have less than another through no fault of her own. State borders, on this account, have no importance in determining which distributions are just. I show that an alternative approach is needed. I argue that distributions of wealth are only unjust in so far as they issue from unfair treatment. It (...)
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  4. Is Wealth Redistribution a Rights Violation?Michael Huemer - manuscript
    I argue that taxation for redistributive purposes is a property rights violation, responding to arguments (due to Nagel, Murphy, Sunstein, and Holmes) claiming that individuals lack ownership of their pretax incomes.
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  5. 'Distributive Justice and Climate Change'.Simon Caney - forthcoming - In Serena Olsaretti (ed.), Oxford Handbook of Distributive Justice. Oxford University Press.
    This paper discusses two distinct questions of distributive justice raised by climate change. Stated very roughly, one question concerns how much protection is owed to the potential victims of climate change (the Just Target Question), and the second concerns how the burdens (and benefits) involved in preventing dangerous climate change should be distributed (the Just Burden Question). In Section II, I focus on the first of these questions, the Just Target Question. The rest of the paper examines the second question, (...)
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  6. What Do ‘Humans’ Need? Sufficiency and Pluralism.Ben Davies - forthcoming - Ethics, Policy and Environment.
    Sufficientarians face a problem of arbitrariness: why place a sufficiency threshold at any particular point? One response is to seek universal goods to justify a threshold. However, this faces difficulties (despite sincere efforts) by either being too low, or failing to accommodate individuals with significant cognitive disabilities. Some sufficientarians have appealed to individuals’ subjective evaluations of their lives. I build on this idea, considering another individualized threshold: ‘tolerability’. I respond to some traditional challenges to individualistic approaches to justice: ‘expensive’ tastes, (...)
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  7. Fair Allocation of GLP-1 and Dual GLP-1-GIP Receptor Agonists.Ezekiel J. Emanuel, Johan L. Dellgren, Matthew S. McCoy & Govind Persad - forthcoming - New England Journal of Medicine.
    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists, such as semaglutide, and dual GLP-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) receptor agonists, such as tirzepatide, have been found to be effective for treating obesity and diabetes, significantly reducing weight and the risk or predicted risk of adverse cardiovascular events. There is a global shortage of these medications that could last several years and raises questions about how limited supplies should be allocated. We propose a fair-allocation framework that enables evaluation of the ethics of current (...)
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  8. Machines and Technological Unemployment: Basic Income vs. Basic Capital.Elias Moser - forthcoming - In Steven John Thompson (ed.), Machine Law, Ethics, and Morality in the Age of Artificial Intelligence. Hershey: IGI Global. pp. 205-225.
    Recently, economic studies on labor market developments have indicated that there is a potential threat of technological mass unemployment. Both smart robotics and information technology may perform a broad range of tasks that today are fulfilled by human labor. This development could lead to vast inequalities. Proponents of an unconditional basic income have, therefore, employed this scenario to argue for their cause. In this chapter, the author argues that, although a basic income might be a valid answer to the challenge (...)
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  9. Integralism and Justice for All.James Dominic Rooney - forthcoming - Nova et Vetera.
    Catholic integralism is a tradition of thought which insists upon the ideal nature of political arrangements on which the Church can mandate the State to advance the supernatural good of the baptized. Thomas Pink, one of the foremost defenders, has proposed controversially that these arrangements are ideal because the Church possesses rights to civil coercive authority. But I argue this fact would not entail – by itself – the ideal nature of those arrangements. To the contrary, I argue that integralism (...)
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  10. Educational Justice and School Boosting.Marcus Arvan - 2024 - Social Theory and Practice 50 (1):1-31.
    School boosters are tax-exempt organizations that engage in fundraising efforts to provide public schools with supplementary resources. This paper argues that prevailing forms of school boosting are defeasibly unjust. Section 1 shows that inequalities in public education funding in the United States violate John Rawls’s two principles of domestic justice. Section 2 argues that prevailing forms of school boosting exacerbate and plausibly perpetuate these injustices. Section 3 then contends that boosting thereby defeasibly violates Rawlsian principles of nonideal theory for rectifying (...)
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  11. Manufactured scarcity and the allocation of scarce resources–Authors' reply.Ezekiel J. Emanuel & Govind Persad - 2024 - The Lancet 403 (10426):532.
  12. Replacing Development: An Afro-communal Approach to Distributive Justice (Repr.).Thaddeus Metz - 2024 - In Ephraim Stephen Essien & Frank Aragbonfoh Abumere (eds.), African Political and Economic Philosophy with Africapitalism: Concepts for African Leadership. Rowman and Littlefield. pp. 103-120.
    Reprint of an article first appearing in Philosophical Papers (2017).
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  13. Ubuntu as a Moral Theory and Human Rights in South Africa (repr.).Thaddeus Metz - 2024 - In David Bilchitz, Thaddeus Metz & Oritsegbubemi Anthony Oyowe (eds.), Jurisprudence in an African Context, 2nd edn. Oxford University Press. pp. 361-363.
    An abridged version of an article published in 2011 focusing on its discussion of the ubuntu ethics of land reform.
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  14. Relationalizing Normative Economics: Some Insights from Africa.Thaddeus Metz - 2024 - In Josef Wieland, Stefan Linder, Jessica Geraldo Schwengber & Adrian Zicari (eds.), Cooperation in Value-Creating Networks Relational Perspectives on Governing Social and Economic Value Creation in the 21st Century. Springer. pp. 167-185.
    In this chapter I systematically distinguish a variety of ways to relationalize economics, and focus on a certain approach to relationalizing normative economics in the light of communal values salient in the African philosophical tradition. I start by distinguishing four major ways to relationalize empirical economics, viz., in terms of its ontologies, methods, explanations, and predictions, and also three major ways to relationalize normative economics, in regards to means taken towards ends, decision-procedures used to specify ends, and ends themselves. Then, (...)
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  15. Diversity, Polycentricity, Justice, and the Open Society.Michael Moehler - 2024 - In Michael Moehler & John Thrasher (eds.), New Approaches to Social Contract Theory: Liberty, Equality, Diversity, and the Open Society. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 227-251.
    Moral diversity poses significant challenges for normative theory building, because no particular conception of justice may be agreeable to all members of society. Polycentrism offers a potential solution by allowing a plurality of local regulative principles. For deeply diverse societies, however, polycentrism fails conceptually. This chapter argues that Moehler’s (2018) multilevel social contract theory can overcome this problem. The theory disposes the quest for justice as the sole and exclusive objective and considers agents’ liberty and peaceful interaction as the primary (...)
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  16. New Approaches to Social Contract Theory: Liberty, Equality, Diversity, and the Open Society.Michael Moehler & John Thrasher (eds.) - 2024 - Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    This book features new approaches to social contract theory. Whereas traditional social contract theories and their adaptations in the twentieth century were developed for fairly homogeneous societies, societies in the twenty-first century often are characterized by conflicting first-order directives that stem from deep moral, political, religious, and cultural diversity. To address such diversity and the complexities of contemporary societies, new approaches (including formal approaches) to social contract theory have emerged that re-envision the social contract for a fragmented and sometimes polarized, (...)
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  17. Against the Applicability Argument for Sufficientarianism.Cecilia Maria Pedersen & Lasse Nielsen - 2024 - Journal of Value Inquiry 58 (2):179-195.
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  18. The Philosophy of Money and Finance.Joakim Sandberg & Lisa Warenski (eds.) - 2024 - Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
    Release dates: 30 January 2024 (UK and Europe), 18 March 2024 (North America). This collection of essays introduces scholars and students to the emerging field of the philosophy of money and finance. The field is a relatively new subdiscipline within the subject of philosophy. Although philosophical theorizing about money and finance dates back to Antiquity, the events of the 2008 financial crisis brought new urgency to a broad array of questions about finance, and the body of philosophical research on the (...)
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  19. A Values Framework for Evaluating Alienation in Off-Earth Food Systems.Holly Andersen, Elliot Schwartz & Tammara Soma - 2023 - Food Ethics 8 (23):1-16.
    Given the technological constraints of long-duration space travel and planetary settlement, off-Earth humans will likely need to employ food systems very different from their terrestrial counterparts, and newly emerging food technologies are being developed that will shape novel food systems in these off-Earth contexts. Projected off-Earth food systems may therefore potentially “alienate” their users in new ways compared to Earth-based food systems. They will be susceptible to alienation in ways that are similar to such potential on Earth, where there are (...)
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  20. Effective Altruism, Global Justice, and Individual Obligations.Brian Berkey - 2023 - Georgetown Journal of Law and Public Policy 21:675-692.
    On at least most accounts of what global justice requires, those living in severe poverty around the world are unjustly disadvantaged. Remedying this unjust disadvantage requires (perhaps among other things) that resources currently possessed by well-off people are deployed in ways that will improve the lives of the poor. In this article, I argue that, contrary to the claims of some critics, well-off individuals’ effective altruist giving is at least among the appropriate responses to global injustice. In addition, I suggest (...)
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  21. Relative priority.Lara Buchak - 2023 - Economics and Philosophy 39 (2):199-229.
    The good of those who are worse off matters more to the overall good than the good of those who are better off does. But being worse off than one’s fellows is not itself bad; nor is inequality itself bad; nor do differences in well-being matter more when well-being is lower in an absolute sense. Instead, the good of the relatively worse-off weighs more heavily in the overall good than the good of the relatively better-off does, in virtue of the (...)
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  22. Justice in Human Capital.Michael Cholbi - 2023 - In Julian David Jonker & Grant J. Rozeboom (eds.), Working as Equals: Relational Egalitarianism and the Workplace. New York, US: Oxford University Press USA. pp. 113-131.
    Human capital is that body of skills, knowledge, or dispositions that enhances the value of individuals’ contributions to economic production. Because human capital is both a byproduct of, and an important ingredient in, cooperative productive activities, it is subject to demands of justice. Here I consider what comparative justice in human capital benefits and burdens amounts to, with a special concern for the place of equality in allocating such burdens and benefits. Identifying these demands is complicated by the fact that (...)
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  23. The shared ethical framework to allocate scarce medical resources: a lesson from COVID-19.Ezekiel J. Emanuel & Govind Persad - 2023 - The Lancet 401 (10391):1892–1902.
    The COVID-19 pandemic has helped to clarify the fair and equitable allocation of scarce medical resources, both within and among countries. The ethical allocation of such resources entails a three-step process: (1) elucidating the fundamental ethical values for allocation, (2) using these values to delineate priority tiers for scarce resources, and (3) implementing the prioritisation to faithfully realise the fundamental values. Myriad reports and assessments have elucidated five core substantive values for ethical allocation: maximising benefits and minimising harms, mitigating unfair (...)
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  24. Fair domestic allocation of monkeypox virus countermeasures.Govind Persad, R. J. Leland, Trygve Ottersen, Henry S. Richardson, Carla Saenz, G. Owen Schaefer & Ezekiel J. Emanuel - 2023 - Lancet Public Health 8 (5):e378–e382.
    Countermeasures for mpox (formerly known as monkeypox), primarily vaccines, have been in limited supply in many countries during outbreaks. Equitable allocation of scarce resources during public health emergencies is a complex challenge. Identifying the objectives and core values for the allocation of mpox countermeasures, using those values to provide guidance for priority groups and prioritisation tiers, and optimising allocation implementation are important. The fundamental values for the allocation of mpox countermeasures are: preventing death and illness; reducing the association between death (...)
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  25. Exploitation, Trade Justice, and Corporate Obligations.Brian Berkey - 2022 - Moral Philosophy and Politics 9 (1):11-29.
    In On Trade Justice, Risse and Wollner defend an account of trade justice on which the central requirement, applying to both states and firms, is a requirement of non-exploitation. On their view, trade exploitation consists in ‘power-induced failure of reciprocity’, which generates an unfair distribution of the benefits and burdens associated with trade relationships. In this paper, I argue that while there are many appealing features of Risse and Wollner’s account, their discussion does not articulate and develop the unified picture (...)
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  26. Impartial Evaluation under Ambiguity.Richard Bradley - 2022 - Ethics 132 (3):541-569.
    How should an impartial social observer judge distributions of well-being across different individuals when there is uncertainty regarding the state of the world? I explore this question by imposing very weak conditions of rationality and benevolent sympathy on impartial betterness judgments under uncertainty. Although weak enough to be consistent with all the main theories of rationality, these conditions prove to be sufficient to rule out any heterogeneity in what is good for individuals, to require a neutral attitude to uncertainty on (...)
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  27. Justicia y transmisión de enfermedades contagiosas. El argumento del bien común como fundamento de las restricciones a la autonomía individual.Noelia Martínez Doallo - 2022 - In Leyre Elizari Urtasun & María Luisa Arcos Vieira (eds.), La protección de la salud frente al riesgo de contagio. Madrid: BOSCH. pp. 427-463.
    Diversas fuentes culturales explican los orígenes del marcado individualismo imperante en nuestras sociedades actuales. Posiblemente, una de las manifestaciones más aclamadas de este individualismo sea la primacía de la autonomía individual, elemento clave en la articulación y fundamentación de las posiciones jurídicas subjetivas presentes en la práctica totalidad de los ordenamientos jurídicos contemporáneos, y como resultado de la expansión de la cultura occidental. Sin embargo, en ocasiones, el peso otorgado a la autonomía se antoja desproporcionado, especialmente cuando conduce a la (...)
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  28. Procedural Fairness in Exchange Matching Systems.Gil Hersch - 2022 - Journal of Business Ethics 188 (2):367-377.
    The move from open outcry to electronic trading added another responsibility to futures exchanges—that of matching orders between buyers and sellers. Matching systems can affect the level and speed of price discovery, the distribution of revenue, as well as the level of price efficiency of a given market. Whether the matching system is procedurally fair is another important consideration. I argue that while FIFO (First In First Out) is a fair procedure in principle and is perceived as the default matching (...)
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  29. Political equality, plural voting, and the leveling down objection.David Peña-Rangel - 2022 - Politics, Philosophy and Economics 21 (2):122-164.
    Politics, Philosophy & Economics, Volume 21, Issue 2, Page 122-164, May 2022. I argue that the consensus view that one must never level down to equality gives rise to a dilemma. This dilemma is best understood by examining two parallel cases of leveling down: one drawn from the economic domain, the other from the political. In the economic case, both egalitarians and non-egalitarians have resisted the idea of leveling down wages to equality. With no incentives for some people to work (...)
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  30. Shameless luck egalitarians.Adina Preda & Kristin Voigt - 2022 - Journal of Social Philosophy 54 (1):41-58.
    A recurring concern about luck egalitarianism is that its implementation would make some individuals, in particular those who lack marketable talents, experience shame. This, the objection goes, undermines individuals’ self-respect, which, in turn, may also lead to unequal respect between individuals. Loss of (self-)respect is a concern for any egalitarian, including distributive egalitarians, inasmuch as it is non-compensable. This paper responds to this concern by clarifying the relationship between shame and (self-)respect. We argue, first, a luck egalitarian society and ethos (...)
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  31. Identity and the Limits of Fair Assessment.Rush T. Stewart - 2022 - Journal of Theoretical Politics 34 (3):415-442.
    In many assessment problems—aptitude testing, hiring decisions, appraisals of the risk of recidivism, evaluation of the credibility of testimonial sources, and so on—the fair treatment of different groups of individuals is an important goal. But individuals can be legitimately grouped in many different ways. Using a framework and fairness constraints explored in research on algorithmic fairness, I show that eliminating certain forms of bias across groups for one way of classifying individuals can make it impossible to eliminate such bias across (...)
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  32. Dose optimisation and scarce resource allocation: two sides of the same coin.Garth Strohbehn, Govind Persad, William F. Parker & Srinivas Murthy - 2022 - BMJ Open 12 (10):e063436.
    Objective: A deep understanding of the relationship between a scarce drug's dose and clinical response is necessary to appropriately distribute a supply-constrained drug along these lines. Summary of key data: The vast majority of drug development and repurposing during the COVID-19 pandemic – an event that has made clear the ever-present scarcity in healthcare systems –has been ignorant of scarcity and dose optimisation's ability to help address it. Conclusions: Future pandemic clinical trials systems should obtain dose optimisation data, as these (...)
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  33. The Sufficiency Proviso.Fabian Wendt - 2022 - In Matt Zwolinski & Benjamin Ferguson (eds.), The Routledge Companion to Libertarianism. Routledge. pp. 169-183.
    A libertarian theory of justice holds that persons are self-owners and have the Hohfeldian moral power to justly acquire property rights in initially unowned external resources. Different variants of libertarianism can be distinguished according to their stance on the famous Lockean proviso. The proviso requires, in Locke’s words, to leave ‘enough and as good’ for others, and thus specifies limits on the acquisition of property. Left-libertarians accept an egalitarian interpretation of the proviso, ‘right-libertarians’ either reject any kind of proviso or (...)
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  34. Comprehensive or Political Liberalism? The Impartial Spectator and the Justification of Political Principles.Nir Ben-Moshe - 2021 - Utilitas 33 (3):253-269.
    John Rawls raises three challenges – to which one can add a fourth challenge – to an impartial spectator account: (a) the impartial spectator is a utility-maximizing device that does not take seriously the distinction between persons; (b) the account does not guarantee that the principles of justice will be derived from it; (c) the notion of impartiality in the account is the wrong one, since it does not define impartiality from the standpoint of the litigants themselves; (d) the account (...)
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  35. Pandemic Windfalls and Obligations of Justice.Brian Berkey - 2021 - Erasmus Journal for Philosophy and Economics 14 (1):58-70.
    The Covid-19 pandemic has caused significant economic hardships for millions of people around the world. Meanwhile, many of the world’s richest people have seen their wealth increase substantially during the pandemic, despite the significant economic disruptions that it has caused on the whole. It is uncontroversial that these effects, which have exacerbated already unacceptable levels of poverty and inequality, call for robust policy responses from governments. In this paper, I argue that the disparate economic effects of the pandemic also generate (...)
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  36. Liberalism after Communitarianism.Charles Blattberg - 2021 - In Gerard Delanty & Stephen Turner (eds.), Handbook of Contemporary Social and Political Theory. Routledge.
    The ‘liberal-communitarian’ debate arose within anglophone political philosophy during the 1980s. This essay opens with an account of the main outlines of the debate, showing how liberals and communitarians tended to confront each other with opposing interpretations of John Rawls’ Theory of Justice (1999; originally published in 1971) and Political Liberalism (2005; originally published in 1993). The essay then proceeds to discuss four forms of ‘liberalism after communitarianism’: Michael Freeden’s account of liberalism as an ideology; Joseph Raz and Will Kymlicka’s (...)
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  37. The Triumph of Injustice: How the Rich Dodge Taxes and How to Make Them Pay, Emmanuel Saez and Gabriel Zucman. W.W. Norton, 2019, xvi + 232 pp., $27.95 (hbk), ISBN: 9781324002727. [REVIEW]Gabriele Contessa - 2021 - Economics and Philosophy 37 (3):489-494.
  38. Kristi A Olson, The Solidarity Solution: Principles for a Fair Income Distribution.Tom Parr - 2021 - Ethics 132 (2):532-537.
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  39. Tailoring public health policies.Govind Persad - 2021 - American Journal of Law and Medicine 47 (2-3):176–204.
    In an effort to contain the spread of COVID-19, many states and countries have adopted public health restrictions on activities previously considered commonplace: crossing state borders, eating indoors, gathering together, and even leaving one’s home. These policies often focus on specific activities or groups, rather than imposing the same limits across the board. In this Article, I consider the law and ethics of these policies, which I call tailored policies. In Part II, I identify two types of tailored policies--activity-based and (...)
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  40. Allocating scarce life-saving resources: the proper role of age.Govind Persad & Steven Joffe - 2021 - Journal of Medical Ethics 47 (12):836-838.
    The COVID-19 pandemic has forced clinicians, policy-makers and the public to wrestle with stark choices about who should receive potentially life-saving interventions such as ventilators, ICU beds and dialysis machines if demand overwhelms capacity. Many allocation schemes face the question of whether to consider age. We offer two underdiscussed arguments for prioritising younger patients in allocation policies, which are grounded in prudence and fairness rather than purely in maximising benefits: prioritising one’s younger self for lifesaving treatments is prudent from an (...)
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  41. Fair allocation of scarce therapies for COVID-19.Govind Persad, Monica E. Peek & Seema K. Shah - 2021 - Clinical Infectious Diseases 18:ciab1039.
    The U.S. FDA has issued emergency use authorizations for monoclonal antibodies for non-hospitalized patients with mild or moderate COVID-19 disease and for individuals exposed to COVID-19 as post-exposure prophylaxis. One EUA for an oral antiviral drug, molnupiravir, has also been recommended by FDA’s Antimicrobial Drugs Advisory Committee, and others appear likely in the near future. Due to increased demand because of the Delta variant, the federal government resumed control over the supply and asked states to ration doses. As future variants (...)
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  42. Categorized priority systems: a new tool for fairly allocating scarce medical resources in the face of profound social inequities.Tayfun Sönmez, Parag A. Pathak, M. Utku Ünver, Govind Persad, Robert D. Truog & Douglas B. White - 2021 - Chest 153 (3):1294-1299.
    The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has motivated medical ethicists and several task forces to revisit or issue new guidelines on allocating scarce medical resources. Such guidelines are relevant for the allocation of scarce therapeutics and vaccines and for allocation of ICU beds, ventilators, and other life-sustaining treatments or potentially scarce interventions. Principles underlying these guidelines, like saving the most lives, mitigating disparities, reciprocity to those who assume additional risk (eg, essential workers and clinical trial participants), and equal access may (...)
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  43. Big Data Justice: A Case for Regulating The Global Information Commons.Kai Spiekermann, Adam Slavny, David V. Axelsen & Holly Lawford-Smith - 2021 - Journal of Politics 83 (2):577-588.
    The advent of artificial intelligence (AI) challenges political theorists to think about data ownership and policymakers to regulate the collection and use of public data. AI producers benefit from free public data for training their systems while retaining the profits. We argue against the view that the use of public data must be free. The proponents of unconstrained use point out that consuming data does not diminish its quality and that information is in ample supply. Therefore, they suggest, publicly available (...)
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  44. Equality.Gosepath Stefan - 2021 - The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    This article is concerned with social and political equality. In its prescriptive usage, ‘equality’ is a highly contested concept. Its normally positive connotation gives it a rhetorical power suitable for use in political slogans (Westen 1990). At least since the French Revolution, equality has served as one of the leading ideals of the body politic; in this respect, it is at present probably the most controversial of the great social ideals. There is controversy concerning the precise notion of equality, the (...)
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  45. Ambiguity Aversion behind the Veil of Ignorance.H. Orri Stefánsson - 2021 - Synthese 198 (7):6159-6182.
    The veil of ignorance argument was used by John C. Harsanyi to defend Utilitarianism and by John Rawls to defend the absolute priority of the worst off. In a recent paper, Lara Buchak revives the veil of ignorance argument, and uses it to defend an intermediate position between Harsanyi's and Rawls' that she calls Relative Prioritarianism. None of these authors explore the implications of allowing that agent's behind the veil are averse to ambiguity. Allowing for aversion to ambiguity---which is both (...)
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  46. Property Claims on Antibiotic Effectiveness.Cristian Timmermann - 2021 - Public Health Ethics 14 (3):256–267.
    The scope and type of property rights recognized over the effectiveness of antibiotics have a direct effect on how those claiming ownership engage in the exploitation and stewardship of this scarce resource. We examine the different property claims and rights the four major interest groups are asserting on antibiotics: (i) the inventors, (ii) those demanding that the resource be treated like any other transferable commodity, (iii) those advocating usage restrictions based on good stewardship principles and (iv) those considering the resource (...)
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  47. What Is the Point of the Harshness Objection?Andreas Albertsen & Lasse Nielsen - 2020 - Utilitas 32 (4):427-443.
    According to luck egalitarianism, it is unjust if some are worse off than others through no fault or choice of their own. The most common criticism of luck egalitarianism is the ‘harshness objection’, which states that luck egalitarianism allows for too harsh consequences, as it fails to provide justification for why those responsible for their bad fate can be entitled to society's assistance. It has largely gone unnoticed that the harshness objection is open to a number of very different interpretations. (...)
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  48. Should Pediatric Patients Be Prioritized When Rationing Life-Saving Treatments During the COVID-19 Pandemic.Ryan M. Antiel, Farr A. Curlin, Govind Persad, Douglas B. White, Cathy Zhang, Aaron Glickman, Ezekiel J. Emanuel & John Lantos - 2020 - Pediatrics 146 (3):e2020012542.
    Coronavirus disease 2019 can lead to respiratory failure. Some patients require extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support. During the current pandemic, health care resources in some cities have been overwhelmed, and doctors have faced complex decisions about resource allocation. We present a case in which a pediatric hospital caring for both children and adults seeks to establish guidelines for the use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation if there are not enough resources to treat every patient. Experts in critical care, end-of-life care, bioethics, and (...)
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  49. Rawls’s Self-Defeat: A Formal Analysis.Hun Chung - 2020 - Erkenntnis 85 (5):1169-1197.
    One of John Rawls’s major aims, when he wrote A Theory of Justice, was to present a superior alternative to utilitarianism. Rawls’s worry was that utilitarianism may fail to protect the fundamental rights and liberties of persons in its attempt to maximize total social welfare. Rawls’s main argument against utilitarianism was that, for such reasons, the representative parties in the original position will not choose utilitarianism, but will rather choose his justice as fairness, which he believed would securely protect the (...)
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  50. A Bleeding Heart Libertarian View of Inequality.Andrew Jason Cohen - 2020 - In Hugh Lafollette (ed.), Ethics in Practice: An Anthology, Fifth Edition. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 598-610.
    We live in a market system and witness much economic inequality. Although such inequality may not be an essential characteristic of market systems, it seems historically inevitable. How we should evaluate this inequality, on the other hand, is contentious. I propose that bleeding heart libertarians provide the best diagnosis and prescription.
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