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412 found
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  1. Ecology Economics.F. Herbert Bormann & S. R. Kellert - forthcoming - Ethics.
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  2. Complex Ecological Systems.James H. Brown - forthcoming - Complexity.
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  3. What Theoretical Ecology Reveals About Knowledge Transfer.Justin Donhauser & Jamie Shaw - forthcoming - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A:1-20.
    Well-known epistemologies of science have implications for how best to understand knowledge transfer (KT). Yet, to date, no serious attempt has been made to explicate these particular implications. This paper infers views about KT from two popular epistemologies; what we characterize as incommensurabilitist views (after Devitt, 2001; Bird, 2002, 2008; Sankey and Hoyningen-Huene 2013) and voluntarist views (after Van Fraassen, 1984; Dupré, 2001; Chakravartty, 2015). We argue views of the former sort define the methodological, ontological, and social conditions under which (...)
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  4. Remakings: Ecology, Design.Tony Fry - forthcoming - Philosophy.
  5. Adapting to Environmental Heterogeneity: Selection and Radiation.Hugh Desmond - 2022 - Biological Theory 17 (1):80-93.
    Environmental heterogeneity is invoked as a key explanatory factor in the adaptive evolution of a surprisingly wide range of phenomena. This article aims to analyze this explanatory scheme of categorizing traits or properties as adaptations to environmental heterogeneity. First it is suggested that this scheme can be understood as a reaction to how heterogeneity adaptations were discounted or ignored in the modern synthesis. Then a positive account is proposed, distinguishing between two broad categories of adaptation to environmental heterogeneity: properties selected (...)
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  6. Philosophy of Science in Practice in Ecological Model Building.Luana Poliseli, Jeferson G. E. Coutinho, Blandina Viana, Federica Russo & Charbel N. El-Hani - 2022 - Biology and Philosophy 37 (4):0-0.
    This article addresses the contributions of the literature on the new mechanistic philosophy of science for the scientific practice of model building in ecology. This is reflected in a one-to-one interdisciplinary collaboration between an ecologist and a philosopher of science during science-in-the-making. We argue that the identification, reconstruction and understanding of mechanisms is context-sensitive, and for this case study mechanistic modeling did not present a normative role but a heuristic one. We expect our study to provides useful epistemic tools for (...)
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  7. Is It Too Late?: A Theology of Ecology.John B. Cobb (ed.) - 2021 - Fortress Press.
    This book was the first single-authored book that covered ecological ethics and theology. It discusses key philosophical, theological, and ecological issues for Christians and other concerned citizens.
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  8. The Algorithmic Turn in Conservation Biology: Characterizing Progress in Ethically-Driven Sciences.James Justus & Samantha Wakil - 2021 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 88:181-192.
    As a discipline distinct from ecology, conservation biology emerged in the 1980s as a rigorous science focused on protecting biodiversity. Two algorithmic breakthroughs in information processing made this possible: place-prioritization algorithms and geographical information systems. They provided defensible, data-driven methods for designing reserves to conserve biodiversity that obviated the need for largely intuitive and highly problematic appeals to ecological theory at the time. But the scientific basis of these achievements and whether they constitute genuine scientific progress has been criticized. We (...)
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  9. Pervasive Captivity and Urban Wildlife.Nicolas Delon - 2020 - Ethics, Policy and Environment 23 (2):123-143.
    Urban animals can benefit from living in cities, but this also makes them vulnerable as they increasingly depend on the advantages of urban life. This article has two aims. First, I provide a detailed analysis of the concept of captivity and explain why it matters to nonhuman animals—because and insofar as many of them have a (non-substitutable) interest in freedom. Second, I defend a surprising implication of the account—pushing the boundaries of the concept while the boundaries of cities and human (...)
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  10. What is a Target System?Alkistis Elliott-Graves - 2020 - Biology and Philosophy 35 (2):1-22.
    Many phenomena in the natural world are complex, so scientists study them through simplified and idealised models. Philosophers of science have sought to explain how these models relate to the world. On most accounts, models do not represent the world directly, but through target systems. However, our knowledge of target systems is incomplete. First, what is the process by which target systems come about? Second, what types of entity are they? I argue that the basic conception of target systems, on (...)
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  11. Flowers and Honeybees: A Study of Morality in Nature.Christopher Ketcham - 2020 - Leyden: Brill | Rodopi.
    The journey towards morality in nature can be seen through the million-year-old relationship of the flowering plant and honeybee social group. _Flowers and Honeybees_ brings what science has learned into a dialog with the philosophy of morality.
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  12. Functions and Functioning in Aldo Leopold’s Land Ethic and in Ecology.Roberta L. Millstein - 2020 - Philosophy of Science 87 (5):1107-1118.
    I examine the use of the term function in Aldo Leopold’s land ethic, invoked as (1) the healthy functioning of the land community, which is dependent on (2) the maintenance of the characteristic functions of populations that are parts of the land community. The latter can be understood as referring to interactions between species that are the products of coevolution (such as parasite-host, predator-prey) and, thus, in terms of the “selected effect” account of function. The performance of these functions under (...)
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  13. Defending a Leopoldian Basis for Biodiversity: A Response to Newman, Varner, and Linquist.Roberta L. Millstein - 2020 - Biology and Philosophy 35 (1):12.
    In their book, Defending Biodiversity, Newman, Varner, and Linquist cast doubt on whether Leopoldian defenses of biodiversity, in their current form, have been successful. I argue that there is a more accurate interpretation of Leopold that is not subject to the criticisms made by NVL, and that Leopold’s body of work as a whole, including but not limited to the essay “The Land Ethic” in A Sand County Almanac, provides quite a bit of useful guidance and perspective. I begin with (...)
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  14. Don’T Demean “Invasives”: Conservation and Wrongful Species Discrimination.C. E. Abbate & Bob Fischer - 2019 - Animals 871 (9).
    It is common for conservationists to refer to non-native species that have undesirable impacts on humans as “invasive”. We argue that the classification of any species as “invasive” constitutes wrongful discrimination. Moreover, we argue that its being wrong to categorize a species as invasive is perfectly compatible with it being morally permissible to kill animals—assuming that conservationists “kill equally”. It simply is not compatible with the double standard that conservationists tend to employ in their decisions about who lives and who (...)
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  15. Knowledge Transfer in Theoretical Ecology: Implications for Incommensurability, Voluntarism, and Pluralism.Justin Donhauser & Jamie Shaw - 2019 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 77:11-20.
    Well-known epistemologies of science have implications for how best to understand knowledge transfer (KT). Yet, to date, no serious attempt has been made explicate these particular implications. This paper infers views about KT from two popular epistemologies; what we characterize as incommensurabilitist views (after Devitt 2001; Bird 2002, 2008; Sankey and Hoyningen-Huene 2013) and voluntarist views (after van Fraassen 1984; Dupré 2001; Chakravartty 2015). We argue views of the former sort define the methodological, ontological, and social conditions under which research (...)
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  16. Ecological Theory and the Superfluous Niche.James Justus - 2019 - Philosophical Topics 47 (1):105-123.
    Perhaps no concept has been thought more important to ecological theorizing than the niche. Without it, technically sophisticated and well-regarded accounts of character displacement, ecological equivalence, limiting similarity, and others would seemingly never have been developed. The niche is also widely considered the centerpiece of the best candidate for a distinctively ecological law, the competitive exclusion principle. But the incongruous array and imprecise character of proposed definitions of the concept square poorly with its apparent scientific centrality. I argue this definitional (...)
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  17. Types of Experiments and Causal Process Tracing: What Happened on the Kaibab Plateau in the 1920s.Roberta L. Millstein - 2019 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 78:98-104.
    In a well-cited book chapter, ecologist Jared Diamond characterizes three main types of experiment performed in community ecology: laboratory experiment, field experiment, and natural experiment. Diamond argues that each form of experiment has strengths and weaknesses, with respect to, for example, realism or the ability to follow a causal trajectory. But does Diamond’s typology exhaust the available kinds of cause-finding practices? Some social scientists have characterized something they call “causal process tracing.” Is this a fourth type of experiment or something (...)
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  18. In Defense of Living Fossils.Derek Turner - 2019 - Biology and Philosophy 34 (2):23.
    Lately there has been a wave of criticism of the concept of living fossils. First, recent research has challenged the status of paradigmatic living fossil taxa, such as coelacanths, cycads, and tuataras. Critics have also complained that the living fossil concept is vague and/or ambiguous, and that it is responsible for misconceptions about evolution. This paper defends a particular phylogenetic conception of living fossils, or taxa that exhibit deep prehistoric morphological stability; contain few extant species; and make a high contribution (...)
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  19. Not Null Enough: Pseudo-Null Hypotheses in Community Ecology and Comparative Psychology.William Bausman & Marta Halina - 2018 - Biology and Philosophy 33 (3-4):30.
    We evaluate a common reasoning strategy used in community ecology and comparative psychology for selecting between competing hypotheses. This strategy labels one hypothesis as a “null” on the grounds of its simplicity and epistemically privileges it as accepted until rejected. We argue that this strategy is unjustified. The asymmetrical treatment of statistical null hypotheses is justified through the experimental and mathematical contexts in which they are used, but these contexts are missing in the case of the “pseudo-null hypotheses” found in (...)
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  20. What Is It Like To Become a Bat? Heterogeneities in an Age of Extinction.Stephanie Rhea Erev - 2018 - Environmental Humanities 1 (10):129-149.
    In his celebrated 1974 essay “What Is It Like to Be a Bat?,” Thomas Nagel stages a human-bat encounter to illustrate and support his claim that “subjective experience” is irreducible to “objective fact”: because Nagel cannot experience the world as a bat does, he will never know what it is like to be one. In Nagel’s account, heterogeneity is figured negatively—as a failure or lack of resemblance—and functions to constrain his knowledge of bats. Today, as white-nose syndrome threatens bat populations (...)
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  21. Noua filosofie si securitatea.Sarbu Ion - 2018 - Revista Militara. Studii de Securitate Si Aparare 19 (1):58-67.
    Ecosophy or ecological wisdom – the new philosophy of contemporary life is also a philosophy of security, digital content, tolerance; it is a philosophy of survival and sustainable development of man, society and nature. Man, society as well as science currently need and will need a new philosophy – ecosophy. All together and each one in part they are based on security, first of all on human security. The interaction of philosophy with science occurs historically through three main stages. The (...)
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  22. Is Aldo Leopold's 'Land Community' an Individual?Roberta L. Millstein - 2018 - In O. Bueno, R. Chen & M. B. Fagan (eds.), Individuation, Process, and Scientific Practices. Oxford University Press. pp. 279-302.
    The “land community” (or “biotic community”) that features centrally in Aldo Leopold’s Land Ethic has typically been equated with the concept of “ecosystem.” Moreover, some have challenged this central Leopoldean concept given the multitude of meanings of the term “ecosystem” and the changes the term has undergone since Leopold’s time (see, e.g., Shrader-Frechette 1996). Even one of Leopold’s primary defenders, J. Baird Callicott, asserts that there are difficulties in identifying the boundaries of ecosystems and suggests that we recognize that their (...)
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  23. Understanding Leopold’s Concept of “Interdependence” for Environmental Ethics and Conservation Biology.Roberta L. Millstein - 2018 - Philosophy of Science 85 (5):1127-1139.
    Aldo Leopold’s Land Ethic, an extremely influential view in environmental ethics and conservation biology, is committed to the claim that interdependence between humans, other species, and abiotic entities plays a central role in our ethical responsibilities. Thus, a robust understanding of “interdependence” is necessary for evaluating the viability of the Land Ethic and related views, including ecological ones. I characterize and defend a Leopoldian concept of “interdependence,” arguing that it ought to include both negative and positive causal relations. I also (...)
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  24. Life: the Center of our Existence.Agustin Ostachuk - 2018 - Ludus Vitalis 26 (50):257-260.
    Life is the center of our existence. One would be tempted to say that first of all we live. However, our existence does not seem to pass in that modality. The exacerbated materialism in which our existence takes place, displaces life from the center of the scene. Our society is organized around production, consumerism, exploitation, efficiency, trade and propaganda. That is to say, our existence seems to have economy as the center of organization of our activities. The struggle of this (...)
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  25. Should We Help Wild Animals Suffering Negative Impacts From Climate Change?Clare Alexandra Palmer - 2018 - In Svenja Springer & Herwig Grimm (eds.), Professionals in food chains. Wageningen Academic Publishers. pp. 35-40.
    Should we help wild animals suffering negative impacts from anthropogenic climate change? It follows from diverse ethical positions that we should, although this idea troubles defenders of wildness value. One already existing climate threat to wild animals, especially in the Arctic, is the disruption of food chains. I take polar bears as my example here: Should we help starving polar bears? If so, how? A recent scientific paper suggests that as bears’ food access worsens due to a changing climate, we (...)
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  26. When Ecology and Philosophy Meet: Constructing Explanation and Assessing Understanding in Scientific Practice.Luana Poliseli - 2018 - Dissertation, Federal University of Bahia
    Philosophy of Science in Practice (PoSiP) has the “practice of science” as its object of research. Notwithstanding, it does not possess yet any general or specific methodology in order to achieve its goal. Instead of sticking to one protocol, PoSiP takes advantage of a set of approaches from different fields. This thesis takes as a starting point a collaborative and interdisciplinary research between two Ph.D. students from distinct areas: ecology and philosophy. This collaboration showed how a scientist could benefit from (...)
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  27. Tracing Origins of Twenty‐First Century Ecotheology: The Poetry of Christopher Southgate.Margaret Boone Rappaport & Christopher Corbally - 2018 - Zygon 53 (3):866-875.
    With the goal of better understanding how science, religion, and poetic art came together in the work of Christopher Southgate, the authors first explore his spiritual poetry. They come away with a better understanding of the author’s commitment to a broad naturalism that contributes, along with his own faith experience, to his prose works in the emerging field of ecotheology. The authors conclude that Southgate’s work is part of the worldwide emergence of a theological rationale that supports environmentalism, the protection (...)
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  28. Inferring Human Microbial Dynamics From Temporal Metagenomics Data: Pitfalls and Lessons.Hong-Tai Cao, Travis E. Gibson, Amir Bashan & Yang-Yu Liu - 2017 - Bioessays 39 (2):1600188.
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  29. Biases in the Selection of Candidate Species for De-Extinction.Derek D. Turner - 2017 - Ethics, Policy and Environment 20 (1):21-24.
    Entrenched biases in favour of large, charismatic mammals, towards predators, towards terrestrial animals and towards species that have cultural importance can influence the selection of candidate species for de-extinction research. Often, the species with the highest existence value will also be the ones that raise the most serious animal welfare concerns.
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  30. Disciplinary Capture and Epistemological Obstacles to Interdisciplinary Research: Lessons From Central African Conservation Disputes.Evelyn Brister - 2016 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 56:82-91.
    Complex environmental problems require well-researched policies that integrate knowledge from both the natural and social sciences. Epistemic differences can impede interdisciplinary collaboration, as shown by debates between conservation biologists and anthropologists who are working to preserve biological diversity and support economic development in central Africa. Disciplinary differences with regard to 1) facts, 2) rigor, 3) causal explanation, and 4) research goals reinforce each other, such that early decisions about how to define concepts or which methods to adopt may tilt research (...)
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  31. The Problem of Prediction in Invasion Biology.Alkistis Elliott-Graves - 2016 - Biology and Philosophy 31 (3):373-393.
    Invasion biology is a relatively young discipline which is important, interesting and currently in turmoil. Biological invaders can threaten native ecosystems and global biodiversity; they can incur massive economic costs and even introduce diseases. Invasion biologists generally agree that being able to predict when and where an invasion will occur is essential for progress in their field. However, successful predictions of this type remain elusive. This has caused a rift, as some researchers are pessimistic and believe that invasion biology has (...)
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  32. Competitive Exclusion and Axiomatic Set-Theory: De Morgan’s Laws, Ecological Virtual Processes, Symmetries and Frozen Diversity.J. C. Flores - 2016 - Acta Biotheoretica 64 (1):85-98.
    This work applies the competitive exclusion principle and the concept of potential competitors as simple axiomatic tools to generalized situations in ecology. These tools enable apparent competition and its dual counterpart to be explicitly evaluated in poorly understood ecological systems. Within this set-theory framework we explore theoretical symmetries and invariances, De Morgan’s laws, frozen evolutionary diversity and virtual processes. In particular, we find that the exclusion principle compromises the geometrical growth of the number of species. By theoretical extending this principle, (...)
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  33. Reconciling Community Ecology with Evidence of Animal Culture: Socially-Adapted, Localized Community Dynamics?Chantelle Marlor - 2016 - Biology and Philosophy 31 (5):663-683.
    A growing body of empirical research suggests many animal species are capable of social learning and even have cultural behavioral traditions. Social learning has implications for community ecology; changes in behavior can lead to changes in inter- and intra-specific interactions. The paper explores possible implications of social learning for ecological community dynamics. Four arguments are made: social learning can result in locally-specific ecological relationships; socially-mediated, locally-specific ecological relationships can have localized indirect interspecific population effects; the involvement of multiple co-existing species (...)
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  34. Are There General Causal Forces in Ecology?Mark Sagoff - 2016 - Synthese 193 (9).
    In this paper, I adopt the view that if general forces or processes can be detected in ecology, then the principles or models that represent them should provide predictions that are approximately correct and, when not, should lead to the sorts of intervening factors that usually make trouble. I argue that Lotka–Volterra principles do not meet this standard; in both their simple “strategic” and their complex “tactical” forms they are not approximately correct of the findings of the laboratory experiments and (...)
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  35. Forrageamento Por Recurso Alternativo Em Época de Estiagem Por Apis Mellifera Linnaeus, 1758.Bruno Corrêa Barbosa, Tatiane Tagliatti Maciel & Fabio Prezoto - 2015 - Mensagem Doce 131 (2):1-4.
    Forrageamento por Recurso Alternativo em Época de Estiagem por Apis mellifera Linnaeus, 1758.
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  36. Commentary: Tempo of Evolutionary Change in Ecological Systems.James P. Collins - 2015 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 50:80-82.
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  37. Historicity and Ecological Restoration.Eric Desjardins - 2015 - Biology and Philosophy 30 (1):77-98.
    This paper analyzes the relevance and interconnection of two forms of historicity in ecological restoration, namely historical fidelity and path dependence. Historical fidelity is the practice of attempting to restore an ecological system to some sort of idealized past condition. Path dependence occurs when a system can evolve in alternative local equilibria, and that the order and timing of the events that follow from the initial state influence which equilibrium is reached. Using theoretical examples and case studies, the following analysis (...)
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  38. Against Lawton’s Contingency Thesis; or, Why the Reported Demise of Community Ecology Is Greatly Exaggerated.Stefan Linquist - 2015 - Philosophy of Science 82 (5):1104-1115.
    Lawton’s contingency thesis states that there are no useful generalizations at the level of ecological communities because these systems are especially prone to contingent historical events. I argue that this influential thesis has been grounded on the wrong kind of evidence. CT is best understood in Woodward’s terms as a claim about the instability of certain causal dependencies across different background conditions. A recent distinction between evolution and ecology reveals what an adequate test of Lawton’s thesis would look like. To (...)
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  39. Biodiversity at Twenty-Five Years: Revolution Or Red Herring?Nicolae Morar, Ted Toadvine & Brendan J. M. Bohannan - 2015 - Ethics, Policy and Environment 18 (1):16-29.
  40. On the Intrinsic Value of Genetic Integrity: A Commentary.Attila Tanyi - 2015 - Ethics, Policy and Environment 18 (3):248-251.
    In their article “Is There a Prima Facie Duty to Preserve Genetic Integrity in Conservation Biology?” Yasha Rower and Emma Harris argue that there is no underived prima facie obligation to preserve genetic integrity. In particular, it is argued that there is no such obligation because genetic integrity has no intrinsic value. In this commentary I raise doubts about this part of the authors’ argument. I argue that there might well be at least prima facie value in genetic integrity, that (...)
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  41. Luminescent Sensing and Imaging of Oxygen: Fierce Competition to the Clark Electrode.Otto S. Wolfbeis - 2015 - Bioessays 37 (8):921-928.
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  42. Shaping Ecology: The Life of Arthur Tansley. [REVIEW]Peder Anker - 2014 - Isis 105 (2):446-447.
  43. The Silwood Circle: A History of Ecology and the Making of Scientific Careers in Late Twentieth-Century Britain. [REVIEW]Stephen Bocking - 2014 - Isis 105 (2):461-462.
  44. Levins and the Lure of Artificial Worlds.Seth Bullock - 2014 - The Monist 97 (3):301-320.
    What is it about simulation models that has led some practitioners to treat them as potential sources of empirical data on the real-world systems being simulated; that is, to treat simulations as ‘artificial worlds’within which to perform computational ‘experiments’? Here we use the work of Richard Levins as a starting point in identifying the appeal of this model building strategy, and proceed to account for why this appeal is strongest for computational modellers. This analysis suggests a perspective on simulation modelling (...)
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  45. The Gaia Hypothesis: Science on a Pagan Planet. [REVIEW]Eugene Cittadino - 2014 - Isis 105 (3):626-627.
  46. "Diversité et historique des mouvements écologiques en Amérique du Nord" [Diversity and origins of the ecological movements in North America].Philippe Gagnon - 2014 - Connaître: Cahiers de l'Association Foi Et Culture Scientifique 40:76-89.
    The development of ecological thinking in North America has been conditioned by the imperative aiming at a valuation of the biotic community. Since the end of WWII, the US population was warned against the dangerous and violent alterations of nature. Many then found in theology an unforeseen ally. I review the roots of the tension which led to debates involving radical ecologism or its denial, and I aim at analyzing it philosophically.
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  47. What is the Value of Historical Fidelity in Restoration?Justin Garson - 2014 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 45 (1):97-100.
    The following considers the role of historical fidelity in habitat reconstruction efforts. To what extent should habitat reconstruction be guided by the goal of recreating some past state of a damaged ecosystem? I consider Sarkar’s “replacement argument,” which holds that, in most habitat reconstruction efforts, there is little justification for appealing to historical fidelity. I argue that Sarkar does not provide adequate grounds for deprecating historical fidelity relative to other natural values such as biodiversity or wild nature.
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  48. Peter Ayres, Shaping Ecology: The Life of Arthur Tansley. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell, 2012. Pp. Xii+213. ISBN 978-0-470-67154-2. £19.99. [REVIEW]Andy Hammond - 2014 - British Journal for the History of Science 47 (2):383-384.
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  49. Diagnosis of Wildlife Received and Rescued by the Instituto Ecologico Buzios de Mata Atlantica Around the Pau-Brasil Environmental Protection Area in the Lake District, RJ.Pedro Dutra Lacerda, Bruno Corrêa Barbosa, Mariana Paschoalini & Tatiane Tagliatti Maciel - 2014 - Boletim Do Observatório Ambiental Alberto Ribeiro Lamego 8 (1):75-82.
    This study aimed to survey wild species voluntarily received or rescued in the Lake District, State of Rio de Janeiro, in 2011. The research aimed to identify endangered species, quantify the groups and know the destination given to specimens. The records were obtained from the Instituto Ecológico Búzios Mata Atlântica, an NGO responsible for the Environmental Protection Area named Pau-Brasil and for the Lake District. The analysis showed that 181 animals were seized, 51% mammals (13 species), 25% reptiles (13 species), (...)
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  50. Contextualising the Teaching and Learning of Ecology: Historical and Philosophical Considerations.Ageliki Lefkaditou, Konstantinos Korfiatis & Tasos Hovardas - 2014 - In Michael R. Matthews (ed.), International Handbook of Research in History, Philosophy and Science Teaching. Springer. pp. 523-550.
    Ecology has gradually gained salience during the last few decades and ecological issues, including land use changes, global warming, biodiversity loss, food shortage, and so forth, seem to be gaining public attention. Though philosophers of science had given little attention to ecology, there is a lot of interesting work being currently pursued in philosophy of ecology and environmental philosophy. As Colyvan and colleagues put it, “ecology is an important and fascinating branch of biology, with distinctive philosophical issues” (Colyvan et al. (...)
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1 — 50 / 412