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  1. On Drugs.Sam Baron, Sara Linton & Maureen A. O’Malley - 2023 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 48 (6):551-564.
    Despite their centrality to medicine, drugs are not easily defined. We introduce two desiderata for a basic definition of medical drugs. It should: (a) capture everything considered to be a drug in medical contexts and (b) rule out anything that is not considered to be a drug. After canvassing a range of options, we find that no single definition of drugs can satisfy both desiderata. We conclude with three responses to our exploration of the drug concept: maintain a monistic concept, (...)
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  2. Bad moves: how decision making goes wrong, and the ethics of smart drugs.B. J. Sahakian - 2013 - Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press. Edited by Jamie Nicole LaBuzetta.
    How do our brains make choices? How do factors such as Alzheimer's or depression impair decision-making? Presenting the latest research on 'hot' and 'cold' decision-making, Barbara Sahakian and Jamie Nicole LaBuzetta look at the therapeutic smart drugs now available, and raise concerns about their unregulated use to enhance mental performance.
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  3. Is regulatory innovation fit for purpose? A case study of adaptive regulation for advanced biotherapeutics.Giovanni De Grandis - 2022 - Regulation and Governance 16.
    The need to better balance the promotion of scientific and technological innovation with risk management for consumer protection has inspired several recent reforms attempting to make regulations more flexible and adaptive. The pharmaceutical sector has a long, established regulatory tradition, as well as a long history of controversies around how to balance incentives for needed therapeutic innovations and protecting patient safety. The emergence of disruptive biotechnologies has provided the occasion for regulatory innovation in this sector. This article investigates the regulation (...)
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  4. ‘First Do No Harm’: physician discretion, racial disparities and opioid treatment agreements.Adrienne Sabine Beck, Larisa Svirsky & Dana Howard - 2022 - Journal of Medical Ethics 48 (10):753-758.
    The increasing use of opioid treatment agreements has prompted debate within the medical community about ethical challenges with respect to their implementation. The focus of debate is usually on the efficacy of OTAs at reducing opioid misuse, how OTAs may undermine trust between physicians and patients and the potential coercive nature of requiring patients to sign such agreements as a condition for receiving pain care. An important consideration missing from these conversations is the potential for racial bias in the current (...)
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  5. Why we should stop using animal-derived products on patients without their consent.Daniel Rodger - 2022 - Journal of Medical Ethics 48 (10):702-706.
    Medicines and medical devices containing animal-derived ingredients are frequently used on patients without their informed consent, despite a significant proportion of patients wanting to know if an animal-derived product is going to be used in their care. Here, I outline three arguments for why this practice is wrong. First, I argue that using animal-derived medical products on patients without their informed consent undermines respect for their autonomy. Second, it risks causing nontrivial psychological harm. Third, it is morally inconsistent to respect (...)
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  6. Yaygın Görülen Nörolojik Hastalıklarda Tamamlayıcı ve Alternatif Tıp Kullanımı.Tugba Gürel - 2020 - Ankara, Türkiye: Gece.
    Tamamlayıcı ve alternatif tıp (TAT) uygulamaları temel tıbbi tedaviye ek ya da temel tıbbi tedavinin yerine kullanılan, uygulamaları genelde konvansiyonel tıp tarafından tedavi olarak kabul edilmeyen çeşitli tıbbi ve sağlık bakım sistemi, pratikleri ve ürünleri olarak tanımlanmaktadır (Hossein et al., 2014, Amira ve Okubadejo, 2007; National Institutes of Health [NIH], 2018). TAT konusunda yapılan araştırmalar Afrika, Asya ve Latin Amerika gibi gelişmemiş ya da gelişmekte olan ülkelerde hastaların bazı tedavi ihtiyaçlarını karşılamak amacıyla geleneksel uygulamalara başvurmaları doğrultusunda geleneksel tıp teriminin tamamlayıcı (...)
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  7. Coercion in the Recruitment and Retention of Human Research Subjects, Pharmaceutical Industry Payments to Physician-Investigators and the Moral Courage of the IRB.Evan G. DeRenzo - 2000 - IRB: Ethics & Human Research 22 (2):1.
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  8. Lowering Restrictions on Performance Enhancing Drugs in Elite Sports.Rory Warwick Collins - 2017 - Inquiries Journal 9 (3).
    This article argues that performance enhancing drugs ought to be allowed across all elite sporting competitions for athletes over the age of 16 so long as consuming them does not pose a significant risk to their health. I begin with a brief explanation of the current state of PED use in professional sports before assessing the prospect of allowing PEDs by three widely accepted measures of ethical merit: well-being, autonomy, and justice. I end with a critique of the World Anti-Doping (...)
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  9. Applied Mysticism: A Drug‐Enabled Visionary Experience Against Moral Blindness.Virginia Ballesteros - 2019 - Zygon 54 (3):731-755.
    Intellectuals such as William James and Aldous Huxley have thought it possible to develop a technique to apply to this world the mystical-type insights gained during drug-enabled experiences. Particularly, Huxley claimed that the visionary experience triggered by psychedelics could help us rethink our relationship with technology and promote a much-needed cultural change. In this article, we explore this hypothesis. To do so, we build a philosophical framework based on Günther Anders's philosophy of technique, presenting human beings as morally blind when (...)
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  10. Ethics, collectives, and drugs.Arthur C. Petersen - 2019 - Zygon 54 (3):553-556.
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  11. Ethics and Drug Testing in Human Beings.Joseph Mahon - 1987 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Lecture Series 22:199-211.
    In late May 1984, Irish citizens were perturbed to hear that a thirty-one year old man died while participating, as a paid volunteer, in a clinical drug trial at the Institute of Clinical Pharmacology in Dublin. At the inquest, held in September 1984, the State Pathologist, Dr John Harbison, affirmed that the cause of death was the reaction of the trial drug Eproxindine 4/0091 with a major tranquillizer which had been given less than fifteen hours earlier as part of regular (...)
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  12. Adolescent and Parent Perspectives on Ethical Issues in Youth Drug Use and Suicide Survey Research.Celia B. Fisher - 2003 - Ethics and Behavior 13 (4):303-332.
    The contributions of adolescent and parent perspectives to ethical planning of survey research on youth drug use and suicide behaviors are highlighted through an empirical examination of 322 7th-12th graders' and 160 parents' opinions on questions related to 4 ethical dimensions of survey research practice: evaluating research risks and benefits, establishing guardian permission requirements, developing confidentiality and disclosure policies, and using cash incentives for recruitment. Generational and ethnic variation in response to questionnaire items developed from discussions within adolescent and parent (...)
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  13. Key Opinion Leaders and Pediatric Antidepressant Overprescribing.Jon Jureidini & Leemon McHenry - 2009 - Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics 78:197-201.
    The lingering controversy concerning the usefulness and safety of antidepressants for children and adolescents is likely to confuse clinicians. Recent papers perpetuate the claim that antidepressants are shown to be safe and effective in randomised controlled trials. Others claim that antidepressants have been shown to prevent suicides. In this editorial we address the manipulation of outcomes that result from academics’ alliance with industry. We explain how industry and key opinion leaders have distorted the clinician’s perception of the safety and usefulness (...)
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  14. On the origin of great ideas: Science in the age of big pharma.Leemon Mchenry - 2005 - Hastings Center Report 35 (6):17-19.
    This case study reports an instance of SmithKline Beecham's behind-the-scenes ghostwriting a letter to the editor in a medical journal article in the name of an academic physician. In order to respond to criticism that paroxetine caused severe withdrawal effects, SmithKline Beecham's marketing department hired a PR firm to ghostwrite three separate letters to spin a favorable impression of paroxetine vs fluoxetine and published one in the Journal of Clinical Psychiatry.
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  15. Industry-Corrupted Psychiatric Trials.Leemon McHenry, Jon Jureidini & Jay Amsterdam - 2017 - Psychiatria Polska 51 (6):993-1008.
    The goal of this paper is to expose the research misconduct of pharmaceutical industry-sponsored clinical trials via three short case studies of corrupted psychiatric trials that were conducted in the United States. We discuss the common elements that enable the misrepresentation of clinical trial results including ghostwriting for medical journals, the role of key opinion leaders as co-conspirators with the pharmaceutical industry and the complicity of top medical journals in failing to uphold standards of science and peer review. We conclude (...)
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  16. The Citalopram CIT-MD-18 Pediatric Depression Trial: A Deconstruction of Medical Ghostwriting, Data Manipulation and Academic Malfeasance.Leemon McHenry, Jon Jureidini & Jay Amsterdam - 2016 - International Journal of Risk and Safety in Medicine 28:33-43.
    This paper is a deconstruction of a ghostwritten report of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled efficacy and safety trial of citalopram in depressed children and adolescents conducted in the United States. Court documents revealed that protocol-specified outcome measures showed no statistically significant difference between citalopram and placebo. However, the published article concluded that citalopram was safe and significantly more efficacious than placebo for children and adolescents, with possible adverse effects on patient safety.
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  17. FDA's Compassion for Desperate Drug Companies.George J. Annas - 2012 - Hastings Center Report 20 (1):35-37.
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  18. Confronting the Other.Peter Steinfels - 1972 - Hastings Center Report 2 (5):4.
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  19. Book Review: Prescription Drug Abuse and DependenceGreenfieldDaniel P., ed., Prescription Drug Abuse and Dependence: How Prescription Drug Abuse Contributes to the Drug Abuse Epidemic : 170 pp. [REVIEW]Bonnie B. Wilford - 1996 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 24 (1):62-64.
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  20. Recent Developments in Health Law: FDA and Drug Safety: New Tufts Study Challenges Critics of the Prescription Drug User Fee Act.Rochelle Lee - 2006 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 34 (1):131-134.
    In the wake of several highly publicized lawsuits over drugs recalled for safety – most notably, Vioxx and Paxil – the Food and Drug Administration and the pharmaceutical industry have faced increasingly intense public scrutiny over the drug testing and approval process. Critics blame the FDA's shorter pre-market approval process that has resulted from the enactment of the Prescription Drug User Fee Act, which effected, among other changes, an increased number of reviewers, a higher review load for each reviewer, and (...)
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  21. Pharmaceutical Firms and the Right to Health.Thana Cristina de Campos & Thomas Pogge - 2012 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 40 (2):183-187.
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  22. Institutional Corruption and the Pharmaceutical Policy.Marc A. Rodwin - 2013 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 41 (3):544-552.
    Today, the goals of pharmaceutical policy and medical practice are often undermined due to institutional corruption — that is, widespread or systemic practices, usually legal, that undermine an institution's objectives or integrity. In this symposium, 16 articles investigate the corruption of pharmaceutical policy, each taking a different look at the sources of corruption, how it occurs, and what is corrupted. We will see that the pharmaceutical industry's own purposes are often undermined. Furthermore, pharmaceutical industry funding of election campaigns and lobbying (...)
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  23. ‘Drugs That Make You Feel Bad’? Remorse-Based Mitigation and Neurointerventions.Jonathan Pugh & Hannah Maslen - 2017 - Criminal Law and Philosophy 11 (3):499-522.
    In many jurisdictions, an offender’s remorse is considered to be a relevant factor to take into account in mitigation at sentencing. The growing philosophical interest in the use of neurointerventions in criminal justice raises an important question about such remorse-based mitigation: to what extent should technologically facilitated remorse be honoured such that it is permitted the same penal significance as standard instances of remorse? To motivate this question, we begin by sketching a tripartite account of remorse that distinguishes cognitive, affective (...)
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  24. Demand for a Medicare Prescription Drug Benefit: Exploring Consumer Preferences under a Managed Competition Framework.Richard R. Cline & David A. Mott - 2003 - Inquiry: The Journal of Health Care Organization, Provision, and Financing 40 (2):169-183.
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  25. Perverse Incentives in the Medicare Prescription Drug Benefit.David McAdams & Michael Schwarz - 2007 - Inquiry: The Journal of Health Care Organization, Provision, and Financing 44 (2):157-166.
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  26. Responding to vulnerability: The case of injection drug use.Elizabeth Ben-Ishai - 2012 - International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 5 (2):39-63.
    This article examines the case of Insite, North America’s only supervised injection facility, to consider the relationship between dependence, relational autonomy, and vulnerability. At state-funded Insite, users inject illicit drugs under medical supervision. By conceiving of Insite as a health-care facility and addiction as disease, advocates evoke a shared sense of vulnerability among the nonusing public and users, garnering considerable support for the site. Through Insite, the state responds to vulnerability by reshaping the meaning of dependence and conferring recognition upon (...)
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  27. Raising the Barriers to Access to Medicines in the Developing World – The Relentless Push for Data Exclusivity.Sigrid Sterckx, Julian Cockbain & Lisa Diependaele - 2016 - Developing World Bioethics 17 (1):11-21.
    Since the adoption of the WTO-TRIPS Agreement in 1994, there has been significant controversy over the impact of pharmaceutical patent protection on the access to medicines in the developing world. In addition to the market exclusivity provided by patents, the pharmaceutical industry has also sought to further extend their monopolies by advocating the need for additional ‘regulatory’ protection for new medicines, known as data exclusivity. Data exclusivity limits the use of clinical trial data that need to be submitted to the (...)
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  28. Rethinking Cognitive Enhancement.Ruud ter Meulen, Ahmed Mohammed & Wayne Hall (eds.) - 2017 - Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press.
    This book critically explores and analyses the scientific and ethical debates surrounding cognitive enhancers. Including contributions from neuroscientists, neuropsychopharmacologists, ethicists, philosophers, public health professionals, and policy researchers, the book offers a multidisciplinary, critical consideration of this topic.
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  29. The Power of Pills: Social, Ethical & Legal Issues in Drug Development, Marketing & Pricing – Edited by Jillian C. Cohen, Patricia Illingworth & Udo Schüklenk. [REVIEW]Steven Lewis - 2009 - Developing World Bioethics 9 (1):43-45.
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  30. Review of Leonard J. Weber, Profits Before People? Ethical Standards and the Marketing of Prescription Drugs.1. [REVIEW]Jerome P. Kassirer - 2007 - American Journal of Bioethics 7 (3):54-55.
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  31. The physician and the pharmaceutical detail man: An ethical analysis.Brian Kaatz & Jerome Freeman - 1987 - Journal of Medical Humanities and Bioethics 8 (1):34-39.
    The relationship between the physician and the pharmaceutical detail man is discussed. Specific emphasis is given to an analysis of the ethical implications that this relationship has for patient care.
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  32. GlaxoSmithKline and Access to Essential Medicines (B).N. Craig Smith & Anne Duncan - 2005 - Journal of Business Ethics Education 2 (1):123-132.
    The (B) case summarizes GSK’s response to pressures to increase access to essential medicines in developing countries and subsequent developments.
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  33. Trade Rules, Intellectual Property, and the Right to Health.Lisa Forman - 2007 - Ethics and International Affairs 21 (3):337-357.
    In perpetuating and exacerbating restricted access to essential medicines, current trade-related intellectual property rules on medicines may violate core human rights to health and medicines. In this light, there should be serious questions about their necessity, and their justification should be critically assessed from the perspective of human rights standards.
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  34. Access to Medicines and the Rhetoric of Responsibility.Christian Barry & Kate Raworth - 2002 - Ethics and International Affairs 16 (2):57-70.
    There is no cure or vaccine for HIV/AIDS. The only life-prolonging treatment available is antiretroviral (ARV) therapy. WHO estimates, however, that less than 5 percent of those who require treatment in developing countries currently enjoy access to these medicines. In Africa fewer than 50,000 people–less than 2 percent of the people in need–currently receive ARV therapy. These facts have elicited strongly divergent reactions, and views about the appropriate response to this crisis have varied widely.The intensity of the debate concerning access (...)
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  35. Pharmacists' and Doctors’ Perception of Pharmaceutical Representative’s Ethical Practices of Drug Promotion in Romania. A Comparative Study.Laszlo-Zoltan Sztankovszky, Camelia Soponaru, Magdalena Iorga & Vasile Astarastoae - 2015 - Postmodern Openings 6 (1):189-199.
    The purpose of the study is to identify perception of doctors and pharmacists on drug promotion practices adopted by pharmaceutical representatives. Material and Methods: A total of 72 pharmacists and 65 doctors responded to a questionnaire about their perceptions on drug promotion practices by pharmaceutical representatives, both in relation to pharmacists and doctors in the relationship. Variables such as age, work environment, seniority, were considered. Of all pharmacists who responded to the questionnaire, a percentage of 47.8% say they have no (...)
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  36. Deadly Medicines and Organised Crime: How Big Pharma has Corrupted Healthcare by Peter Gøtzsche.Justin B. Biddle - 2016 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 26 (2):40-43.
    From the title, Deadly Medicines and Organised Crime: How Big Pharma has Corrupted Healthcare, Peter Gøtzsche makes the thesis of his book very clear. Not only does the pharmaceutical industry contribute to detrimental health outcomes through biased research, deceptive marketing, and disease mongering, but the industry’s business model meets the criteria of an organized criminal operation. Gøtzsche argues for this in two parts. First, he defines organized crime by drawing upon the United States Organized Crime Control Act of 1970, the (...)
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  37. Body-Self Dualism in Contemporary Ethics and Politics.Patrick Lee & Robert P. George - 2007 - New York ;: Cambridge University Press. Edited by Robert P. George.
    Profoundly important ethical and political controversies turn on the question of whether biological life is an essential aspect of a human person, or only an extrinsic instrument. Lee and George argue that human beings are physical, animal organisms - albeit essentially rational and free - and examine the implications of this understanding of human beings for some of the most controversial issues in contemporary ethics and politics. The authors argue that human beings are animal organisms and that their personal identity (...)
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  38. Pharmaceutical Company Corruption and the Moral Crisis in Medicine.Sharon Batt - 2016 - Hastings Center Report 46 (4):10-13.
    A much‐debated series of articles in the New England Journal of Medicine in May 2015 labeled the pharmaceutical industry's critics “pharmascolds.” Having followed the debate for two decades, I count myself among the scolds. The weight of the evidence overwhelmingly supports the claim that pharmaceutical policy no longer serves the public interest; the central questions now are how this happened and what to do about it. I approached three of the most recent books on the industry with these questions in (...)
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  39. The Disposable Author: How Pharmaceutical Marketing Is Embraced within Medicine's Scholarly Literature.Alastair Matheson - 2016 - Hastings Center Report 46 (4):31-37.
    The best studies on the relationship between pharmaceutical corporations and medicine have recognized that it is an ambiguous one. Yet most scholarship has pursued a simpler, more saleable narrative in which pharma is a scheming villain and medicine its maidenly victim. In this article, I argue that such crude moral framing blunts understanding of the murky realities of medicine's relationship with pharma and, in consequence, holds back reform. My goal is to put matters right in respect to one critical area (...)
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  40. Roy Church and E. M. Tansey, Burroughs Wellcome & Co.: Knowledge, Trust and Profit, and the Transformation of the British Pharmaceutical Industry, 1880–1940. Lancaster: Crucible, 2007. Pp. xxvii+564. ISBN 978-1-905-472-07-9. £19.99. [REVIEW]Claire Jones - 2009 - British Journal for the History of Science 42 (2):288.
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  41. Jonathan Liebenau. Medical Science and Medical Industry. The Formation of the American Pharmaceutical Industry. London: Macmillan, 1987. Pp ix + 207. ISBN 0-333-41742-9, £29.50. - John P. Swann. Academic Scientists and the Pharmaceutical Industry. Cooperative Research in Twentieth Century America. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1988. Pp xi + 249. ISBN 0-8018-3558-5, £22.50. [REVIEW]Peter Morris - 1989 - British Journal for the History of Science 22 (4):442-444.
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  42. L ESLEY R ICHMOND, J ULIE S TEVENSON and A LISON T URTON , The Pharmaceutical Industry: A Guide to Historical Records. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2003. Pp. ix+561. ISBN 0-7546-3352-7. £55.00. [REVIEW]Peter Morris - 2006 - British Journal for the History of Science 39 (1):144-145.
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  43. Academic Scientists and the Pharmaceutical Industry: Cooperative Research in Twentieth-Century America. John P. Swann.Leon Gortler - 1990 - Isis 81 (1):136-137.
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  44. Medical Science and Medical Industry: The Formation of the American Pharmaceutical Industry. Jonathan Liebenau.John P. Swann - 1988 - Isis 79 (3):521-523.
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  45. Old Drugs in New BottlesResearches in the History of Pharmaceutical ChemistryGerald Schröder Robert Bohlmann Winfred Schröder Dietrich Arends Erika Hickel Wolfgang Schneider Herbert Wietschoreck Bhulabhai Patel Christian Wehle Mechthild Krüger Horst Matthias Real.Robert P. Multhauf - 1972 - Isis 63 (3):408-412.
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  46. Feeling Is Believing: Evaluative Conditioning and the Ethics of Pharmaceutical Advertising.Paul Biegler & Patrick Vargas - 2016 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 13 (2):271-279.
    A central goal in regulating direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription pharmaceuticals is to ensure that explicit drug claims are truthful. Yet imagery can also alter viewer attitudes, and the degree to which this occurs in DTCA is uncertain. Addressing this data gap, we provide evidence that positive feelings produced by images can promote favourable beliefs about pharmaceuticals. We had participants view a fictitious anti-influenza drug paired with unrelated images that elicited either positive, neutral or negative feelings. Participants who viewed positive images (...)
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  47. Ethical Relation between Physicians and Pharmaceutical Industries in the Perspectives of Bangladesh.Shahinul Alam, Nahiduz Saman, Monsur Hallaj Hallaj, Jahangir Ul Alam & Shoaib Momen Majumder - 2015 - Bangladesh Journal of Bioethics 6 (1):1-5.
    Relation between physicians and pharmaceutical industry is required for the benefit of the patient. But it may turn into business and overthrow the patients’ benefit. The relation might be in question at present and in future. Several questions are flowing in Bangladesh. To solve these queries we have explored the situation in developed and developing countries. The physicians and associations of pharmaceutical industries developed several ethical guidelines in those countries. They have addressed the long lasting issues on gift provided to (...)
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  48. Human Rights Responsibilities of Pharmaceutical Companies in Relation to Access to Medicines.Joo-Young Lee & Paul Hunt - 2012 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 40 (2):220-233.
    The Constitution of the World Health Organization affirms that “the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health is one of the fundamental rights of every human being.” The Universal Declaration of Human Rights lays the foundations for the international framework for the right to health. This human right is now codified in numerous national constitutions, as well as legally binding international human rights treaties, such as the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights.Although medical care and access to (...)
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  49. Drug Firms, the Codification of Diagnostic Categories, and Bias in Clinical Guidelines.Lisa Cosgrove & Emily E. Wheeler - 2013 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 41 (3):644-653.
    The profession of medicine is predicated upon an ethical mandate: first do no harm. However, critics charge that the medical profession’s culture and its public health mission are being undermined by the pharmaceutical industry’s wide-ranging influence. In this article, we analyze how drug firms influence psychiatric taxonomy and treatment guidelines such that these resources may serve commercial rather than public health interests. Moving beyond a conflict-ofinterest model, we use the conceptual and normative framework of institutional corruption to examine how organized (...)
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  50. Pharmaceutical Companies and Global Lack of Access to Medicines: Strengthening Accountability under the Right to Health.Anand Grover, Brian Citro, Mihir Mankad & Fiona Lander - 2012 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 40 (2):234-250.
    Approximately two billion people lack access to medicines globally. People living with HIV, cancer patients, those suffering from tuberculosis or malaria, and other populations in desperate need of life-saving medicines are increasingly unable to access existing preventative, curative, and life-prolonging treatments. In many cases, treatment may be unavailable or inaccessible for even some of the most common and readily treatable health concerns, such as hypertension. In the developing world, many of the factors that contribute to making the world’s most vulnerable (...)
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