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Summary

Divine simplicity is a traditional attribute of God, and refers to God's lack of parts. Often it has been interpreted very strongly, to indicate a complete lack of properties or other ontological constituents on God's part. Partially for this reason, the doctrine of divine simplicity has come under much criticism for being incoherent, impossible, or in some way impious (perhaps by compromising God’s freedom). Nonetheless, the doctrine has enjoyed widespread support historically among all the Abrahamic religions, and has been closely connected to ideas about God's aseity, transcendence, necessity, immutability, and other attributes. 

Key works

Wolterstorff 1991 gives an accessible examination of metaphysical assumptions needed to make sense of the doctrine. Stump & Kretzmann 1985 defend it from the charge that it compromises God’s freedom. Leftow 1990 gives an argument for divine simplicity while defending it against Plantinga’s claim that it leaves God an abstract object. Other defenses of divine simplicity include Rogers 1996 (who focuses on the idea that God is pure act) and Pruss 2008 (who is one of several to develop a truthmaker account of divine predication and use it to solve various difficulties). Medieval work has deeply informed contemporary work on the subject; readers who want more detailed exploration of medieval thinkers on God’s simplicity can consult Hughes 1989, who analyzes and critiques Thomas Aquinas’ arguments for divine simplicity, and Adams 1987, who discusses William of Ockham’s understanding of the doctrine and arguments for it. Although most contemporary work on divine simplicity is conversant with medieval sources, relatively little work has been done on the doctrine’s late antique development; an exception is Cohoe 2017, who interprets and defends Plotinus’ important pro-simplicity argument. There has also been little work developing alternatives to divine simplicity that attempt to preserve God’s aseity, but Fowler 2015 argues that God could have parts and yet be more fundamental than those parts.

Introductions Brower 2009, Vallicella 2019, Weigel 2019
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181 found
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1 — 50 / 181
  1. How to Speak About a Supreme Being.Jude Arnout Durieux - manuscript
    If the transcendence tree to which our world belongs has a root, and that root is a mind, then what can be known about that mind? It seems there are two sources of knowledge, theology (that mind may have revealed itself to us) and philosophy (we may be able to reason about it from first principles). Here we shall look into that latter aspect.
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  2. The Simplest Reality... In Mulla Sadra's Theology and Leibniz Monadology.M. Bidi - unknown - Kheradnameh Sadra Quarterly 17.
    Pointing to the origination of the concept of "simplicity", conveying concepts such as "infinity" and "universality" in Islamic philosophy as well as Western philosophy in the 17 . Century , the author goes to elucidate the similarity between the meanings of "the simple existence", "the absolute existence" and "infinite existence" in the doctrines of Mulla Sadra, Spinoza, and Leibniz. He believes that from the rule of "the simplest reality..." of Mulla Sadra to the Spinoza's absolute existence, which are incorporated in (...)
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  3. Why Truthmaker Theory Cannot Save Divine Simplicity.Dean Da Vee - forthcoming - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion:1-18.
    Although the doctrine of divine simplicity has faced substantial criticism in recent years, Jeffrey Brower has recently offered a novel defense of the view by appealing to contemporary truthmaker theory. In this paper, I will argue that Brower’s defense of divine simplicity requires an implausible account of how truthmaking works for essential intrinsic predications. I will first argue that, unless Brower is willing to make an ad hoc exception for how truthmaking works in God’s case, he is committed to saying (...)
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  4. The Simplicity of Divine Ideas: Theistic Conceptual Realism and The Doctrine of Divine Simplicity.Michelle Lynn Panchuk - forthcoming - Religious Studies.
    There has been little discussion of the compatibility of Theistic Conceptual Realism (TCR) with the doctrine of divine simplicity (DDS). On one hand, if a plurality of universals is necessary to explain the character of particular things, there is reason to think this commits the proponent of TCR to the existence of a plurality of divine concepts. So the proponent of the DDS has a prima facie reason to reject TCR (and vice versa). On the other hand, many mediaeval philosophers (...)
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  5. Augustinian and Eastern Arguments For Divine Simplicity.Stephen J. Plečnik - forthcoming - Heythrop Journal.
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  6. The Aloneness Argument Against Classical Theism.Joseph C. Schmid & R. T. Mullins - forthcoming - Religious Studies:1-19.
    We argue that there is a conflict among classical theism's commitments to divine simplicity, divine creative freedom, and omniscience. We start by defining key terms for the debate related to classical theism. Then we articulate a new argument, the Aloneness Argument, aiming to establish a conflict among these attributes. In broad outline, the argument proceeds as follows. Under classical theism, it's possible that God exists without anything apart from Him. Any knowledge God has in such a world would be wholly (...)
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  7. Modal Collapse and Modal Fallacies: No Easy Defense of Simplicity.John William Waldrop - forthcoming - American Philosophical Quarterly.
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  8. Another Look at the Modal Collapse Argument.Omar Fakhri - 2021 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 13 (1):1-23.
    On one classical conception of God, God has no parts, not even metaphysical parts. God is not composed of form and matter, act and potency, and he is not composed of existence and essence. God is absolutely simple. This is the doctrine of Absolute Divine Simplicity. It is claimed that ADS implies a modal collapse, i.e. that God’s creation is absolutely necessary. I argue that a proper way of understanding the modal collapse argument naturally leads the proponent of ADS to (...)
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  9. Divine Simplicity: Some Recent Defenses and the Prevailing Challenge of Analogical Language.Rory Misiewicz - 2021 - International Journal of Philosophy and Theology 82 (1):51-63.
    ABSTRACT This essay’s aim is to demonstrate how recent defenses of divine simplicity have failed to address the prevailing challenge of analogical language, and thereby render much of their argumentation for simplicity’s appropriateness in Christian theology null-and-void. For this task, three book-length works published within the last few years are examined: Steven Duby’s Divine Simplicity: A Dogmatic Account, D. Stephen Long’s The Perfectly Simple Triune God: Aquinas and His Legacy, and Jordan Barrett’s Divine Simplicity: A Biblical and Trinitarian Account. The (...)
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  10. Accounting for the Whole: Why Pantheism is on a Metaphysical Par with Complex Theism.Caleb Cohoe - 2020 - Faith and Philosophy 37 (2):202-219.
    Pantheists are often accused of lacking a sufficient account of the unity of the cosmos and its supposed priority over its many parts. I argue that complex theists, those who think that God has ontologically distinct parts or attributes, face the same problems. Current proposals for the metaphysics of complex theism do not offer any greater unity or ontological independence than pantheism, since they are modeled on priority monism. I then discuss whether the formal distinction of John Duns Scotus offers (...)
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  11. Disowning the Mystery : Stump's Non-Apophatic Aquinas.Simon Hewitt - 2020 - Medieval Mystical Theology 1:3-14.
    On the face of it Aquinas stands in the mainstream of Western mystical theology, and in particular is a noteworthy proponent of negative theology. This view, however, is challenged within anglophone philosophical theology. The clearest attack on the view that Aquinas is an apophatic theologian is to be found in Eleonore Stump's Aquinas. This paper lays out Stump's reasons for reading Aquinas as non-apophatic, and shows that they are not convincing. Aquinas, it concludes, meant what he said when he claimed (...)
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  12. An Anselmian Approach to Divine Simplicity.Katherin A. Rogers - 2020 - Faith and Philosophy 37 (3):308-322.
    The doctrine of divine simplicity is an important aspect of the classical theism of philosophers like Augustine, Anselm, and Thomas Aquinas. Recently the doctrine has been defended in a Thomist mode using the intrinsic/extrinsic distinction. I argue that this approach entails problems which can be avoided by taking Anselm’s more Neoplatonic line. This does involve accepting some controversial claims: for example, that time is isotemporal and that God inevitably does the best. The most difficult problem involves trying to reconcile created (...)
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  13. Engaging the Doctrine of Creation: Cosmos, Creatures, and the Wise and Good Creator. [REVIEW]Matthew Baddorf - 2019 - Journal of Biblical and Theological Studies 4:170-171.
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  14. Synchronic and Diachronic Harmony: St. Irenaeus on Divine Simplicity.John Behr - 2019 - Modern Theology 35 (3):428-441.
    John Behr probes the teaching of Irenaeus on divine simplicity. Behr cautions against viewing divine simplicity as a philosophical or theological element that Irenaeus settles prior to his engagement with the scriptural economy of salvation. He warns that to understand Irenaeus’ approach in this way would separate “theology” and “economy” in a manner that supposes that the former does not arise fundamentally from the latter. Behr sets forth briefly the metaphysical principles upheld by the doctrine of divine simplicity. The question (...)
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  15. A Parsimonious Model of Divine Simplicity.Oliver D. Crisp - 2019 - Modern Theology 35 (3):558-573.
    Many recent treatments of divine simplicity have been highly critical of traditional accounts of the doctrine. Critics have challenged whether the doctrine is coherent and whether it can be squared with a robust theology of the triune God. Yet the theological tradition is largely persuaded that the doctrine of divine simplicity is not only coherent and true, but also that the doctrine of divine simplicity is needed for an account of the Trinity that does not fall into the trap of (...)
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  16. Contemplating the Monad Who Saves Us: Maximus the Confessor and John of Damascus on Divine Simplicity.Brian E. Daley - 2019 - Modern Theology 35 (3):467-480.
    Daley explores divine simplicity according to Maximus the Confessor and John of Damascus, grounding his account in their classical philosophical antecedents. He notes that often we think of the sixth and seventh centuries as devoted to questions about Jesus Christ, not about God per se. Admittedly, the aftermath of the Council of Chalcedon produced ongoing controversy in the East regarding the unity of the two natures of Christ, for example, whether Christ had one operation or two. Maximus, a follower of (...)
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  17. Receiving No Perfection From Another: Francis Turretin on Divine Simplicity.Steven J. Duby - 2019 - Modern Theology 35 (3):522-530.
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  18. Love, Justice, and Divine Simplicity.Everett Fulmer - 2019 - In Ingolf Dalferth (ed.), Claremont Studies in the Philosophy of Religion: Love and Justice. Mohr Siebeck.
    This paper raises an underappreciated paradox for classical theism. Love seems to be an inherently biased and partial relation. Justice seems to require the opposite, detached impartiality (think of the attributes of the just judge). But if these are conceptual facts, then classical theism is guilty of ascribing inconsistent attributes to God: perfect love and perfect justice. I resolve this paradox in a manner that weighs in favor of the principle of divine simplicity.
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  19. Plotinus on Divine Simplicity.Paul L. Gavrilyuk - 2019 - Modern Theology 35 (3):442-451.
    Gavrilyuk attends to divine simplicity according to the third‐century AD pagan philosopher Plotinus. He shows that Plotinus draws his doctrine of divine simplicity from the earlier Greco‐Roman philosophical tradition, in which the nature of the “first principle” was highly contested. Aristotle offers a history of the early debate, with Anaxagoras being the first to glimpse the first principle’s simplicity. The Platonist philosophers conceived of the first principle as incorporeal, and on these grounds linked the first principle to simplicity. For his (...)
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  20. Aquinas's Two Concepts of Analogy and a Complex Semantics for Naming the Simple God.Joshua Hochschild - 2019 - The Thomist 83 (2):155-184.
    This paper makes two main arguments. First, that to understand analogy in St. Thomas Aquinas, one must distinguish two logically distinct concepts he inherited from Aristotle: one a kind of likeness between things, the other a kind of relation between linguistic functions. Second, that analogy (in both of these senses) plays a relatively small role in Aquinas's treatment of divine naming, compared to the realist semantic framework in which questions about divine naming are formulated and resolved, and on which the (...)
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  21. Karl Barth and the Purification of Divine Simplicity.Keith L. Johnson - 2019 - Modern Theology 35 (3):531-541.
    Johnson investigates Karl Barth's critical appropriation of the doctrine of divine simplicity. While Barth is critical of traditional formulations of the doctrine, he understands himself to be refining the doctrine rather than rejecting it. Barth notes that Scripture attributes a diverse set of perfections to God in describing his salvific actions. These diverse perfections, however, have a fundamental unity: God does not contradict himself, but rather his perfections describe his unified, trustworthy agency. For this reason, we can know that in (...)
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  22. Introduction: Why Think About Divine Simplicity?Matthew Levering & George Kalantzis - 2019 - Modern Theology 35 (3):411-417.
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  23. Thomas Aquinas’ Divine Simplicity as Biblical Hermeneutic.D. Stephen Long - 2019 - Modern Theology 35 (3):496-507.
    Long draws from the Old Testament scholar Walter Brueggemann's commentary on Jeremiah some strong reasons for rejecting the traditional teaching on divine simplicity. Above all, for Brueggemann the book of Jeremiah simply will not work if God is simple: God explicitly tells Jeremiah that God suffers and also that God changes in response to Israel. According to Long, however, Thomas Aquinas's doctrine of divine simplicity actually upholds the points that Brueggemann draws from Jeremiah. Long argues that theological accounts of divine (...)
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  24. The Consubstantial Otherness of God: Divine Simplicity and the Trinity in Hans Urs von Balthasar.Jennifer Newsome Martin - 2019 - Modern Theology 35 (3):542-557.
    Martin explores divine simplicity according to the twentieth‐century Catholic theologian Hans Urs von Balthasar. She grants that Balthasar does not provide a traditional presentation of the attribute of divine simplicity. In his doctrine of the Trinity, Balthasar emphasizes such themes as distance, “hiatus,” and infinite difference, none of which seems to promise a robust doctrine of divine simplicity. Indeed, some have suggested that Balthasar's Trinitarian theology does not allow for traditional claims about divine simplicity. Martin argues, however, that one finds (...)
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  25. In Defense of Divine Truthmaker Simplicity.Timothy Pawl - 2019 - Res Philosophica 96 (1):63-75.
    In his recent article “Against Divine Truthmaker Simplicity,” Noël Saenz has provided two careful arguments for the falsity of a theory of divine simplicity which he dubs “Divine Truthmaker Simplicity.” In this brief response, I criticize his two arguments, arguing that neither is sound.
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  26. St. Gregory Palamas on the Divine Simplicity.Marcus Plested - 2019 - Modern Theology 35 (3):508-521.
    Plested focuses on the doctrine of divine simplicity according to Gregory Palamas (1296‐1357/9). He is well aware of the long tradition in the West of considering Palamas's distinction between the divine essence and the energies to do harm to the reality of divine simplicity—even if many recent books on divine simplicity ignore Palamas. Plested thinks that this is in part due to the selectivity of Western readings of Palamas's corpus. Although for Palamas the divine essence is truly (not merely conceptually) (...)
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  27. Gregory of Nyssa and Divine Simplicity: A Conceptualist Reading.Andrew Radde‐Gallwitz - 2019 - Modern Theology 35 (3):452-466.
    Andrew Radde‐Gallwitz probes Gregory of Nyssa on divine simplicity, a topic that Radde‐Gallwitz treated earlier in a book‐length monograph and takes further here in response to critics. As he notes, the Cappadocians and their opponents shared belief in divine simplicity. But for Gregory, simplicity functions as part of affirming the co‐equal divinity of the Father and Son, against his opponents. Radde‐Gallwitz lists six negative claims that Gregory’s understanding of divine simplicity supports: (1) God is immaterial; (2) God is without parts; (...)
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  28. “Shining in the Light of Your Glory”: Finding the Simple Reading of Scripture.Michel René Barnes - 2019 - Modern Theology 35 (3):418-427.
    This essay argues that without allowing for a legitimate extra‐biblical reasoning for the appropriateness of God's “simplicity,” Christians will be compelled biblically to affirm that God, as such, has a body — or at least Christians will have to accept this as a theologically possible reading of Scripture that cannot be ruled out. Barnes first cites ancient philosophical sources that argue that God has no parts but is utterly simple. In Barnes's quick sketch, the main role is given to Plotinus (...)
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  29. Complexity Without Composition.Jeff Steele & Thomas Williams - 2019 - American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 93 (4):611-631.
    John Duns Scotus recognizes complexity in God both at the level of God’s being and at the level of God’s attributes. Using the formal distinction and the notion of “unitive containment,” he argues for real plurality in God, but in a way that permits him to affirm the doctrine of divine simplicity. We argue that his allegiance to the doctrine of divine simplicity is purely verbal, that he flatly denies traditional aspects of the doctrine as he had received it from (...)
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  30. Arnauld's God Reconsidered.Eric Stencil - 2019 - History of Philosophy Quarterly 36 (1):19-38.
    In this paper, I defend a novel interpretation of Antoine Arnauld’s conception of God, namely a ‘partially hidden’ conception of God. I focus on divine simplicity and whether God acts for reasons. I argue that Arnauld holds the view that: God, God’s action and God’s attributes are (i) identical, and (ii) conceptually distinct, but that (iii) there are no conceptual priorities among them. Next, I argue that Arnauld’s view about whether God has any type of reasons is agnosticism, but that (...)
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  31. Collapsing the Modal Collapse Argument: On an Invalid Argument Against Divine Simplicity.Christopher Tomaszewski - 2019 - Analysis 79 (2):275-284.
    One of the most pressing objections against Divine simplicity is that it entails what is commonly termed a ‘modal collapse’, wherein all contingency is eliminated and every true proposition is rendered necessarily true. In this paper, I show that a common form of this argument is in fact famously invalid and examine three ways in which the opponent of Divine simplicity might try to repair the argument. I conclude that there is no clear way of repairing the argument that does (...)
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  32. Divine Simplicity.William F. Vallicella - 2019 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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  33. Divine Simplicity.Peter Weigel - 2019 - Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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  34. Brower and Saenz on Divine Truthmaker Simplicity.James R. Beebe - 2018 - Faith and Philosophy 35 (4):473-484.
    Jeffrey Brower has recently articulated a way to make sense of the doctrine of divine simplicity using resources from contemporary truthmaker theory. Noël Saenz has advanced two objections to Brower’s account, arguing that it violates constraints on adequate metaphysical explanations at various points. I argue that Saenz’s objections fail to show that Brower’s account is explanatorily inadequate.
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  35. Aquinas on the Nature and Implications of Divine Simplicity.Christopher Hughes - 2018 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 10 (2):1-22.
    I discuss what Aquinas’ doctrine of divine simplicity is, and what he takes to be its implications. I also discuss the extent to which Aquinas succeeds in motivating and defending those implications.
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  36. Divine Persons as Relational Qua-Objects.Robert C. Koons - 2018 - Religious Studies 54 (3):337-357.
    Is the Christian doctrine of the Trinity consistent with a very strong version of the thesis of divine simplicity? Yes, so long as the simple divine nature is a relational nature, a nature that could be characterized in terms of such relations as knowing and loving. This divine nature functions simultaneously as agent, patient, and action: as knower, known and knowledge, and lover, beloved, and love. I will draw on work on qua-objects by Kit Fine and Nicholas Asher and on (...)
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  37. The Coherence of Aquinas's Account of Divine Simplicity.David Kovacs - 2018 - Dissertation,
    Divine simplicity is central to Thomas Aquinas’s philosophy of God. Most important for Aquinas is his view that God’s existence (esse) is identical to God’s essence; for everything other than God, there is a distinction between existence and essence. However, recent developments in analytic philosophy about the nature of existence threaten to undermine what Aquinas thought regarding divine simplicity. In the first chapter of this dissertation, I trace Aquinas’s thinking on divine simplicity through the various texts he wrote regarding the (...)
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  38. The Secret Dynamism of Divine Simplicity.Mariel Mazzocco - 2018 - Modern Theology 34 (3):434-443.
    While it was a centerpiece of medieval theology, the thesis of God's simplicity is often perceived by contemporary thinkers as enigmatic or even incoherent. After having presented the recent debate on divine simplicity from a historical perspective, this paper questions the attribute of simplicity from the perspective of the fourteenth‐century German preacher Meister Eckhart and shows that the so‐called speculative mystical thought of the Middle Ages is able to suggest new perspectives regarding God's simplicity, and to enrich discussions on this (...)
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  39. Divine Simplicity and the Grammar of God-Talk: Comments on Hughes, Tapp, and Schärtl.Otto Muck Sj - 2018 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 10 (2):89-104.
    Different opinions about the simplicity of God may be connected with different understandings of how abstract terms are used to name the properties which are affirmed of a being. If these terms are taken to signify parts of that being, this being is not a simple one. Thomas Aquinas, who attributes essence, existence and perfections to God, nevertheless thinks that these are not different parts of God. When essence, existence and perfections are attributed to God, they all denominate the same, (...)
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  40. Why Can’T the Impassible God Suffer? Analytic Reflections on Divine Blessedness.R. T. Mullins - 2018 - TheoLogica: An International Journal for Philosophy of Religion and Philosophical Theology 2 (1):3-22.
    According to classical theism, impassibility is said to be systematically connected to divine attributes like timelessness, immutability, simplicity, aseity, and self-sufficiency. In some interesting way, these attributes are meant to explain why the impassible God cannot suffer. I shall argue that these attributes do not explain why the impassible God cannot suffer. In order to understand why the impassible God cannot suffer, one must examine the emotional life of the impassible God. I shall argue that the necessarily happy emotional life (...)
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  41. Divine Simplicity and the Grammar of God-Talk: Comments on Hughes, Tapp, and Schärtl.S. J. Otto Muck - 2018 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 10 (2):89-104.
    Different opinions about the simplicity of God may be connected with different understandings of how abstract terms are used to name the properties which are affirmed of a being. If these terms are taken to signify parts of that being, this being is not a simple one. Thomas Aquinas, who attributes essence, existence and perfections to God, nevertheless thinks that these are not different parts of God. When essence, existence and perfections are attributed to God, they all denominate the same, (...)
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  42. Divine Simplicity.Thomas Schärtl - 2018 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 10 (2):51-88.
    This paper examines a variety of approaches in order to make sense of the doctrine of divine simplicity. Discussing the implications of traditional and contemporary philosophical concepts of divine simplicity, the author argues for taking the divine nature as a stupendous substance to serve as the one and only truthmaker of statements regarding God, while we can resolve the predication problem which is caused by the idea that, as implied by divine simplicity, God is identical to his attributes if we (...)
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  43. Utrum Verum Et Simplex Convertantur. The Simplicity of God in Aquinas and Swinburne.Christian Tapp - 2018 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 10 (2):23-50.
    This paper explores Thomas Aquinas’ and Richard Swinburne’s doctrines of simplicity in the context of their philosophical theologies. Both say that God is simple. However, Swinburne takes simplicity as a property of the theistic hypothesis, while for Aquinas simplicity is a property of God himself. For Swinburne, simpler theories are ceteris paribus more likely to be true; for Aquinas, simplicity and truth are properties of God which, in a certain way, coincide – because God is metaphysically simple. Notwithstanding their different (...)
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  44. An Argument From Divine Beauty Against Divine Simplicity.Matthew Baddorf - 2017 - Topoi 36 (4):657-664.
    Some versions of the doctrine of divine simplicity imply that God lacks really differentiated parts. I present a new argument against these views based on divine beauty. The argument proceeds as follows: God is beautiful. If God is beautiful, then this beauty arises from some structure. If God’s beauty arises from a structure, then God possesses really differentiated parts. If these premises are true, then divine simplicity is false. I argue for each of the argument’s premises and defend it against (...)
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  45. Divine Simplicity, Aseity, and Sovereignty.Matthew Baddorf - 2017 - Sophia 56 (3):403-418.
    The doctrine of divine simplicity has recently been ably defended, but very little work has been done considering reasons to believe God is simple. This paper begins to address this lack. I consider whether divine aseity or the related notion of divine sovereignty provide us with good reason to affirm divine simplicity. Divine complexity has sometimes been thought to imply that God would possess an efficient cause; or, alternatively, that God would be grounded by God’s constituents. I argue that divine (...)
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  46. Divine Simplicity and Creation of Man.Miguel Brugarolas - 2017 - American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 91 (1):29-51.
    The immense distance between God and creatures is a core statement of Gregory of Nyssa’s thought, which makes it distinctive not only in theology, but also in cosmology, anthropology, and spiritual doctrine. For him, the main distinction between beings that articulates all reality is not that of intelligible and sensible, but the one between infinite God and creatures. This paper, dealing with some selected texts regarding the creation of man, points out the main roots of Gregory’s theism: a high comprehension (...)
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  47. Why the One Cannot Have Parts: Plotinus on Divine Simplicity, Ontological Independence, and Perfect Being Theology.Caleb M. Cohoe - 2017 - Philosophical Quarterly 67 (269):751-771.
    I use Plotinus to present absolute divine simplicity as the consequence of principles about metaphysical and explanatory priority to which most theists are already committed. I employ Phil Corkum’s account of ontological independence as independent status to present a new interpretation of Plotinus on the dependence of everything on the One. On this reading, if something else (whether an internal part or something external) makes you what you are, then you are ontologically dependent on it. I show that this account (...)
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  48. Simplicity’s Deficiency: Al-Ghazali’s Defense of the Divine Attributes and Contemporary Trinitarian Metaphysics.Nicholas Martin - 2017 - Topoi 36 (4):665-673.
    I reconstruct and analyze al-Ghazali’s arguments defending a plurality of real divine attributes in The Incoherence of the Philosophers. I show that one of these arguments can be made to engage with and defend Jeffrey E. Brower and Michael C. Rea’s “Numerical Sameness Without Identity” model of the Trinity. To that end, I provide some background on the metaphysical commitments at play in al-Ghazali’s arguments.
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  49. The Flexibility of Divine Simplicity.Mark K. Spencer - 2017 - International Philosophical Quarterly 57 (2):123-139.
    Contrary to many interpreters, I argue that Thomas Aquinas’s account of divine simplicity is compatible with the accounts of divine simplicity given by John Duns Scotus and Gregory Palamas. I synthesize their accounts of divine simplicity in a way that can answer the standard objections to the doctrine of divine simplicity more effectively than any of their individual accounts can. The three objections that I consider here are these: the doctrine of divine simplicity is inconsistent with distinguishing divine attributes, with (...)
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  50. Difficulties of Simplicity.M. Bradley Cody - 2016 - Quaerens Deum: The Liberty Undergraduate Journal for Philosophy of Religion 2 (1).
    This paper attempts to show that the doctrine of divine simplicity suffers from difficulties which undermine its plausibility. The main difficulties explored are Plantinga’s problem of double identification, Pruss’ multiple attributes problem, and Schmitt’s co-specificity problem. In more recent years, defenders of the doctrine have offered a way out of these problems by interpreting it in light of a truthmaker account of predication. This paper analyzes this recent defense, among others, and attempts to show that this new interpretation of divine (...)
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