About this topic
Summary This category is concerned with specific issues surrounding domestication, the well-being and captivity of domestic and domesticated animals, special obligations to domestic animals in contrast to wild animals, including farm animals, companion animals, work animals, etc.
Key works Classics of animal ethics concerned with the suffering and welfare of farm animals are Regan 2004Rollin 1995; Singer 1977. For early discussions of the "mixed community" and the distinctive moral status of domesticated animals, see Midgley 1983, and in relation to environmental ethics: Callicott 1988 and Callicott 1980. Recent work on the relevance (and nuances) of the wild/domesticated distinction: Donaldson & Kymlicka 2011Palmer 2010Palmer 2011Smith 2012
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  1. Loving Somebody: Accounting for Human-Animal Love.Claudia Hogg-Blake - forthcoming - The Journal of Ethics.
    In the philosophy of love, the possibility of loving a non-human animal is rarely acknowledged and often explicitly denied. And yet, loving a non-human animal is very common. Evidently, then, there is something wrong with both “human-focused” accounts (e.g. Niko Kolodny, Troy Jollimore), which assume we can only love human beings, and “person-focused” accounts (e.g. David Velleman, Bennett Helm), which understand the nature of love in terms of its being essentially directed toward those with a capacity for normative self-reflection (i.e. (...)
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  2. Avian architects: Technology, domestication, and animal minds in urban America.Matthew Holmes - forthcoming - History of Science.
    In the mid-nineteenth century, the house sparrow ( Passer domesticus) was introduced to the United States, quickly spreading across the country. For a brief period in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, the observation of sparrow behavior was something of an urban pastime. Traits such as intelligence, reason, persistence, and craftsmanship were conferred onto sparrows by American urbanites. This paper argues that sparrow intelligence was often conflated with domestication: the ability of the birds to adapt to living alongside humans. (...)
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  3. Josh Milburn, Food, Justice, and Animals: Feeding the World Respectfully(Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2023), pp. 224. [REVIEW]Nicolas Delon - 2024 - Utilitas 36 (2):189-192.
  4. Parental Responsibility and Our Special Relationship with Animal Companions.Sigsbee Dustin - 2024 - Journal of Value Inquiry 58 (1):1-16.
    What is the basis of our obligations to our animal companions? This is an important question for practical reasons, as the relationship that many individuals have with their animal companion is amongst the most intimate of relationships they share with a non-human animal. It is also important for theoretical reasons. One of those reasons is that our commitments to animal companions may appear to present a kind of puzzle. If we think that we have moral commitments to animal companions that (...)
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  5. Why you shouldn’t serve meat at your next catered event.Zachary Ferguson - 2024 - Politics, Philosophy and Economics.
    Much has been written about the ethics of eating meat. Far less has been said about the ethics of serving meat. In this paper I argue that we often shouldn’t serve meat, even if it is morally permissible for individuals to purchase and eat meat. Historically, the ethical conversation surrounding meat has been limited to individual diets, meat producers, and government actors. I argue that if we stop the conversation there, then the urgent moral problems associated with industrial animal agriculture (...)
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  6. The Future of Animal Law.Sean Butler - 2023 - Journal of Animal Ethics 13 (1):105-107.
    One of the issues with introducing animal rights law is whether the problem is quantitative or qualitative, whether it can be achieved by working within existing legal paradigms or whether it requires a new set of paradigms. The answer is fundamental: a quantitative problem can be solved by applying more of the same solutions, while a qualitative problem requires completely different solutions. The qualitative camp can be represented by, say, Professor Gary Francione, demanding not only rights for animals but that (...)
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  7. Animals in Brazil: Economic, Legal and Ethical Perspectives.David N. Cassuto - 2023 - Journal of Animal Ethics 13 (1):96-98.
    Animals in Brazil: Economic, Legal and Ethical Perspectives presents a broad overview of the complicated role of animals in Brazilian society. Its four substantive chapters survey the landscape of animal agriculture, animal protection laws, recent animal jurisprudence, and the underlying cultural factors that have shaped the Brazilian people's relationship with and treatment of animals. Despite the book's title, there is no chapter addressing economics. However, it represents the first book in English addressing the plight of animals in Brazil and makes (...)
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  8. Solidarity with Wild Animals.Mara-Daria Cojocaru & Alasdair Cochrane - 2023 - Ethics, Policy and Environment 26 (2):198-216.
    ABSTRACT‘Solidarity’ is a key concept in political movements and usually bears on matters of labour, health and social justice. As such, it is essential in the reproduction and transformation of communities that support their members and protect their interests. It is sometimes overlooked that interspecies solidarity already pertains with a number of domesticated animals, and that people are willing to carry substantial emotional, financial and social burdens to benefit them. There has been even more reluctance to acknowledge wild animals as (...)
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  9. The ethics of pigeon racing.Jan Deckers & Silvina Pezzetta - 2023 - Sport, Ethics and Philosophy 17 (4):465-476.
    There is a dearth of academic research on the ethics of pigeon racing. We argue that pigeon racing is associated with significant benefits and disadvantages, but that the benefits that have been associated with it can be provided by alternative practices. Disadvantages include the competitive element associated with racing, which creates a strong incentive to kill birds where this is not in their best interests, as well as the welfare issues related to transportation, the widowhood system, the races themselves, and (...)
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  10. Relational nonhuman personhood.Nicolas Delon - 2023 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 61 (4):569-587.
    This article defends a relational account of personhood. I argue that the structure of personhood consists of dyadic relations between persons who can wrong or be wronged by one another, even if some of them lack moral competence. I draw on recent work on directed duties to outline the structure of moral communities of persons. The upshot is that we can construct an inclusive theory of personhood that can accommodate nonhuman persons based on shared community membership. I argue that, once (...)
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  11. Self-affirmation in sled dogs? Affordances, perceptual agency, and extreme sport.Eric Gilbertson & Bob Fischer - 2023 - Sport, Ethics and Philosophy 17 (4):443-455.
    We argue that extreme endurance sport can be valuable for some nonhuman animals. To make the case, we focus specifically on dogsled racing. We argue that, given certain views about the nature of self-affirmation, perceptual agency, and affordances, sled dogs are capable of realizing significant value through extreme endurance running. Because our focus is on the axiological question of the nature of the value of the sport for its participants, we do not claim that extreme dogsledding is ethical; indeed, we (...)
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  12. Introduction to Special Issue on Rethinking Rights and Justice for Non-Humans.Deepa Kansra - 2023 - Ili Law Review 1 (Special Issue):1-3.
    This Special Issue is an outcome of the lectures and discussions on ‘Cross-cutting Themes and Concepts in Human Rights’, offered as a Seminar Course to the students of the MA Programme, School of International Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University. As part of the Course, a Webinar on ‘Rethinking Rights and Justice for Non-Humans’ was held in 2022, in which the participants advanced some of the most compelling arguments for the meaningful representation of non-human entities in law and governance. In the three (...)
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  13. Uniting Ecocentric and Animal Ethics: Combining Non-Anthropocentric Approaches in Conservation and the Care of Domestic Animals.Helen Kopnina, Joe Gray, William Lynn, Anja Heister & Raghav Srivastava - 2023 - Ethics, Policy and Environment 26 (2):265-286.
    Currently, there is no non-anthropocentric guide to the practice of nature conservation and the treatment of invasive species and domestic animals. In examining the so-called ‘ecocentric’ and ‘animal’ ethics, we highlight some differences between them, and argue that the basic aspiration for support of all nonhuman life needs to be retained. We maintain that hierarchies of value need to be flexible, establishing basic principles and then weighing up the options in the context of anthropocentrism, industrial development and human population growth. (...)
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  14. The People and Their Animal Other: Representation, Mimicry and Domestication.Laurin Mackowitz - 2023 - Philosophies 9 (1):3.
    Animal stereotypes are used to describe, circumscribe and label people. They also serve to negotiate what counts as familiar and what is expelled as foreign. This article explores the composition of animal stereotypes and examines why they continue to influence the way humans understand themselves. Referring to dehumanising language in contemporary political discourse, anthropological theories of mimicry and representation as well as ethnological observations of human–animal relations, this article argues that if animals are regarded as intelligent and compassionate rather than (...)
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  15. On Our Moral Entanglements with Wild Animals.Gary David O’Brien - 2023 - Food Ethics 8 (15):1-8.
    In Just Fodder, Milburn argues for a relational account of our duties to animals. Following Clare Palmer, he argues that, though all animals have negative rights that we have a duty not to violate, we only gain positive obligations towards animals in the contexts of our relationships with them, which can be personal or political. He argues that human beings have collective positive duties towards domesticated animals, in virtue of the kind of relationship between us established by domestication. However, when (...)
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  16. The Ethical Problem of Exploitation of Animals for Tourism.Ena Pavičić - 2023 - In Marie-Élise Zovko & John Dillon (eds.), Tourism and Culture in Philosophical Perspective. Springer Verlag. pp. 215-222.
    Domestication of animals took place as a biological and cultural process. This was the basis for the Neolithic revolution resulting in the quicker progress of human societies (cf. Clutton-Brock J. A natural history of domesticated mammals. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1999, 30–31). Today, some people try to preserve a piece of history by keeping animals as a tourist attraction. Those involved in keeping animals to promote tourism, however, are often driven to earn as much money as possible, while not considering (...)
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  17. Politics in the Anthropocene: Non-human Citizenship and the Grand Domestication.Gianfranco Pellegrino - 2023 - Rivista Italiana di Filosofia Politica 3:131-160.
    The article has two aims. First, it provides a view of why the standard liberal-democratic political theory is unfit for the Anthropocene. Then, it defends two claims: that the fittest politics for the Anthropocene is to be fully non-anthropocentric and that the best model of a non-anthropocentric political theory is to be grounded in the notion of ‘ecological citizenship’, which can be easily extended to non-human living beings and even to non-living objects, such as ecosystems. The latter claim is defended (...)
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  18. A Tale of Enduring Myths: Buffon’s Theory of Animal Degeneration and the Regeneration of Domesticated Animals in Mid-19th Century Brazil.David Francisco de Moura Penteado - 2023 - Journal of the History of Biology 56 (4):715-742.
    The long 19th century was a period of many developments and technical innovations in agriculture and animal biology, during which actors sought to incorporate new practices in light of new information. By the middle of the century, however, while heredity steadily became the dominant concept in animal husbandry, some policies related to livestock improvement in Brazil seemed to have been tailored following a climate-deterministic concept established in the mid-18th century by the French naturalist Georges-Louis Leclerc, the Comte de Buffon. His (...)
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  19. Social Practices as Biological Niche Construction.Joseph Rouse - 2023 - Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
    The book integrates humans’ biological lives as animals with acculturation and interaction within diverse social worlds. Recent work in evolutionary biology, the social theory of practices, and cognition as embodied and enactive shows how aspects of human life often treated as social or cognitive are integrated “naturecultural” phenomena. Human evolution enables people’s varied biological development in practice-differentiated environments sustained by ongoing niche reconstruction. These naturecultural aspects of human life include language and other expressive repertoires; cultivated bodily skills; differentiated practical and (...)
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  20. How to Win Multispecies Friends and Influence Anthropocentric People: Review of Jane Mummery and Debbie Rodan, Imagining New Human–Animal Futures in Australia. [REVIEW]Serrin Rutledge-Prior - 2023 - Humanimalia 13 (2):247–252.
  21. On the Ill-Being of Animals: From Factory Farm to Forever Home.Cheryl Abbate & C. Abbate - 2022 - Midwest Studies in Philosophy 46 (1):325-353.
    Animal welfare theorists tend to assume that most animals in captivity—especially those living in our homes and in sanctuaries—can, with sufficient care and environmental enrichment, live genuinely good lives. This misguided belief stems from the view that animal well-being should be assessed only in terms of the felt experiences of animals. Against this view, I argue that in assessing how well an animal’s life is going, we ought to consider two distinct kinds of welfare: experiential welfare and subject welfare. Once (...)
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  22. We Have No Moral Duty to Eat Meat: A Reply to Nick Zangwill.David Benatar - 2022 - Public Affairs Quarterly 36 (4):312-324.
    Nick Zangwill has argued that we have a moral duty to eat meat. His argument applies to the flesh of those domesticated animals who (a) would not have existed had it not been for the practice of killing and eating them; and (b) have lives that contain more good than bad—and thus, on his view, have “lives worth living.” In my reply, I point to various features of his argument that are unclear. I seek to render explicit the various premises (...)
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  23. Unnatural Pumas and Domestic Foxes: Relations with Protected Predators and Conspiratorial Rumours in Southern Chile.Pelayo Benavides & Julián Caviedes - 2022 - Environmental Values 31 (2):131-152.
    Human-wildlife conflicts involving protected predators are a major social and environmental problem worldwide. A critical aspect in such conflicts is the role of state institutions regarding predators' conservation, and how this is construed by affected local populations. These interpretations are frequently embodied in conspiratorial rumours, sharing some common traits related to wild and domestic categories, spatial ordering and power relations. In southern Chile, a one-year, multi-sited ethnographic study of human-animal relations in and adjacent to protected areas was undertaken, foregrounding conspiratorial (...)
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  24. Population Ethics and Animal Farming.Stijn Bruers - 2022 - Environmental Ethics 44 (4):291-311.
    Is animal farming permissible when animals would have a positive welfare? The happy animal farming problem represent the paradigmatic problem in population ethics, because its simple structure introduces the most important complications of population ethics. Three new population ethical theories that avoid the counter-intuitive repugnant and sadistic conclusions are discussed and applied to the animal farming problem. Breeding farm animals would not be permissible according to these theories, except under some rather unrealistic conditions, such as those farm animals being so (...)
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  25. People and Their Animal Companions: Navigating Moral Constraints in a Harmful, Yet Meaningful World. Cheryl - 2022 - Philosophical Studies 2022.
    Those who claim to be committed to the moral equality of animals don’t always act as if they think all animals are equal. For instance, many animal liberationists spend hundreds, if not thousands, of dollars each year on food, toys, and medical care for their companion animals. Surely, more animals would be helped if the money spent on companion animals were donated to farmed animal protection organizations. Moreover, many animal liberationists feed their companion animals the flesh of farmed animals, and (...)
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  26. The Animals in our Living Rooms: Friends or Family?Abbate Cheryl - 2022 - In Diane Jeske (ed.), The Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of Friendship. New York, NY: Routledge.
    Many human–animal relationships closely resemble parent–child relationships. Yet, as I argue in this chapter, normatively speaking, parenting is not the kind of practice we should strive to mirror in our loving relationships with companion animals. Rather, we should strive to form friendships with animals. This is because friendships, unlike parent–child relationships, are characterized by mutuality, choice, equality, and respect for differences, and these are ideals we should try to foster in our loving relationships with all animals (human and nonhuman).
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  27. The Problem of Justifying Animal-Friendly Animal Husbandry.Konstantin Deininger - 2022 - Transforming Food Systems: Ethics, Innovation and Responsibility.
    Intense or industrial animal husbandry is morally bad. This consensus in animal ethics led to the emergence of veganism which is recently in decline in favour of ‘conscientious carnivorism’ which advocates eating animal products from animal-friendly animal husbandry in response to the moral problems of industrial farming. Advocates of animal-friendly husbandry justify rearing and killing ‘happy animals’ by highlighting that the animals live pleasant lives and would not have existed if not reared for human consumption. In this paper, I tackle (...)
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  28. Is Daniel a Monster? Reflections on Daniel A. Bell and Wang Pei’s "Subordination Without Cruelty" Thesis.Rainer Ebert, Valéry Giroux, Angie Pepper & Kristin Voigt - 2022 - Les Ateliers de l'Éthique / the Ethics Forum 17 (1-2):31-45.
    Daniel Bell and Wang Pei’s recent monograph, Just Hierarchy, seeks to defend hierarchical relationships against more egalitarian alternatives. This paper addresses their argument, offered in one chapter of the book, in favour of a hierarchical relationship between human and nonhuman animals. This relationship, Bell and Pei argue, should conform to what they call “subordination without cruelty:” it is permissible to subordinate and exploit animals for human ends, provided that we do not treat them cruelly. We focus on three aspects of (...)
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  29. Membership Rights for Animals.Will Kymlicka - 2022 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 91:213-244.
    It is increasingly acknowledged that animals have an intrinsic moral status, in part due to the influential work of many moral philosophers. However, surprisingly little has been written by philosophers on whether animals are owed social membership and the rights that attach to membership in society. In this paper, I explore why the idea of social membership matters, particularly in relation to domesticated animals, and how it can guide legal and political reforms. Focusing on social membership identifies neglected avenues for (...)
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  30. Animals and Human Society in Asia: Historical, Cultural and Ethical Perspectives.Chien-hui Li - 2022 - Journal of Animal Ethics 12 (2):203-205.
    From a largely Western phenomenon, the “animal turn” has, in recent years, gone global. Animals and Human Society in Asia: Historical, Cultural and Ethical Perspectives is just such a timely product that testifies to this trend.But why Asia? The editors, in their very helpful overview essay, have from the outset justified the volume's focus on Asia and ensured that this is not simply a matter of lacuna filling. The reasons they set out include: the fact that Asia is the cradle (...)
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  31. Are animal breeds social kinds?David Teira & Oriol Vidal - 2022 - Synthese 201 (1):1-15.
    Breeds are classifications of domestic animals that share, to a certain degree, a set of conventional phenotypic traits. We are going to defend that, despite classifying biological entities, animal breeds are social kinds. We will adopt Godman’s view of social kinds, classifications with predictive power based on social learning processes. We will show that, although the folk concept of animal breed refers to a biological kind, there is no way to define it. The expert definitions of breeds are instead based (...)
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  32. The Harm of Desire Modification in Non-human Animals: Circumventing Control, Diminishing Ownership and Undermining Agency.Marc G. Wilcox - 2022 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 35 (3):1-15.
    It is seemingly bad for animals to have their desires modified in at least some cases, for instance where brainwashing or neurological manipulation takes place. In humans, many argue that such modification interferes with our positive liberty or undermines our autonomy but this explanation is inapplicable in the case of animals as they lack the capacity for autonomy in the relevant sense. As such, the standard view has been that, despite any intuitions to the contrary, the modification of animals’ desires (...)
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  33. Social Membership, Contribution, and Justice.Ryan Wilcox - 2022 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 35 (3):1-16.
    Central to the social membership model of animal rights is the claim that relations with nonhuman animals should be reorganized such that domesticated animals are recognized as members of our shared societies. Though some elements of the membership model remain contested, the core of the membership model is that domesticated animals have a claim on, and a direct entitlement to, the benefits of cooperative relations. For many political theorists, however, distributive justice considerations apply only to a certain kind of cooperative (...)
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  34. From iconic species to swimming vegetable: CRISPR as the new frontier in the domestication of salmon.Hannah Winther - 2022 - In Donald Bruce & Ann Bruce (eds.), Transforming Food Systems: Ethics, Innovation and Responsibility. Brill Wageningen Academic. pp. 440 - 445.
    Gene editing technologies such as CRISPR hold the promise to solve many of the challenges in industrial salmon farming. However, for the technology to be taken into use, it has to be deemed socially and morally acceptable. Whereas older gene modification technologies have been met with much public resistance, there are hopes that CRISPR might change the debate, since it does not require inserting genes from other organisms and can therefore be considered less invasive and more natural. Though the concept (...)
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  35. Animals in Our Midst: The Challenges of Co-existing with Animals in the Anthropocene.B. Bovenkerk & F. W. J. Keulartz (eds.) - 2021 - Springer.
    This Open Access book brings together authoritative voices in animal and environmental ethics, who address the many different facets of changing human-animal relationships in the Anthropocene. As we are living in complex times, the issue of how to establish meaningful relationships with other animals under Anthropocene conditions needs to be approached from a multitude of angles. This book offers the reader insight into the different discussions that exist around the topics of how we should understand animal agency, how we could (...)
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  36. Animal resistance in the global capitalist era.Sarat Colling - 2021 - East Lansing: Michigan State University Press.
    This book examines the context, meaning, and implications of animals' resistance to human exploitation from a perspective that considers both the animals' lived experiences and what their resistance reveals about the societies in which they resist.
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  37. The Ethics of Touch and the Importance of Nonhuman Relationships in Animal Agriculture.Steve Cooke - 2021 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 34 (2):1-20.
    Animal agriculture predominantly involves farming social animals. At the same time, the nature of agriculture requires severely disrupting, eliminating, and controlling the relationships that matter to those animals, resulting in harm and unhappiness for them. These disruptions harm animals, both physically and psychologically. Stressed animals are also bad for farmers because stressed animals are less safe to handle, produce less, get sick more, and produce poorer quality meat. As a result, considerable efforts have gone into developing stress-reduction methods. Many of (...)
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  38. Hamster numbers: biopolitics and animal agency in the dutch fields, circa 1870-present.Raf De Bont - 2021 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 43 (2):1-25.
    Numbers of European hamsters in the Dutch Province of Limburg have been subject to much scrutiny and controversy. In the late nineteenth century, policymakers who considered them too numerous set up eradication programs. In the second half of the twentieth century, even when its domestic relative increasingly circulated as a pet in urban spaces, the numbers of European hamsters in the rural areas collapsed. Large-scale preservation campaigns and reintroduction programs ensued. According to some media, all this has turned the European (...)
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  39. Unruly Beasts: Animal Citizens and the Threat of Tyranny.Sue Donaldson & Will Kymlicka - 2021 - Les Cahiers Philosophiques de Strasbourg 49:89-123.
    Plusieurs commentateurs – incluant certains théoriciens des droits des animaux – ont soutenu que les animaux non humains ne peuvent pas être considérés comme des membres du dèmos parce qu’il leur manque les capacités critiques d’autonomie et d’agentivité morale qui seraient essentielles à la citoyenneté. Nous soutenons que cette inquiétude est fondée sur des idées erronées à propos de la citoyenneté, d’une part, et à propos des animaux, d’autre part. La citoyenneté requiert la maîtrise de soi et la sensibilité aux (...)
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  40. The Freegan Challenge to Veganism.Bob Fischer & Josh Milburn - 2021 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 34 (3):1-19.
    There is a surprising consensus among vegan philosophers that freeganism—eating animal-based foods going to waste—is permissible. Some ethicists even argue that vegans should be freegans. In this paper, we offer a novel challenge to freeganism drawing upon Donaldson and Kymlicka’s ‘zoopolitical’ approach, which supports ‘restricted freeganism’. On this position, it’s prima facie wrong to eat the corpses of domesticated animals, as they are members of a mixed human-animal community, ruling out many freegan practices. This exploration reveals how the ‘political turn’ (...)
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  41. Animals in our midst : An introduction.Jozef Keulartz & Bernice Bovenkerk - 2021 - In B. Bovenkerk & J. Keulartz (eds.), Animals in Our Midst: The Challenges of Co-existing with Animals in the Anthropocene. Springer.
    In this introduction we describe how the world has changed for animals in the Anthropocene—the current age, in which human activities have influenced the planet on a scale never seen before. In this era, we find many different types of animals in our midst: some—in particular livestock—are both victims of and unwittingly complicit in causing the Anthropocene. Others are forced to respond to new environmental conditions. Think of animals that due to climate change can no longer survive in their native (...)
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  42. Ethics and Human–Animal Relations: Review Essay. [REVIEW]Anna Peterson - 2021 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 34 (4):1-14.
    This review essay considers five recent books that address the ethical dimensions of human–animal relations. The books are David Favre, Respecting Animals: A Balanced Approach to our Relationship with Pets, Food, and Wildlife; T. J. Kasperbauer, Subhuman: The Moral Psychology of Human Attitudes to Animals; Ben Minteer, The Fall of the Wild: Extinction, De-Extinction, and the Ethics of Conservation; Heather Swanson, Marianne Lien, and Gro Ween, eds., Domestication Gone Wild: Politics and Practices of Multispecies Relations; and Thom van Dooren, The (...)
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  43. How Much Does Slaughter Harm Humanely Raised Animals?Coleman Solis - 2021 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 38 (2):258-272.
    Some believe that it is immoral to harm animals, but it is not immoral to kill humanely raised domesticated animals. Implicit in this is the assumption that it is possible to raise and slaughter animals without harming them significantly. In recent years, a number of philosophers – DeGrazia, Harman, Bradley, and others – have claimed that slaughter harms an animal in proportion to the amount of valuable future life that an animal loses in dying, which seems to challenge this assumption. (...)
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  44. Our Moral Duty to Eat Meat.Nick Zangwill - 2021 - Journal of the American Philosophical Association 7 (3):295-311.
    I argue that eating meat is morally good and our duty when it is part of a practice that has benefited animals. The existence of domesticated animals depends on the practice of eating them, and the meat-eating practice benefits animals of that kind if they have good lives. The argument is not consequentialist but historical, and it does not apply to nondomesticated animals. I refine the argument and consider objections.
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  45. How dogs perceive humans and how humans should treat their pet dogs: Linking cognition with ethics.Judith Benz-Schwarzburg, Susana Monsó & Ludwig Huber - 2020 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
    Humans interact with animals in numerous ways and on numerous levels. We are indeed living in an “animal”s world,’ in the sense that our lives are very much intertwined with the lives of animals. This also means that animals, like those dogs we commonly refer to as our pets, are living in a “human’s world” in the sense that it is us, not them, who, to a large degree, define and manage the interactions we have with them. In this sense, (...)
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  46. Ethics and the Welfare of Fish.B. Bovenkerk & Franck Meijboom - 2020 - In T. S. Kristiansen, A. Fernö, M. A. Pavlidis & H. van de Vis (eds.), The welfare of fish. pp. 19-42.
    To what extent fish can experience suffering and enjoyment is not just an empirical question, but one that also calls for ethical reflection. This is firstly, because animal welfare research is value laden and secondly, because the empirical evidence requires a normative framework in order to become action guiding in practices involving fish, such as aquaculture. In this chapter, we describe the role of ethics and different ethical theories that have been applied in animal ethics and that are relevant for (...)
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  47. The Vegan's Dilemma.Donald W. Bruckner - 2020 - Utilitas 32 (3):350-367.
    A common and convincing argument for the moral requirement of veganism is based on the widespread, severe, and unnecessary harm done to animals, the environment, and humans by the practices of animal agriculture. If this harm footprint argument succeeds in showing that producing and consuming animal products is morally impermissible, then parallel harm footprint arguments show that a vast array of modern practices are impermissible. On this first horn of the dilemma, by engaging in these practices, vegans are living immorally (...)
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  48. Bovine Prospection, the Mesocorticolimbic Pathways, and Neuroethics: Is a Cow’s Future Like Ours?Gary Comstock - 2020 - In L. Syd M. Johnson, Andrew Fenton & Adam Shriver (eds.), Neuroethics and Nonhuman Animals. Springer. pp. 73-97.
    What can neuroscience tell us, if anything, about the capacities of cows to think about the future? The question is important if having the right to a future requires the ability to think about one’s future. To think about one’s future involves the mental state of prospection, in which we direct our attention to things yet to come. I distinguish several kinds of prospection, identify the behavioral markers of future thinking, and survey what is known about the neuroanatomy of future-directed (...)
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  49. Valuing humane lives in two-level utilitarianism.Nicolas Delon - 2020 - Utilitas 32 (3):276-293.
    I examine the two-level utilitarian case for humane animal agriculture (by R. M. Hare and Gary Varner) and argue that it fails on its own terms. The case states that, at the ‘intuitive level’ of moral thinking, we can justify raising and killing animals for food, regarding them as replaceable, while treating them with respect. I show that two-level utilitarianism supports, instead, alternatives to animal agriculture. First, the case for humane animal agriculture does not follow from a commitment to two-level (...)
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  50. Animal Agora.Sue Donaldson - 2020 - Social Theory and Practice 46 (4):709-735.
    Many theorists of the ‘political turn’ in animal rights theory emphasize the need for animals’ interests to be considered in political decision-making processes, but deny that this requires self-representation and participation by animals themselves. I argue that participation by domesticated animals in co-authoring our shared world is indeed required, and explore two ways to proceed: 1) by enabling animal voice within the existing geography of human-animal roles and relationships; and 2) by freeing animals into a revitalized public commons where citizens (...)
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