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  1. Ebola Virus Disease : A Case for Shared National and Global Responsibilities in Global Health Crisis.Evaristus Obi - forthcoming - Ethics in Biology, Engineering and Medicine: An International Journal.
  2. Non-Epistemic Values in Shaping the Parameters for Evaluating the Effectiveness of Candidate Vaccines: The Case of an Ebola Vaccine Trial.Joby Varghese - 2021 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 43 (2):1-15.
    This paper examines the case of Ebola, ça Suffit trial which was conducted in Guinea during Ebola Virus Disease outbreak in 2015. I demonstrate that various non-epistemic considerations may legitimately influence the criteria for evaluating the efficacy and effectiveness of a candidate vaccine. Such non-epistemic considerations, which are social, ethical, and pragmatic, can be better placed and addressed in scientific research by appealing to non-epistemic values. I consider two significant features any newly developed vaccine should possess; the duration of immunity (...)
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  3. A Method for Parameters Estimation in a Dynamical Model of Ebola Virus Transmission in Sierra Leone.Li Li, Li-Xia Du, Ziheng Yan, Jie Zhang & Yong-Ping Wu - 2020 - Complexity 2020:1-9.
    Ebola is an infectious virus that causes Ebola hemorrhagic fever in primates and humans, which was first found in 1976. The Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa in 2014 was the largest ever. A lot of researchers use mathematical models to analyze the characteristics of infectious diseases. However, many parameters in the model cannot be estimated completely. To ease the difficulty, we proposed an approach to estimate the parameter based on genetic algorithm. GA uses the natural selection method of the (...)
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  4. Ubuntu as a Framework for Ethical Decision Making in Africa: Responding to Epidemics.Evanson Z. Sambala, Sara Cooper & Lenore Manderson - 2020 - Ethics and Behavior 30 (1):1-13.
    Public health decisions made by the state involve considerable disagreements on the course of actions, uncertainties, and compromises that arise from moral tensions between the demands of civil liberties and the goals of public health. With such complex decisions, it can be extremely difficult to arrive at and justify the best option. In this article, we propose an ethical decision-making framework based on the philosophy of Ubuntu and argue that in sub-Saharan African settings, this approach provides attractive alternative conventions of (...)
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  5. Age Differences in Preferences for Fear-Enhancing Vs. Fear-Reducing News in a Disease Outbreak.Anthony A. Villalba, Jennifer Tehan Stanley, Jennifer R. Turner, Michael T. Vale & Michelle L. Houston - 2020 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
    Older adults prefer positive over negative information in a lab setting, compared to young adults. The extent to which OA avoid negative events or information relevant for their health and safety is not clear. We first investigated age differences in preferences for fear-enhancing vs. fear-reducing news articles during the Ebola Outbreak of 2014. We were able to collect data from 15 YA and 13 OA during this acute health event. Compared to YA, OA were more likely to read the fear-enhancing (...)
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  6. Precarity, Clinical Labour and Graduation From Ebola Clinical Research in West Africa.Arsenii Alenichev & Vinh-Kim Nguyen - 2019 - Global Bioethics 30 (1):1-18.
    ABSTRACTThe provision of gifts and payments for healthy volunteer subjects remains an important topic in global health research ethics. This paper provides empirical insights into theoretical debat...
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  7. Paul Richards. Ebola: How A People’s Science Helped End an Epidemic. Xii + 180 Pp., Figs., Tables, Notes, Bibl., Index. London: Zed Books, 2016. £12.99 . ISBN 9781783608584.Debora Diniz. Zika: From the Brazilian Backlands to Global Threat. Translated by Diane Grosklaus Whitty. Xix + 156 Pp., Notes, Bibl. London: Zed Books, 2016. £14.99 . ISBN 9781786991584. [REVIEW]Stuart Blume - 2019 - Isis 110 (3):658-660.
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  8. Ebola, the Spanish Flu, and the Memory of Disease.Paul Farmer - 2019 - Critical Inquiry 46 (1):56-70.
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  9. Social Value, Clinical Equipoise, and Research in a Public Health Emergency.Alex John London - 2019 - Bioethics 33 (3):326-334.
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  10. Response to Open Peer Commentaries on “A Radical Approach to Ebola: Saving Humans and Other Animals”.Carolyn P. Neuhaus, Brendan Clarke, Phyllis Illari, Charles H. Norell & Sarah J. L. Edwards - 2019 - American Journal of Bioethics 19 (1):W8-W9.
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  11. Engaging the Uncertainties of Ebola Outbreaks: An Anthropo-Ecological Perspective.Michael O. S. Afolabi & Ikeolu O. Afolabi - 2018 - American Journal of Bioethics 18 (10):50-52.
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  12. The Ebola Clinical Trials: A Precedent for Research Ethics in Disasters.Philippe Calain - 2018 - Journal of Medical Ethics 44 (1):3-8.
    The West African Ebola epidemic has set in motion a collective endeavour to conduct accelerated clinical trials, testing unproven but potentially lifesaving interventions in the course of a major public health crisis. This unprecedented effort was supported by the recommendations of an ad hoc ethics panel convened in August 2014 by the WHO. By considering why and on what conditions the exceptional circumstances of the Ebola epidemic justified the use of unproven interventions, the panel's recommendations have challenged conventional thinking about (...)
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  13. A Radical Approach to Ebola: Saving Humans and Other Animals.Sarah J. L. Edwards, Charles H. Norell, Phyllis Illari, Brendan Clarke & Carolyn P. Neuhaus - 2018 - American Journal of Bioethics 18 (10):35-42.
    As the usual regulatory framework did not fit well during the last Ebola outbreak, innovative thinking still needed. In the absence of an outbreak, randomised controlled trials of clinical efficacy in humans cannot be done, while during an outbreak such trials will continue to face significant practical, philosophical, and ethical challenges. This article argues that researchers should also test the safety and effectiveness of novel vaccines in wild apes by employing a pluralistic approach to evidence. There are three reasons to (...)
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  14. Aspects of Disaster Research Ethics Applicable to Other Contexts.Bridget Haire - 2018 - Journal of Medical Ethics 44 (1):9-10.
    In his article ‘The Ebola Clinical Trials: a precedent for research ethics in disasters’, Philippe Calain constructs a compelling case as to why and how experiences from the recent Ebola epidemic should be used to develop a framework for disaster research ethics. In particular, Calain proposes a useful model for assessing whether or not an unproven intervention could be suitable for human use in a disaster context, and makes a powerful argument against the separation of patient care from research goals. (...)
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  15. Duty to Provide Care to Ebola Patients: The Perspectives of Guinean Lay People and Healthcare Providers.Lonzozou Kpanake, Tamba Kallas Tonguino, Paul Clay Sorum & Etienne Mullet - 2018 - Journal of Medical Ethics 44 (9):599-605.
    AimTo examine the views of Guinean lay people and healthcare providers regarding the acceptability of HCPs’ refusal to provide care to Ebola patients.MethodFrom October to December 2015, lay people and HCPs in Conakry, Guinea, were presented with 54 sample case scenarios depicting a HCP who refuses to provide care to Ebola patients and were instructed to rate the extent to which this HCP’s decision is morally acceptable. The scenarios were composed by systematically varying the levels of four factors: the risk (...)
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  16. The Acceptability of Online Consent in a Self-Test Serosurvey of Responders to the 2014–2016 West African Ebola Outbreak. [REVIEW]Catherine R. McGowan, Catherine F. Houlihan, Patricia Kingori & Judith R. Glynn - 2018 - Public Health Ethics 11 (2):201-212.
    Online participation in research is used increasingly to recruit geographically dispersed populations. Obtaining online consent is convenient, yet we know little about the acceptability of this practice. We carried out a serostudy among personnel returning to the UK/Ireland following deployment to West Africa during the 2014–2016 Ebola epidemic. We used an online procedure for consenting returnees and designed a small descriptive study to understand: how much of the consent material they read, how informed they felt and if they preferred online (...)
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  17. How to Deal with Neglected Tropical Diseases in the Light of an African Ethic.Thaddeus Metz - 2018 - Developing World Bioethics 18 (3):233-240.
    Many countries in Africa, and more generally those in the Global South with tropical areas, are plagued by illnesses that the wealthier parts of the world (mainly ‘the West’) neither suffer from nor put systematic effort into preventing, treating or curing. What does an ethic with a recognizably African pedigree entail for the ways various agents ought to respond to such diseases? As many readers will know, a characteristically African ethic prescribes weighty duties to aid on the part of those (...)
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  18. The Duty to Rescue and Randomized Controlled Trials Involving Serious Diseases.Joseph Millum & David Wendler - 2018 - Journal of Moral Philosophy 15 (3):298-323.
    During the recent Ebola epidemic, some commentators and stakeholders argued that it would be unethical to carry out a study that withheld a potential treatment from affected individuals with such a serious, untreatable disease. As a result, the initial trials of experimental treatments did not have control arms, despite important scientific reasons for their inclusion. In this paper, we consider whether the duty to rescue entails that it would be unethical to withhold an experimental treatment from patient-participants with serious diseases (...)
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  19. Individual and Public Interests in Clinical Research During Epidemics: A Reply to Calain.Annette Rid - 2018 - Journal of Medical Ethics 44 (1):11-12.
    In his stimulating target article,1 Philippe Calain discusses how the traditional ethical framework for clinical research was challenged during the 2013–2016 Ebola epidemic in West Africa. One of his key claims is that conventional research ethics did not have the resources to address the ‘profound tension’1, between individual and public interests in clinical research during this epidemic. I agree with this claim, but would like to provide a modified argument in its support. As Calain points out, although a tension between (...)
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  20. Ebola Vaccine Trials.Godfrey B. Tangwa, Katharine Browne & Doris Schroeder - 2018 - In Doris Schroeder, Julie Cook, François Hirsch, Solveig Fenet & Vasantha Muthuswamy (eds.), Ethics Dumping: Case Studies From North-South Research Collaborations. Springer. pp. 49-60.
    The Ebola epidemic that broke out inWest Africa West AfricaAfrica towards the end of 2013 had been brought under reasonable control by 2015. The epidemic had severely affected three countries. This case study is about a phase I/II clinical trial Phase I/II clinical trial of a candidate Ebola virus vaccine in 2015 in a sub-Saharan AfricanSub-Saharan Africa country which had not registered any cases of the Ebola virus disease. The study was designed as a randomized double-blinded trialRandomized double blinded trial. (...)
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  21. Influence and Prioritization of Non-Epistemic Values in Clinical Trial Designs: A Study of Ebola Ça Suffit Trial.Joby Varghese - 2018 - Synthese 198 (Suppl 10):2393-2409.
    The recent Ebola virus disease outbreak in Western African countries has raised questions regarding the feasibility of adopting conventional trial designs such as randomized controlled trials for conducting experimental trials in the midst of a fatal epidemic. In the context of Ebola ça Suffit trial conducted in Guinea for testing the efficacy and effectiveness of rVSV–ZEBOV, a candidate vaccine, I argue that the trial design and the methodologies adopted for the trial have been rightly chosen for their ethical appropriateness and (...)
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  22. Erratum To: Ethics Review of Studies During Public Health Emergencies - the Experience of the WHO Ethics Review Committee During the Ebola Virus Disease Epidemic.Emilie Alirol, Annette C. Kuesel, Maria Magdalena Guraiib, Vânia de la Fuente-Núñez, Abha Saxena & Melba F. Gomes - 2017 - BMC Medical Ethics 18 (1):45.
    Background Between 2013 and 2016, West Africa experienced the largest ever outbreak of Ebola Virus Disease. In the absence of registered treatments or vaccines to control this lethal disease, the World Health Organization coordinated and supported research to expedite identification of interventions that could control the outbreak and improve future control efforts. Consequently, the World Health Organization Research Ethics Review Committee was heavily involved in reviews and ethics discussions. It reviewed 24 new and 22 amended protocols for research studies including (...)
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  23. Ethics Review of Studies During Public Health Emergencies - the Experience of the WHO Ethics Review Committee During the Ebola Virus Disease Epidemic.Emilie Alirol, Annette C. Kuesel, Maria Magdalena Guraiib, Vânia Dela Fuente-Núñez, Abha Saxena & Melba F. Gomes - 2017 - BMC Medical Ethics 18 (1):43.
    Between 2013 and 2016, West Africa experienced the largest ever outbreak of Ebola Virus Disease. In the absence of registered treatments or vaccines to control this lethal disease, the World Health Organization coordinated and supported research to expedite identification of interventions that could control the outbreak and improve future control efforts. Consequently, the World Health Organization Research Ethics Review Committee was heavily involved in reviews and ethics discussions. It reviewed 24 new and 22 amended protocols for research studies including interventional (...)
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  24. The Ebola clinical trials: a precedent for research ethics in disasters.P. Calain - 2017 - Journal of Medical Ethics Recent Issues 44 (1):3-8.
    The West African Ebola epidemic has set in motion a collective endeavour to conduct accelerated clinical trials, testing unproven but potentially lifesaving interventions in the course of a major public health crisis. This unprecedented effort was supported by the recommendations of an ad hoc ethics panel convened in August 2014 by the WHO. By considering why and on what conditions the exceptional circumstances of the Ebola epidemic justified the use of unproven interventions, the panel's recommendations have challenged conventional thinking about (...)
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  25. Biocontaining: Purification, Restoration, and Meaning-Making.Helen Chapple & David Schenck - 2017 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 60 (2):166-185.
    In this article, we contribute to the ongoing investigation of the social significance of biomedicine by examining a very specific site: the activity of bio-containing in Nebraska during the recent Ebola outbreak. We do this by taking up key insights of Mary Douglas and Victor Turner concerning the essential meaning-making tasks of culture. We demonstrate how biocontaining as an activity contributed to the ongoing meaning-making work in U.S. society during the Ebola crisis in 2014. The analysis is based in significant (...)
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  26. Ebola in West Africa: Biosocial and Biomedical Reflections.Daniel Cohen - 2017 - In Stefano Gattei & Nimrod Bar-Am (eds.), Encouraging Openness. Springer Verlag.
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  27. Ethical challenges experienced by UK military medical personnel deployed to Sierra Leone (operation GRITROCK) during the 2014–2015 Ebola outbreak: a qualitative study. [REVIEW]Heather Draper & Simon Jenkins - 2017 - BMC Medical Ethics 18 (1):77.
    As part of its response to the 2014 Ebola outbreak in west Africa, the United Kingdom government established an Ebola treatment unit in Sierra Leone, staffed by military personnel. Little is known about the ethical challenges experienced by military medical staff on humanitarian deployment. We designed a qualitative study to explore this further with those who worked in the treatment unit. Semi-structured, face-to-face and telephone interviews were conducted with 20 UK military personnel deployed between October 2014 and April 2015 in (...)
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  28. Ethical Challenges Experienced by UK Military Medical Personnel Deployed to Sierra Leone (Operation GRITROCK) During the 2014–2015 Ebola Outbreak: A Qualitative Study. [REVIEW]Heather Draper & Simon Jenkins - 2017 - BMC Medical Ethics 18 (1):1-13.
    Background As part of its response to the 2014 Ebola outbreak in west Africa, the United Kingdom government established an Ebola treatment unit in Sierra Leone, staffed by military personnel. Little is known about the ethical challenges experienced by military medical staff on humanitarian deployment. We designed a qualitative study to explore this further with those who worked in the treatment unit. Method Semi-structured, face-to-face and telephone interviews were conducted with 20 UK military personnel deployed between October 2014 and April (...)
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  29. Individual and public interests in clinical research during epidemics: a reply to Calain: In response to: Calain P. The Ebola clinical trials: a precedent for research ethics in disasters.A. Rid - 2017 - Journal of Medical Ethics Recent Issues 44 (1):11-12.
    In his stimulating target article, 1 Philippe Calain discusses how the traditional ethical framework for clinical research was challenged during the 2013–2016 Ebola epidemic in West Africa. One of his key claims is that conventional research ethics did not have the resources to address the ‘profound tension’ 1, between individual and public interests in clinical research during this epidemic. I agree with this claim, but would like to provide a modified argument in its support. As Calain points out, although a (...)
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  30. Research Ethics Governance in Times of Ebola.Doris Schopper, Raffaella Ravinetto, Lisa Schwartz, Eunice Kamaara, Sunita Sheel, Michael J. Segelid, Aasim Ahmad, Angus Dawson, Jerome Singh, Amar Jesani & Ross Upshur - 2017 - Public Health Ethics 10 (1).
    The Médecins Sans Frontières ethics review board has been solicited in an unprecedented way to provide advice and review research protocols in an ‘emergency’ mode during the recent Ebola epidemic. Twenty-seven Ebola-related study protocols were reviewed between March 2014 and August 2015, ranging from epidemiological research, to behavioural research, infectivity studies and clinical trials with investigational products at early development stages. This article examines the MSF ERB’s experience addressing issues related to both the process of review and substantive ethical issues (...)
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  31. Giving Voice to African Thought in Medical Research Ethics.Godfrey Tangwa - 2017 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 38 (2):101-110.
    In this article, I consider the virtual absence of an African voice and perspective in global discourses of medical research ethics against the backdrop of the high burden of diseases and epidemics on the continent and the fact that the continent is actually the scene of numerous and sundry medical research studies. I consider some reasons for this state of affairs as well as how the situation might be redressed. Using examples from the HIV/AIDS and Ebola epidemics, I attempt to (...)
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  32. The Ethics of Infection Challenges in Primates.Anne Barnhill, Steven Joffe & Franklin G. Miller - 2016 - Hastings Center Report 46 (4):20-26.
    In the midst of the recent Ebola outbreak, scientific developments involving infection challenge experiments on nonhuman primates sparked hope that successful treatments and vaccines may soon become available. Yet these studies pose a stark ethical quandary. On the one hand, they represent an important step in developing novel therapies and vaccines for Ebola and the Marburg virus, with the potential to save thousands of human lives and to protect whole communities from devastation; on the other hand, they intentionally expose sophisticated (...)
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  33. Contagion! How Can We Combat the Ebola Virus Epidemic and Prevent It From Spreading in South Africa?Sarah Camp - 2016 - Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa 71 (2):197-199.
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  34. Nonhuman Primates, Human Need, and Ethical Constraints.David DeGrazia - 2016 - Hastings Center Report 46 (4):27-28.
    “The Ethics of Infection Challenges in Primates,” by Anne Barnhill, Steven Joffe, and Franklin Miller, is an exceptionally timely contribution to the literature on animal research ethics. Animal research has long been both a source of high hopes and a cause for moral concern. When it comes to infection challenge studies with nonhuman primates, neither the hope—to save thousands of human lives from such diseases as Ebola and Marburg—nor the concern—the conviction that primates deserve especially strong protections—could be much higher. (...)
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  35. Deciphering Assumptions About Stepped Wedge Designs: The Case of Ebola Vaccine Research.Adélaïde Doussau & Christine Grady - 2016 - Journal of Medical Ethics 42 (12):797-804.
    Ethical concerns about randomising persons to a no-treatment arm in the context of Ebola epidemic led to consideration of alternative designs. The stepped wedge design, in which participants or clusters are randomised to receive an intervention at different time points, gained popularity. Common arguments in favour of using this design are when an intervention is likely to do more good than harm, all participants should receive the experimental intervention at some time point during the study and the design might be (...)
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  36. Ebola Vaccine Development Plan: Ethics, Concerns and Proposed Measures.Morenike Oluwatoyin Folayan, Aminu Yakubu, Bridget Haire & Kristin Peterson - 2016 - BMC Medical Ethics 17 (1):1-8.
    BackgroundThe global interest in developing therapies for Ebola infection management and its prevention is laudable. However the plan to conduct an emergency immunization program specifically for healthcare workers using experimental vaccines raises some ethical concerns. This paper shares perspectives on these concerns and suggests how some of them may best be addressed.DiscussionThe recruitment of healthcare workers for Ebola vaccine research has challenges. It could result in coercion of initially dissenting healthcare workers to assist in the management of EVD infected persons (...)
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  37. Ebola: What It Teaches Us About Medical Ethics. A Response to Angus Dawson.Bridget G. Haire & Morenike O. Folayan - 2016 - Journal of Medical Ethics 42 (1):59-60.
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  38. Encouraging Outrage in Social Work: Palestine and Ebola.Stuart Rees - 2016 - Ethics and Social Welfare 10 (2):140-148.
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  39. Ethical considerations surrounding the response to Ebola: the Spanish experience.Miguel Ángel Royo-Bordonada & Fernando J. García López - 2016 - BMC Medical Ethics 17 (1):49.
    _BMC Medical Ethics_ is an open access journal publishing original peer-reviewed research articles in relation to the ethical aspects of biomedical research and clinical practice, including professional choices and conduct, medical technologies, healthcare systems and health policies. _BMC __Medical Ethics _is part of the _BMC_ series which publishes subject-specific journals focused on the needs of individual research communities across all areas of biology and medicine. We do not make editorial decisions on the basis of the interest of a study or (...)
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  40. Emergency Nursing, Ebola, and Public Policy:The Contributions of Nursing to the Public Policy Conversation.Lisa Wolf, Connie M. Ulrich & Christine Grady - 2016 - Hastings Center Report 46 (S1):S35-S38.
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  41. The Ebola Outbreak in Western Africa: Ethical Obligations for Care.Aminu Yakubu, Morenike Oluwatoyin Folayan, Nasir Sani-Gwarzo, Patrick Nguku, Kristin Peterson & Brandon Brown - 2016 - Journal of Medical Ethics 42 (4):209-210.
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  42. Situating the Trovan Trial With the Use of Experimental Ebola Therapies Is Like Comparing an Apple With an Orange.Muhammed O. Afolabi - 2015 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 12 (1):19-20.
    I read with great bewilderment the unconvincing arguments of Peter F. Omonzejele in his article “Ethical Challenges Posed by the Ebola Virus Epidemic in West Africa” published in the 11 issue of the Journal of Bioethical Inquiry. While the author glaringly mixed up anthropological issues concerning the hygiene of hand-washing and safe burials in an article with a title clearly focused on ethical challenges, he failed to establish how the current Ebola epidemic ravaging some West Africa countries made these human (...)
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  43. Placing and Evaluating Unproven Interventions Within a Clinical Ethical Taxonomy of Treatments for Ebola Virus Disease.Nathan G. Allen, Jennifer S. Blumenthal-Barby & Laurence B. McCullough - 2015 - American Journal of Bioethics 15 (4):50-53.
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  44. Accountability and Public Health Policies Impacting Proper Ebola Response: Time for a Bioethics Oversight Board.Ramin Asgary - 2015 - American Journal of Bioethics 15 (4):72-74.
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  45. Explaining and Responding to the Ebola Epidemic.Solomon Benatar - 2015 - Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 10:5.
    The Ebola epidemic in West Africa is not merely a biomedical problem that can be seen in isolation and dealt with only through emergency medical rescue processes. The ethical dilemmas surfaced by this epidemic are also not confined to the usual micro-ethical problems associated with medical care and medical research. The pandemic, as one of many manifestations of failed human and social development that has brought the world to dangerous ‘tipping points’, requires deep introspection and action to address upstream causal (...)
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  46. Vaccine Refusal and Trust: The Trouble With Coercion and Education and Suggestions for a Cure.Johan Christiaan Bester - 2015 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 12 (4):555-559.
    There can be little doubt about the ethical imperative to ensure adequate vaccination uptake against certain infectious diseases. In the face of vaccine refusal, health authorities and providers instinctively appeal to coercive approaches or increased education as methods to ensure adequate vaccine uptake. Recently, some have argued that public fear around Ebola should be used as an opportunity for such approaches, should an Ebola vaccine become available. In this article, the author describes the difficulties associated with coercion and education when (...)
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  47. One Health, Vaccines and Ebola: The Opportunities for Shared Benefits.Benjamin Capps & Zohar Lederman - 2015 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 28 (6):1011-1032.
    The 2013 Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa, as of writing, is declining in reported human cases and mortalities. The resulting devastation caused highlights how health systems, in particular in West Africa, and in terms of global pandemic planning, are ill prepared to react to zoonotic pathogens. In this paper we propose One Health as a strategy to prevent zoonotic outbreaks as a shared goal: that human and Great Ape vaccine trials could benefit both species. Only recently have two phase (...)
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  48. Why We Should Care About Ebola in West Africa and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome in South Korea: Global Health Ethics and the Moral Insignificance of Proximity.Benedict Shing Bun Chan, Zion Tsz Ho Tse, King-Wa Fu, Chi-Ngai Cheung & Isaac Chun-Hai Fung - 2015 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 12 (4):541-543.
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  49. Weighing the Importance of Palliation of Symptoms for Ebola Patients During the Epidemic in West Africa.Marion Danis - 2015 - American Journal of Bioethics 15 (4):70-72.
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  50. Ebola: What It Tells Us About Medical Ethics.Angus J. Dawson - 2015 - Journal of Medical Ethics 41 (1):107-110.
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