About this topic
Summary The tradition of Western philosophical theology has associated with God certain principal attributes including omnipotence, omniscience, and moral perfection. Each of these attributes raises a variety of problems which must be addressed if a philosophically robust version of theism is to be developed.
Key works Perhaps the most influential treatment of the divine attributes is to be found in Aquinas 1273. Other important medieval treatments include those of ibn Sina (Morewedge 1973) and and Maimonides (Maimonides et al 1904). More recent systematic treatments of the divine attributes include Ross 1969, Mann 1975, Swinburne 1977, Kenny 1979, and Wierenga 1989.
Introductions Relevant selections from Aquinas, in a translation suitable for students, can be found in Leftow & Davies 2006. Morley 2002 provides an encyclopedia treatment of the divine attributes. A book-length introduction is provided by Morris 1991.
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  1. Incompatible And Incomparable Perfections: A New Argument Against Perfect Being Theism.Jashiel Resto Quiñones - forthcoming - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion.
    Perfect being theism is the view that the perfect being exists and the property being-perfect is the property being-God. According to the strong analysis of perfection, a being is perfect just in case it exemplifies all perfections. On the other hand, the weak analysis of perfection claims that a being is perfect just in case it exemplifies the best possible combination of compatible perfections. Strong perfect being theism accepts the former analysis while weak perfect being theism accepts the latter. In (...)
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  2. Unlimited Nature: A Śaivist Model of Divine Greatness.Davide Andrea Zappulli - forthcoming - Sophia:1-17.
    The notion of maximal greatness is arguably part of the very concept of God: something greater than God is not even possible. But how should we understand this notion? The aim of this paper is to provide a Śaivist answer to this question by analyzing the form of theism advocated in the Pratyabhijñā tradition. First, I extract a model of divine greatness, the Hierarchical Model, from Nagasawa’s work "Maximal God". According to the Hierarchical Model, God is that than which nothing (...)
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  3. Quid sit deus meus, taceo Le discours apophatique dans l'œuvre d'Apulée.Umberto Verdura - 2023 - Latomus 82 (2):332-366.
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  4. Axiarchism: How to Narrow the Gap Between Pro-Theism and Anti-Theism.Perry Hendricks - 2022 - In Kirk Lougheed (ed.), Value Beyond Monotheism: The Axiology of the Divine. Routledge. pp. 114-128..
    (Wide) pro-theism is the view that the world is better overall if theism is true. (Wide) anti-theism is the view that our world would be better overall if atheism is true. Arguments for pro-theism and anti-theism typically make use of traditional theism (the view that an omni-God exists) and generic atheism (the view that an omni-God doesn’t exist). In my view, when the debate between pro-theists and anti-theists makes use of traditional theism and generic atheism, pro-theism clearly comes out on (...)
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  5. The mythic narratives of Candomblé Nagô and what they imply about its Supreme Being.José Eduardo Porcher - forthcoming - Religious Studies:1-17.
    In this article, I explore the mythic narratives of the Yoruba-derived tradition of Candomblé Nagô to discern the attributes of its Supreme Being. I introduce Candomblé, offering an overview of its central beliefs and practices, and then present theological perspectives on the Supreme Being in African Traditional Religion as a basis for comparison with the myths I will examine. I consider the primary creation myths of Candomblé, emphasizing references to the tradition's Supreme Being and, analysing these myths, I argue that (...)
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  6. Demea's Departure Revisited.Lorne Falkenstein - 2024 - In Kenneth Williford (ed.), Hume's _Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion_: A Philosophical Apparaisal. London: Routledge. pp. 155-69.
    Demea's departure marks a dramatic turning point in the course of Hume's Dialogues. It is also perplexing. A number of commentators have asked why Demea leaves when he does. This paper surveys a range of answers that have been or might be proposed: that Demea realizes only very late that Philo has been using him, that the tone of the discussion has recently taken an upsetting turn, that Philo has just introduced a new, objectionable doctrine, that Hume simply made it (...)
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  7. Awe at Natural Beauty as a Religious Experience.José Eduardo Porcher & Daniel De Luca-Noronha - 2023 - Síntese: Revista de Filosofia 50 (158):423-445.
    In this paper, we discuss an abductive argument for the existence of God from the experience of awe at natural beauty. If God's creative work is a viable explanation for why we experience awe at natural beauty, and there is no satisfactory naturalistic explanation for the origins of such experiences, then we have defeasible evidence that God exists. To evaluate the argument's tenability, we assess the merits of the two main theocentric frameworks that can be marshaled to answer the question (...)
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  8. Tanrı, Estetik ve Estetik Kanıt/God, Aesthetic and Aesthetic Proof.Büşra Nur Tutuk - 2023 - Dissertation, Ankara University
    The subject of the thesis is the relationship between aesthetic and God. It aims to discuss whether the sense of beauty is proof of the existence of God and to determine the plausibility of aesthetic proof. As a matter of fact that reality and the perception of beauty point to two-way consciousness. In this context, it will be inevitable to mention God's relation with consciousness in the emergence of beauty. In the first part, the concepts of aesthetics will be analyzed, (...)
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  9. Astronism and the Astronic Religious Tradition.[author unknown] - 2023 - International Journal for the Study of New Religions 12 (1):3-31.
    A new religion was founded in 2013 that goes by the name of Astronism while its community of followers are known as Astronists. This article gives a rigorous account of the eschatology, soteriology and worldview of this new space religion while contextualizing its emergence as part of a broader Astronic religious tradition. This proposed tradition may itself possess prehistoric roots in the Upper Palaeolithic in the earliest human observations of the night sky. Human beings in turn came to establish a (...)
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  10. Mary Shepherd’s dispositional notion of God, matter, and finite minds.Fasko Manuel - forthcoming - Philosophers' Imprint.
    The aim of this paper is twofold. First, I argue that Mary Shepherd has a dispositional understanding of God, matter, and finite minds. That is, she understands all of them as dispositions or powers (two terms I will use interchangeably). Second, I aim to shed light on the emanationist picture suggested by Shepherd’s remarks in her second book Essays on the Perception of an External Universe (EPEU). For instance, Shepherd calls ‘animate’ and ‘inanimate nature’ a divine ‘emanation’ (EPEU 190) and (...)
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  11. Paradox and Contradiction in Theology.Jonathan C. Rutledge (ed.) - forthcoming - New York, NY: Routledge Academic.
    This book explores and expounds upon questions of paradox and contradiction in theology with an emphasis on recent contributions from analytic philosophical theology. It addresses questions such as: What is the place of paradox in theology? Where might different systems of logic (e.g., paraconsistent ones) find a place in theological discourse (e.g., Christology)? What are proper responses to the presence of contradiction(s) in one’s theological theories? Are appeals to analogical language enough to make sense of paradox? Bringing together an impressive (...)
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  12. Nothing Infinite: A Summary of Forever Finite.Kip Sewell - 2023 - Rond Media Library.
    In 'Forever Finite: The Case Against Infinity' (Rond Books, 2023), the author argues that, despite its cultural popularity, infinity is not a logical concept and consequently cannot be a property of anything that exists in the real world. This article summarizes the main points in 'Forever Finite', including its overview of what debunking infinity entails for conceptual thought in philosophy, mathematics, science, cosmology, and theology.
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  13. Demiurge and Deity: The Cosmical Theology of Olaf Stapledon’s Star Maker.Joshua Hall - 2023 - Journal of Science Fiction and Philosophy 6.
    This paper analyzes the nature of the Star Maker in Olaf Stapledon’s Star Maker, as well as Stapledon’s exploration of the theological problem of evil, as compared with philosophical conceptions of God and their respective theodicies in the tradition of classical theism, as propounded by philosophers such as Aristotle, Plotinus, Augustine, Maimonides, Aquinas, and Avicenna. It argues that Stapledon’s philosophical divergence from classical theism entails that the Star Maker of the novel is more demiurge than true divinity, and that this (...)
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  14. Divine Epiphany and Political Authority in Plato's Republic.Avshalom M. Schwartz - 2023 - History of Political Thought 44 (2):213-233.
    This article offers a new interpretation of the second ‘theological’ pattern in Plato’s Republic. Situating Plato within his religious context, it argues that this pattern calls into question the traditional ancient model of divine epiphany. Divine epiphany was a central element in Greek religion. Yet, in the absence of a centralized religious organization, this model threatened the philosophers’ authoritative position. Plato’s second pattern seeks not only to undermine this potential threat but also to pave the way towards a new, philosophicalmodel (...)
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  15. Metafísica plotiniana de la luz. Perspectiva teórica en el arte cristiano de la Escolástica.Estiven Valencia Marín - 2018 - Cuestiones Teológicas 45 (104):463-488.
    Lo que se introduce como metafísica de la luz adherida a una connotación religiosa, resulta ser uno de los temas más dominantes y discutidos durante el período medieval, aunque más exhaustivamente abordado durante el período escolástico, es decir, desde finales del siglo IX hasta mediados del siglo XIV. Sin embargo, las reflexiones sobre la idea de "lux" se iniciaron con el neoplatonismo, más precisamente con el egipcio Plotino, quien abanderó la idea de revitalizar la doctrina de la Academia, que fue (...)
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  16. Seconde édition révisée et augmentée de Spinoza, le spinozisme et les fondements de la sécularisation (2nd edition).Jacques J. Rozenberg - 2023 - Amazon.
    Spinoza, le spinozisme et les fondements de la sécularisation est un ouvrage dédié à la mémoire d’Emmanuel Levinas, dont l’auteur a été l’élève durant plusieurs années. Il vise, à travers une analyse d’ordre philosophique, historique, épistémologique et théologique, à mettre au jour les conditions d’émergence interrelatées du spinozisme et de la sécularisation. Il présente une recherche interdisciplinaire devant permettre d’éclairer l’origine des difficultés théoriques que ce système philosophique présente. Ce volume est le premier d’une pentalogie consacrée à Spinoza et au (...)
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  17. It cannot be fitting to blame God.Marcus William Hunt - 2023 - Heythrop Journal 64 (4):517-531.
    This paper argues that it cannot be fitting to blame God. I show that divine immutability, even on a weak conception, implies that God's ethical character cannot change. I then argue that blame aims at a change in the ethical character of the one blamed. This claim is directly intuitive, explains a wide set of intuitions about when blame is unfitting, and is implied by most of the theories blame offered in the philosophical literature. Since blame targeted at God aims (...)
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  18. God.Yitzhak Y. Melamed - forthcoming - In Karolina Hübner & Justin Steinberg (eds.), Cambridge Spinoza Lexicon. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    In his Lectures on the History of Philosophy, Hegel offers the following verdict on Spinoza’s ontology: “According to Spinoza what is, is God, and God alone. Therefore, the allegations of those who accuse Spinoza of atheism are the direct opposite of the truth; with him there is too much God” (Hegel 1995, vol. 3, 281-2). It is not easy to dismiss Hegel’s grand pronouncement, since Spinoza indeed clearly affirms: “whatever is, is in God” (E1p15). Crocodiles, porcupines (and your thoughts about (...)
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  19. Is God Perfectly Good In Islam.Seyma Yazici - 2022 - European Journal of Analytic Philosophy 18 (2):(SI9)5-33.
    Based on a question posed by global philosophy of religion project regarding the absence of literal attribution of omnibenevolence to God in the Qur’ān, this paper aims to examine how to understand perfect goodness in Islam. I will first discuss the concept of perfect goodness and suggest that perfect goodness is not an independent attribute on its own and it is predicated on other moral attributes of God without which the concept of perfect goodness could hardly be understood. I will (...)
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  20. Towards a Buddhist Theism.Davide Andrea Zappulli - 2023 - Religious Studies 59 (4):762-774.
    My claim in this article is that the thesis that Buddhism has no God, insofar as it is taken to apply to Buddhism universally, is false. I defend this claim by interpreting a central text in East-Asian Buddhism – The Awakening of Faith in Mahāyāna – through the lenses of perfect being theology (PBT), a research programme in philosophy of religion that attempts to provide a description of God through a two-step process: (1) defining God in terms of maximal greatness; (...)
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  21. The Persons of the Trinity are Themselves Triune: A Reply to Mooney.Michael B. Willenborg - 2022 - Religious Studies 58 (2):456-463.
    Justin Mooney (2018) advances what he calls The Problem of Triunity: each divine person is God, God is triune, and yet, each of the divine persons is apparently not triune. In response, I suggest that we ought to accept that each of the divine persons is in fact triune. First, I offer a plausible analysis of the claim that God is triune; second, I show that, given that analysis, there is nothing untoward about embracing the conclusion that each divine person (...)
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  22. From Aesthetic Virtues to God.Rad Miksa - 2022 - TheoLogica: An International Journal for Philosophy of Religion and Philosophical Theology 7 (2).
    I argue that the aesthetic theoretical virtues of beauty, simplicity, and unification, as well as the evidential virtue of explanatory depth, can transform theistic-friendly personal cause (PC) arguments—like the kalām cosmological argument (KCA) and the fine-tuning argument—into stand-alone arguments for monotheism. The aesthetic virtues allow this by providing us with the grounds to rationally accept a perfect personal cause (i.e., God) as the best PC to believe in given the success of some PC argument. Using the KCA as an example, (...)
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  23. The demonstrative use of names, and the divine-name co-reference debate.Berman Chan - 2023 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 93 (2):107-120.
    Could Christians and Muslims be referring to the same God? For an account of the reference of divine names, I follow Bogardus and Urban (2017) in advocating in favour of using Gareth Evans’s causal theory of reference, on which a name refers to the dominant source of information in the name’s “dossier”. However, I argue further that information about experiences, in which God is simply the object of acquaintance, can dominate the dossier. Thus, this demonstrative use of names offers a (...)
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  24. Divine and Mortal Loves.Ryan Preston-Roedder - forthcoming - Religious Studies.
    “If the concept of God has any validity or any use,” James Baldwin writes in The Fire Next Time, “it can only be to make us larger, freer, and more loving. If God cannot do this, then it is time we got rid of Him.” This essay is a meditation on Baldwin’s claim. I begin by presenting Baldwin’s account of a grave danger that characterizes our social lives – a source of profound estrangement from ourselves and from one another. I (...)
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  25. Divine causal agency in classical Greek philosophy.Donald J. Zyl - 2021 - In Gregory E. Ganssle (ed.), Philosophical Essays on Divine Causation. Routledge.
    Donald J. Zeyl begins the historical section of the book by tracing divine causation throughout classical Greek philosophy. Some of the Pre-Socratics held to a single god as the source of rational order or change. These views suggested that the cosmos may be explained teleologically. Plato takes up that suggested promise in his Phaedo and finds it wanting. Instead, he looks to Forms as (formal) causes of natural processes. This direction of inquiry leads him to postulate, in the Republic, the (...)
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  26. The God Who Trusts: A Relational Theology of Divine Faith, Hope, and Love. [REVIEW]Charles Duke - forthcoming - Reading Religion.
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  27. Sketching a Theology based on Historical Science.Robert W. P. Luk - 2022 - Science and Philosophy 10 (1):21-44.
    St. Thomas Aquinas envisaged theology to be a kind of scientia which was considered as a kind of first cause science. However, science of that time is different from “modern” science. Recently, a theory of scientific study is developed, which outlines science by a theory and some models similar to knowledge in physics. According to this theory, sciences organize their knowledge consisting of theories, models and experiments interacting with physical situations. Perhaps, it is possible to organize knowledge of Christian theology (...)
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  28. A Falsifiable Ontological Argument for the Existence of (any) God(s) and Why the Universe Exists.David Angell - manuscript
    Absolute nothing is the absence of our universe and its laws. Without these rules, nothingness has infinite potential. This implies that within the infinite probability of nothing, infinity can emerge. This would be expressed through infinite universes like our own. Infinite of these universes will differ by several particles, appearing and disappearing for no reason other than fulfilling every possibility. This universe is the product of a greater realisation of infinity and we can test this theory via the measurement of (...)
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  29. What Socrates Should Have Said.Benjamin Elmore - manuscript
    In this thesis, William Alston’s influential defense of divine command theory is critically evaluated. It is argued that Alston, in positing evaluative particularism, undermines his defense because moral particularism, a rival theory of moral obligation, follows from evaluative particularism. Furthermore, the moral particularist need not deny that God has moral obligations. Even if evaluative particularism did not entail moral particularism, it fails to makes God’s commands non-arbitrary, contrary to Alston’s claims. On divine command theory, God does not make commands for (...)
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  30. Awe at Natural Beauty as Defeasible Evidence for the Existence of God.José Eduardo Porcher & Daniel de Luca-Noronha - 2021 - Manuscrito 44 (4):489-517.
    In this paper, we present an abductive argument for the existence of God from the experience of awe at natural beauty. If God’s creative work is a viable explanation for why we experience awe at natural beauty, and there is no satisfactory naturalistic explanation for the origins of such experiences, then we have defeasible evidence that God exists. To evaluate the argument's tenability, we assess the merits of the two main naturalistic frameworks that can be marshaled to answer the question (...)
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  31. Зеркало Клио: Метафизическое Постижение Истории.Алексей Владиславович Халапсис - 2017 - Днипро, Днепропетровская область, Украина, 49000:
    В монографии представлены несколько смысловых блоков, связанных с восприятием и интерпретацией человеком исторического бытия. Ранние греческие мыслители пытались получить доступ к исходникам (началам) бытия, и эти интенции легли в основу научного знания, а также привели к появлению метафизики. В классической (и в неклассической) метафизике за основу была принята догма Пифагора и Платона о неизменности подлинной реальности, из чего следовало отрицание бытийного характера времени. Автор монографии отказывается от этой догмы и предлагает стратегию обновления метафизики и перехода ее к новому — постнеклассическому (...)
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  32. Reseña de la ‘Religión Explicada--los orígenes evolutivos del pensamiento religioso’(Religion Explained—the evolutionary origins of religious thought) por Pascal Boyer (2002) (revisión revisada 2019).Michael Richard Starks - 2019 - In Delirios Utópicos Suicidas en el Siglo 21 La filosofía, la naturaleza humana y el colapso de la civilización Artículos y reseñas 2006-2019 4a Edición. Las Vegas, NV , USA: Reality Press. pp. 300-312.
    Puede obtener un resumen rápido de este libro en p 135 o 326. Si no estás a la velocidad de la psicología evolutiva, primero debe leer uno de los numerosos textos recientes con este término en el título. Uno de los mejores es "el manual de la psicología evolutiva" 2Nd Ed por Buss. Hasta hace unos 15 años, las explicaciones del comportamiento no han sido realmente explicaciones de los procesos mentales, sino descripciones vagas y en gran medida inútiles de lo (...)
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  33. Kraus’s Boethian Interpretation of Whitehead’s God.Rem B. Edwards - 1981 - Process Studies 11 (1):30-34.
    The Metaphysics of Experience: Companion to Whitehead’s Process and Reality by Elizabeth M. Kraus develops very classical, Boethian, atemporal understanding of Whitehead’s God. Kraus contends that Whitehead intended “to infer that the divine actual world includes all actual worlds in unison of becoming” (p. 164). Her position is that even in his consequent nature, God coexists simultaneously and changelessly with the entire past, present, and future of every occasion in every world or cosmic epoch. Her rationale for this rests upon (...)
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  34. The Anticlaudianus and the 'Proper' Language of Theology.Eileen C. Sweeney - 1987 - Essays in Medieval Studies 4:45-55.
  35. The Big Questions: God, & God: All That Matters both by Mark Vernon. [REVIEW]Ian Robinson - 2013 - Philosophy Now 99:48-49.
  36. Eschatological ultimacy and the best possible hereafter.John J. Davenport - 2002 - Ultimate Reality and Meaning 25 (1):36-67.
    This paper argues that the eschatological dimension of religion is distinct from other fundamental dimensions, including moral grounding, the ontological basis of reality, and the constitution of persons. It responds in particular to Tibor Horvath's conception of the category of ultimate reality. It also argues that eschatological hereafters imply something akin to an higher-time A-series, in that the hereafter can be conceived as a temporal order beyond currently existing time.
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  37. Is the Divine Shorn of Its Heart? Responding to Simoni-Wastila.Donald Wayne Viney - 2001 - American Journal of Theology and Philosophy 22 (2):155 - 172.
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  38. The Quest of the Divine. [REVIEW]D. S. - 1956 - Review of Metaphysics 10 (2):369-370.
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  39. Getting God out of our (modal) business.Rebecca Hanrahan - 2009 - Sophia 48 (4):379-391.
    Some hold that if we can imagine God creating a world in which a particular proposition (p) is true, then we can conclude that p is possible. I argue that such appeals to God can’t provide us with a guide to possibility. For either God’s powers aren’t co-extensive with the possible or they are. And if they are, these appeals either beg the question or court a version of Euthyphro’s Dilemma. Some may argue that such appeals were only intended to (...)
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  40. Is God beyond reason?Brian Davies - 2009 - Philosophical Investigations 32 (4):338-359.
    Classical thinkers such as St Anselm of Canterbury and St Thomas Aquinas insist that God is beyond reason because he is incomprehensible. More recent authors, including Søren Kierkegaard, Karl Barth and Colin Gunton have argued that God is beyond reason since natural theology is an inherently suspect notion. In this article, I first note ways in which all the authors just mentioned may be thought of as agreeing with each other. I then proceed to argue against the critique of natural (...)
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  41. Divine agency and the principle of the conservation of energy.Robert Larmer - 2009 - Zygon 44 (3):543-557.
    Many contemporary thinkers seeking to integrate theistic belief and scientific thought reject what they regard as two extremes. They disavow deism in which God is understood simply to uphold the existence of the physical universe, and they exclude any view of divine influence that suggests the performance of physical work through an immaterial cause. Deism is viewed as theologically inadequate, and acceptance of direct immaterial causation of physical events is viewed as scientifically illegitimate. This desire to avoid both deism and (...)
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  42. Three misuses of dionysius for comparative theology.Timothy D. Knepper - 2009 - Religious Studies 45 (2):205-221.
    In his 2000 Religious Studies article 'Ineffability', John Hick calls upon the Dionysian corpus to bear witness to the 'transcategorality' of God and thereby corroborate his comparative theology of pluralism. Hick's Dionysius avows God's transcendence of categories by negating God's names, while at the same time maintaining that such names are metaphorically useful means of uplifting humans to God. But herein reside three common misunderstandings of the Dionysian corpus: (1) the divine names are mere metaphors; (2) the divine names are (...)
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  43. Supervenience and property-identical divine-command theory.Michael J. Almeida - 2004 - Religious Studies 40 (3):323-333.
    Property-identical divine-command theory (PDCT) is the view that being obligatory is identical to being commanded by God in just the way that being water is identical to being H2O. If these identity statements are true, then they express necessary a posteriori truths. PDCT has been defended in Robert M. Adams (1987) and William Alston (1990). More recently Mark C. Murphy (2002) has argued that property-identical divine-command theory is inconsistent with two well-known and well-received theses: the free-command thesis and the supervenience (...)
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  44. God Laughs: And Other Surprising Things You Never Knew About Him.Charles Billingsley - 2009 - Regal Books. Edited by Elmer L. Towns.
    Finding the heart of God -- Finding God's heart -- Have you seen God's face? -- Why does God sing? -- Searching God's mind -- When God is silent -- Did you know God thinks about you? -- God has unique plans for every unsaved person -- God remembers no longer -- Did you know God reads and writes? -- The unknowable of God -- God whispers -- DoesGod have a nose? -- Wax in God's ears -- God loves to (...)
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  45. Kant, Modality, and the Most Real Being.Andrew Chignell - 2009 - Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 91 (2):157-192.
    Kant's speculative theistic proof rests on a distinction between “logical” and “real” modality that he developed very early in the pre-critical period. The only way to explain facts about real possibility, according to Kant, is to appeal to the properties of a unique, necessary, and “most real” being. Here I reconstruct the proof in its historical context, focusing on the role played by the theory of modality both in motivating the argument (in the pre-critical period) and, ultimately, in undoing it (...)
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  46. Descartes on the immutability of the divine will.David Cunning - 2003 - Religious Studies 39 (1):79-92.
    Descartes holds that God's will is immutable. It cannot be changed by God and, because He is supremely independent, it cannot be changed by anything else. Descartes' God acts by a single immutable will for all eternity, and there is no sense in which it is possible for Him to will or to have willed anything other than what He in fact wills. Passages in which Descartes might appear to be suggesting a different view are simply manifestations of his analytic (...)
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  47. Supernatural religion and the problem of providence.Peter Drum - 2003 - Sophia 42 (1):27-29.
    There is a prima facie case of unfairness against God unless Self-revelation is given by the deity to all people. The possible replies that God's Self-revelation has always and everywhere been available to everyone through many religions; or that special knowledge of God is a matter of divine gratuity; or that more is expected of those who receive such enlightenment; or that it comes as a moral reward; are found to be wanting. Nevertheless, provided there remains an argument for selective (...)
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  48. Descartes on God's relation to time.Geoffrey Gorham - 2008 - Religious Studies 44 (4):413-431.
    God and time play crucial, intricately related roles in Descartes' project of grounding mathematical physics on metaphysical first principles. This naturally raises the perennial theological question of God's precise relation to time. I argue, against the strong current of recent commentary, that Descartes' God is fully temporal. This means that God's duration is successive, with parts ordered 'before and after', rather than permanent or 'all at once'. My argument will underscore the seamless connection between Descartes' theology and his physics, and (...)
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  49. Towards the possibility of impassibilist pastoral care.Robert S. Heaney - 2007 - Heythrop Journal 48 (2):171–186.
    Not a few scholars reject the notion of divine impassibility. Contemporary theodicists in particular often see impassibility as impotent in the face of evil and suffering. At best, it is assumed that impassibility has no contribution to make to pastoral practice. At worst, it is argued that impassibility has negative repercussions for sufferers and carers. The purpose of this article will be to argue that impassibility has the potential to positively impact pastoral practice. It will be proposed that a constructive (...)
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  50. Negative existentials, omniscience, and cosmic luck.Christopher Hughes - 1998 - Religious Studies 34 (4):375-401.
    Suppose there are possible worlds in which God exists but Anselm does not. Then (I argue) there are possible worlds in which Anselm does not exist, but God cannot even entertain the thought that he does not. In such worlds Anselm does not exist, but God does not know that. This, I argue, is incompatible with (a straightforward construal of) the doctrine of God's essential omniscience. Considerations involving negative existentials also call into question a certain picture of creation, on which (...)
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