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Summary The tradition of Western philosophical theology has associated with God certain principal attributes including omnipotence, omniscience, and moral perfection. Each of these attributes raises a variety of problems which must be addressed if a philosophically robust version of theism is to be developed.
Key works Perhaps the most influential treatment of the divine attributes is to be found in Aquinas 1274. More recent systematic treatments of the divine attributes include Ross 1969, Mann 1975, Swinburne 1977, Kenny 1979, and WIERENGA 1989.
Introductions Relevant selections from Aquinas, in a translation suitable for students, can be found in Leftow & Davies 2006. Morley 2002 provides an encyclopedia treatment of the divine attributes. A book-length introduction is provided by Morris 1991.
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  1. Evil and Agent-Causal Theism.Richard Brian Davis - 2019 - In W. Paul Franks (ed.), Explaining Evil: Four Views. New York, NY, USA: Bloomsbury Academic. pp. 11-28.
    In this chapter, I attempt to show that evil exists only if what I call Agent Causal Theism (ACT) is true. According to ACT, human beings are immaterial, conscious agents endued (by God) with a power of self-motion: the power to think, decide, and act for ends in light of reasons, but without being externally caused to do so (even by God himself). By contrast, I argue that there is no space for evil in the worldviews of naturalistic Darwinism or (...)
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  2. The Anticlaudianus and the 'Proper' Language of Theology.Eileen C. Sweeney - 1987 - Essays in Medieval Studies 4:45-55.
  3. God, Modality, and Morality.William E. Mann - 2015 - Oxford University Press USA.
    Suppose that God exists: what difference would that make to the world? The answer depends on the nature of God and the nature of the world. In this book, William E. Mann argues in one new and sixteen previously published essays for a modern interpretation of a traditional conception of God as a simple, necessarily existing, personal being. Divine simplicity entails that God has no physical composition or temporal stages; that there is in God no distinction between essence and existence; (...)
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  4. Is the Divine Shorn of Its Heart? Responding to Simoni-Wastila.Donald Wayne Viney - 2001 - American Journal of Theology and Philosophy 22 (2):155 - 172.
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  5. The Quest of the Divine.D. S. - 1956 - Review of Metaphysics 10 (2):369-370.
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Divine Eternity
  1. Світ символів Григорія Сковороди у збірці «Сад божественних пісень».Mariya Lynnyk - 2018 - NaUKMA Researh Papers. Literary Studies 1:14-19.
    У статті проаналізовано символіку збірки Г. Сковороди «Сад божественних пісень». Сильною позицією книжки є символ саду, яку філософ розширив введенням метафоричного образу зерен як мудрості, що «проросли із Священного Писання». У такий спосіб Г. Сковорода розширює межі інтерпретації Біблії крізь призму власного бачення світу. У роботі також досліджено філософські настанови, які проповідував мислитель протягом усього життя. Через універсальність ідей та розлогу інтертекстуальність твори цього барокового автора завжди матимуть невичерпну цінність для літературознавця.
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  2. Computus, in Christendom.Paul Bali - manuscript
    on calculating Apocalypse, awakening the Avatar, and related.
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  3. Petitionary Prayer for the Dead and the Boethian Concept of a Timeless God.William M. Webb - 2019 - International Philosophical Quarterly 59 (1):65-76.
    The practice of prayer for the dead has been criticized by some Christians on the grounds that it is useless (on the assumption that a postmortem change in spiritual state is impossible) and even sinful inasmuch as it wills a state of affairs contrary to that which God has already ordained. In this article, I challenge these arguments using a Boethian or Augustinian conception of God’s relationship to time. If prayers from all times are perceived by God in a tenseless (...)
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  4. Petitionary Prayer for the Dead and the Boethian Concept of a Timeless God.William M. Webb - 2019 - International Philosophical Quarterly 59 (1):65-76.
    The practice of prayer for the dead has been criticized by some Christians on the grounds that it is useless (on the assumption that a postmortem change in spiritual state is impossible) and even sinful inasmuch as it wills a state of affairs contrary to that which God has already ordained. In this article, I challenge these arguments using a Boethian or Augustinian conception of God’s relationship to time. If prayers from all times are perceived by God in a tenseless (...)
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  5. Eternal God: Divine Atemporality in Thomas Aquinas.John H. Boyer - 2014 - In Darci N. Hill (ed.), News from the Raven: Essays from Sam Houston State University on Medieval and Renaissance Thought. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: pp. 262-285.
    The recent trend among many philosophers of religion has been to interpret divine eternity as an everlasting temporality in which an omnitemporal God exists in and throughout the whole of time. This is in contrast to the classical account of divine eternity as atemporal, immutable existence. In this paper, Aquinas' use of Boethius's definition of eternity as “the whole, perfect, and simultaneous possession of endless life” is analyzed and explained in contradistinction to Aristotle's definition of time. This analysis is then (...)
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  6. Why the Incarnation Is Incompatible With An Atemporal Concept of God.Alin C. Cucu - manuscript
    In this essay, I argue that the Incarnation of the Son of God, understood in a traditionally orthodox way, is incompatible with an atemporalist concept of God. First, I explain what I mean by atemporalism, namely the idea that God exists outside time. I also show the main corollaries of that doctrine, most notably that all of God’s life occurs eternally simultaneously. Second, based on New Testament teaching and widely accepted creeds, I spell out philosophically what I mean by the (...)
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  7. Why Can’T the Impassible God Suffer? Analytic Reflections on Divine Blessedness.R. T. Mullins - 2018 - TheoLogica: An International Journal for Philosophy of Religion and Philosophical Theology 2 (1):3-22.
  8. God and Time.Natalja Deng - 2019 - Cambridge University Press.
    The God of Western religion is said to be eternal. But what does that mean? Is God somehow beyond time, living a life that does not involve one thing after another? Or is God's relationship to time much more like ours, so that God's eternality just consists in there being no time at which God doesn't exist? Even for non-believers, these issues have interesting implications for the relation between historical and scientific findings on the one hand, and religion on the (...)
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  9. Debunking The Hellenistic Myth: Why Christians Should Believe That God Is In Time.Alin C. Cucu - 2017 - Piate Pietro 2 (2):16-22.
    In this essay I will try to convince you: (1) that the question of God’s relation to time is of practical relevance for every believer (2) that the idea of God being outside time is a philosophically untenable concept which creates major clashes with Christian doctrine and therefore that every Christian should adopt some temporalist view of God To do that, I will present four arguments against the “outside time” view of God. I then briefly treat the question where the (...)
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  10. SEP Entry: Eternity in Christian Thought.Natalja Deng - 2018 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy 2018.
    This entry provides an overview of some key positions on God and time and discusses arguments for and against divine timelessness. The final section outlines some other philosophical contexts in which the concept of eternity can play a role.
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  11. Kaikkitietävä ajaton Jumala: Aikaindeksikaalien ongelma (in Finnish) ["Omniscient Timeless God: The Problem of Temporal Indexicals"].Ari Maunu - 2016 - Teologinen Aikakauskirja 2016 (2):121-127.
    Is God a timeless God? One standard argument against the supposition that He is is that it appears to be incompatible with God’s posited omniscience. If God is timeless, He cannot know truths involving temporal indexicals, such as the one I express right now by ”I am sitting now”. In this article, I discuss this argument and consider some replies to it. I focus on the denial of the view according to which knowledge expressed with temporally indexical true statements is (...)
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  12. God and Eternal Boredom.Vuko Andrić & Attila Tanyi - 2017 - Religious Studies 53 (1):51-70.
    God is thought to be eternal. Does this mean that he is timeless? Or is he, rather, omnitemporal? In this paper we want to show that God cannot be omnitemporal. Our starting point, which we take from Bernard Williams’ article on the Makropulos Case, is the intuition that it is inappropriate for persons not to become bored after a sufficiently long sequence of time has passed. If God were omnitemporal, he would suffer from boredom. But God is the greatest possible (...)
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  13. Theological Methodology, Classical Theism, and “Lived Time” in Antje Jackelén's Time and Eternity.James M. Byrne - 2009 - Zygon 44 (4):951-964.
    . Antje Jackelén's Time and Eternity successfully employs the method of correlation and a close study of the question of time to enter the dialogue between science and theology. Hermeneutical attention to language is a central element of this dialogue, but we must be aware that much science is untranslatable into ordinary language; it is when we get to the bigger metaphysical assumptions of science that true dialogue begins to happen. Thus, although the method of correlation is a useful way (...)
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  14. Divine Sempiternity and Atemporality: J. L. TOMKINSON.J. L. Tomkinson - 1982 - Religious Studies 18 (2):177-189.
    Notable among the current fashions in philosophical theology is the movement away from the view that the mode of being properly attributable to God is some form of atemporal eternity. It sometimes seems almost to be the case that a consensus is in process of formation in support of the contention that the only rationally defensible interpretation of the divine eternity is in terms of sempiternity, i.e. of beginingless and endless temporal duration. This is true not only of the so-called (...)
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  15. The Problem of the Divine Eternity: R. L. STURCH.R. L. Sturch - 1974 - Religious Studies 10 (4):487-493.
    The ‘traditional’ view among philosophical theologians, that God is eternal not merely in the sense of being everlasting but in the sense of being outside time altogether, has come under sharp criticism in recent years, both from biblical theologians and from philosophers. It is against the latter form of attack, particularly as represented by the detailed criticisms of Professor Nelson Pike, that I wish to try and defend the notion of a divine timelessness.
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  16. Of Time and Eternity In Kierkegaard’s Concept of Anxiety.Louis Dupré - 1984 - Faith and Philosophy 1 (2):160-176.
  17. Omniscience and Time, One More Time: A Reply to Craig.Edward Wierenga - 2004 - Faith and Philosophy 21 (1):90-97.
  18. The Quest for Eternity: An Outline of the Philosophy of Religion. [REVIEW]Thomas V. Morris - 1986 - Faith and Philosophy 3 (3):328-336.
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  19. Omniscience and Eternity: A Reply to Craig.Jonathan L. Kvanvig - 2001 - Faith and Philosophy 18 (3):369-376.
  20. Providence, Eternity, and Human Freedom: A Reply to Stump and Kretzmann.David Widerker - 1994 - Faith and Philosophy 11 (2):242-254.
  21. Al-Ghazālī’s Argument for the Eternity of the World in Tahāfut Al-Falāsifa and the Problem of Divine Immutability and Timelessness.Harold Chad Hillier - 2005 - Journal of Islamic Philosophy 1 (1):62-84.
  22. Classical Christian Philosophy and Temporality: Correcting a Misunderstanding.F. F. Centore - 1992 - The Monist 75 (3):393-405.
    CCP is not, generally speaking, well-respected today. This is not so much because CCP is impure, being, as it is, all mixed up with dogmatic statements drawn from Scripture, Church teachings, and so on, but because CCP is impure in a certain way. All philosophies are always and everywhere impure in the sense of always and everywhere being embedded in some particular time and culture. Philosophies are written by philosophers, each of whom is taught many things at his mother’s knee (...)
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  23. Maximus the Confessor's ‘Aeon’ as a Distinct Mode of Temporality.Sotiris Mitralexis - 2017 - Heythrop Journal 58 (5).
    In this paper, I shall focus on the semantic content of αἰὼν in Maximus the Confessor's works, particularly in the instances in which he employs it as a distinct form of temporality, i.e. not as simply meaning ‘eternity’. I focus on αἰὼν as a Maximian terminus technicus in spite of the diverse meanings that he himself ascribes to the word in certain cases. I will also engage with the status of time as humanity's slavery, as humanity's enemy in Maximus’ thought, (...)
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  24. The End of the Timeless God, by R. T. Mullins.Katherin Rogers - 2016 - Faith and Philosophy 33 (4):495-500.
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  25. Doing Hard Time: Is God the Prisoner of the Oldest Dimension?R. T. Mullins - 2014 - Journal of Analytic Theology 2:160-185.
    In this paper I shall consider an objection to divine temporality called “The Prisoner of Time” objection. I shall begin by distinguishing divine timelessness from divine temporality in order to clear up common misunderstandings and caricatures of divine temporality. From there I shall examine the prisoner of time objection and explain why the prisoner of time objection fails to be a problem for the Christian divine temporalist.
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  26. Divine Temporality, the Trinity, and the Charge of Arianism.R. T. Mullins - 2016 - Journal of Analytic Theology 4 (1):267-290.
    Divine temporality is all the rage in certain theological circles today. Some even suggesting that the doctrine of the Trinity entails divine temporality. While I find this claim a bit strong, I do think that divine temporality can be quite useful for developing a robust model of the Trinity. However, not everyone agrees with this. Paul Helm has offered an objection to the so-called Oxford school of divine temporality based on the Christian doctrine of the Trinity. He has argued that (...)
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  27. God, Time and Knowledge.Brian Leftow & William Hasker - 1992 - Philosophical Review 101 (2):444.
  28. God and Timelessness.William L. Rowe & Nelson Pike - 1972 - Philosophical Review 81 (3):372.
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  29. The Eternal in Russian Philosophy.Valerie Nollan - 2002 - Ars Disputandi 2 (1):63-64.
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  30. VII.—Timelessness.F. B. Jevons - 1906 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 6 (1):206-223.
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  31. Semiclassical Theism and the Passage of Planck Times.James Goetz - 2016 - Theology and Science 14 (3):325–339.
    This paper models God and time in the framework of modern physics. God bridges and simultaneously exists in (1) a universe with infinite tenseless time and (2) a created parallel universe with tensed time and a point origin. The primary attributes of God are inexhaustible love, inexhaustible perception, and inexhaustible force. The model also incorporates modern physics theories that include relativity, the conservation of energy, quantum mechanics, and multiverse geometry. For example, creation out of nothing and divine intervention are subject (...)
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  32. The Importance of God as an Idea.Michael Brodrick - 2012 - Overheard in Seville 30 (30):14-18.
  33. God, Time, and Eternity.William Lane Craig - 1978 - Religious Studies 14 (4):497.
    God is the ‘high and lofty One who inhabits eternity’, declared the prophet Isaiah, but exactly how we are to understand the notion of eternity is not clear. Traditionally, the Christian church has taken it to mean ‘timeless’. But in his classic work on this subject, Oscar Cullmann has contended that the New Testament ‘does not make a philosophical, qualitative distinction between time and eternity. It knows linear time only…’ He maintains, ‘Primitive Christianity knows nothing of a timeless God. The (...)
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  34. Time After Augustine.James Wetzel - 1995 - Religious Studies 31 (3):341.
    This essay attempts to make sense of Augustine's claim that time is a mental affection. He has been criticized, by Russell for instance, for advocating a subjective theory of time, thereby confusing the issue of what time is with the issue of what it is like to experience time. I defend Augustine from this criticism. His interest in time emerges out of confessional philosophy, and when this context is taken into account, his association of time with affection implies the converse (...)
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  35. The Eternal Act.Don Lodzinski - 1998 - Religious Studies 34 (3):325-352.
    As a personal agent, God's act of creation involves deliberation about His possible courses of action, a decision to act in a certain way, and the execution of that decision. In this paper, I argue that there is good reason to suppose that God's deliberation of the possible worlds cannot make Him temporal. Furthermore, whether we favour a deterministic and indeterministic version of freedom, a model can be constructed of how God timelessly decides to create this world and respond to (...)
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  36. Maximus the Confessor's ‘Aeon’ as a Distinct Mode of Temporality.Sotiris Mitralexis - 2016 - Heythrop Journal 57 (6).
    In this paper, I shall focus on the semantic content of αἰὼν in Maximus the Confessor's works, particularly in the instances in which he employs it as a distinct form of temporality, i.e. not as simply meaning ‘eternity’. I focus on αἰὼν as a Maximian terminus technicus in spite of the diverse meanings that he himself ascribes to the word in certain cases. I will also engage with the status of time as humanity's slavery, as humanity's enemy in Maximus’ thought, (...)
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  37. Timelessness.Emily Pemberton - unknown
    God’s temporality is still debated today by theologians and philosophers with whether God is temporal, atemporal, or some other form of temporality. The context of this paper is the topic of God’s timelessness with the idea of William Lane Craig’s idea of “omnitemporality.” The paper discusses a few of the major arguments for God’s temporality and also God’s timelessness. The paper then analyzes Craig’s article defending the omnitemporality of God declaring that God is non-temporal without creation and then becomes temporal (...)
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  38. The End of the Timeless God.R. T. Mullins - 2016 - Oxford University Press UK.
    The End of the Timeless God considers two approaches to the philosophy of time, presentism and eternalism. It is often held that God cannot be timeless if presentism is true, but can be if eternalism is true. R. T. Mullins draws on recent work in the philosophy of time as well as the work of classical Christian thinkers such as Augustine, Anselm, and Aquinas to contend that the Christian God cannot be timeless in either case.
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  39. Molinism and Theological Compatibilism.Christoph Jäger - 2013 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 5 (1):71-92.
    In a series of recent papers John Martin Fischer argues that the Molinist solution to the problem of reconciling divine omniscience with human freedom does not offer such a solution at all. Instead, he maintains, Molina simply presupposes theological compatibilism. However, Fischer construes the problem in terms of sempiternalist omniscience, whereas classical Molinism adopts atemporalism. I argue that, moreover, an atemporalist reformulation of Fischer’s argument designed to show that Molinism is not even consistent is unsuccessful as well, since it employs (...)
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  40. The Timelessness of God.John C. Yates - 1990 - Upa.
    This book explains the classical Christian doctrine of God's timelessness and defends it against contemporary philosophical criticism. The historical background and discussion of this concept is reviewed from Parmenides to the present, and particular note is made that the doctrine cannot be detached from the various metaphysical systems in which it is embedded.
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  41. On the Relation of God and Time: A Temporalist Rebuttal of an Atemporalist View of Divine Immutability.Adam Co - 1999 - Quodlibet 1.
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  42. Divine Eternity and the Nature of Time.Alan Gregory Padgett - 1989 - Dissertation, University of Oxford (United Kingdom)
    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. ;I examine the doctrine of the timelessness of God, and develop a new concept of eternity, which I call "relative timelessness." I argue that the traditional notion of eternity, viz. that God is absolutely timeless and immutable, can only be true if the stasis theory of time is true . This argument assumes that God is active in our history, in particular that God directly sustains the universe at (...)
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  43. A Critical Analysis of Divine Timelessness as a Solution to the Foreknowledge-Free Will Debate.Michael Dale Robinson - 1994 - Dissertation, The Southern Baptist Theological Seminary
    The purpose of this dissertation was to examine whether divine timelessness solves the foreknowledge-free will dilemma. In chapter 1, I proposed that for divine timelessness to defeat the argument for the incompatibility of foreknowledge and freedom, divine timelessness must be an intelligible concept, must be coherent with key elements of the traditional Christian doctrine of God, and must not entail determinism. ;In chapter 2, I examined classical models of divine timeless-eternity. In chapter 3, I examined the nature of time, contending (...)
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  44. Images of Eternity.Keith Ward - 1989 - Religious Studies 25 (3):396-399.
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  45. God, Knowledge and Time.William Hasker - 1990 - Religious Studies 26 (2):295-296.
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