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  1. Consequentialism and Its Demands: The Role of Institutions.Attila Tanyi & András Miklós - manuscript
    It isn’t saying much to claim that morality is demanding; the question, rather, is: can morality be so demanding that we have reason not to follow its dictates? According to many, it can, if that morality is a consequentialist one. This paper takes the plausibility and coherence of this objection – the Demandingness Objection – as a given. Our question, therefore, is how to respond to the Objection. We put forward a response that we think has not received sufficient attention (...)
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  2. Trust and Distrust in Institutions and Governance.Mark Alfano & Nicole Huijts - forthcoming - In Judith Simon (ed.), Handbook of Trust and Philosophy. Routledge.
    First, we explain the conception of trustworthiness that we employ. We model trustworthiness as a relation among a trustor, a trustee, and a field of trust defined and delimited by its scope. In addition, both potential trustors and potential trustees are modeled as being more or less reliable in signaling either their willingness to trust or their willingness to prove trustworthy in various fields in relation to various other agents. Second, following Alfano (forthcoming) we argue that the social scale of (...)
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  3. Causes of the Financial Crisis‗.Jeffrey Friedman - forthcoming - Critical Review: A Journal of Politics and Society.
    The financial crisis was caused by the complex, constantly growing web of regulations designed to constrain and redirect modern capitalism. This complexity made investors, bankers, and perhaps regulators themselves ignorant of regulations previously promulgated across decades and in different “fields” of regulation. These regulations interacted with each other to foster the issuance and securitization of subprime mortgages; their rating as AA or AAA; and their concentration on the balance sheets (and off the balance sheets) of many commercial and investment banks. (...)
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  4. Las metáforas de la política.María G. Navarro - 2020 - The Conversation.
    Existen insospechados parecidos de familia. En sus clases de Ciencia y Filosofía Política en la Universidad de Yale, Seyla Benhabib suele insistir en que las personas se terminan pareciendo mucho más a sus propias instituciones que a los Estados o a las naciones en las que viven. Esta aseveración resulta inquietante. De todos es sabido que podemos identificarnos más o menos con nuestra propia nación, pero la idea de que, en verdad, todos vayamos a terminar pareciéndonos mucho más a ciertas (...)
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  5. Book Review: Private Government: How Employers Rule Our Lives (and Why We Don’T Talk About It) by Elizabeth Anderson. [REVIEW]Uğur Aytaç - 2018 - ID: International Dialogue, A Multidisciplinary Journal of World Affairs 8:77-84.
  6. El capital social en situaciones de cambio institucional.María G. Navarro - 2018 - Bajo Palabra. Revista de Filosofía 20:65-84.
    In this article, the hypothesis according to which the institutional change is determined by the mobilization of social capital is exposed. It is analysed what consequences derived from this fact in relation to the processes of deinstitutionalization of the policy. It proposes an interpretation of academically relevant results about the meaning of the term ‘deinstitutionalization’, explains some of the most important antecedents on institutional theory and, fially, proposes some fundamental ideas to advance the philosophical reflction about the so-called new institutionalism.
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  7. Cigarettes, Dollars and Bitcoins – an Essay on the Ontology of Money.J. P. Smit, Filip8 Buekens & Stan Du Plessis - 2016 - Journal of Institutional Economics 12 (2):327 - 347.
    What does being money consist in? We argue that something is money if, and only if, it is typically acquired in order to realise the reduction in transaction costs that accrues in virtue of agents coordinating on acquiring the same thing when deciding what thing to acquire in order to exchange. What kinds of things can be money? We argue against the common view that a variety of things (notes, coins, gold, cigarettes, etc.) can be money. All monetary systems are (...)
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  8. Understanding Financial Instability: Minsky Versus the Austrians.Ludwig Van Den Hauwe - 2016 - Journal des Economistes Et des Etudes Humaines 22 (1).
    Although Minsky’s interpretation of Keynes’s macroeconomics and essential message clashes with authoritative alternative interpretations, it has become increasingly influential during the years following the Global Financial Crisis, even in mainstream circles. This paper offers a critical evaluation of Minsky’s Financial Instability Hypothesis from the perspective of the alternative Austro-Wicksellian paradigm. Although some of the similarities and/or analogies between Minsky’s approach and that of the Austrian School suggest a more than merely superficial affinity between the two theoretical frameworks and although some (...)
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  9. Taxation: Its Justification and Application to Global Contexts.Teppo Eskelinen & Arto Laitinen - 2015 - In Helmut P. Gaisbauer, Gottfried Schweiger & Clemens Sedmak (eds.), Philosophical Explorations of Justice and Taxation. National and Global Issues. Springer. pp. 219-236.
    This article focuses on the justification of taxation, in other words the principled rather than the technical aspect of taxation. We first show how democracy is on the one hand required for legitimate taxation, and how on the other hand democratic communities are dependent on taxation, and argue there is no vicious cirle. We then present a typology of ways of justifying taxation, according to which taxation can base its legitimacy on (1) meeting basic needs, (2) financing public goods, (3) (...)
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  10. Is Economic Rationality in the Head?Kevin Vallier - 2015 - Minds and Machines 25 (4):339-360.
    Many economic theorists hold that social institutions can lead otherwise irrational agents to approximate the predictions of traditional rational choice theory. But there is little consensus on how institutions do so. I defend an economic internalist account of the institution-actor relationship by explaining economic rationality as a feature of individuals whose decision-making is aided by institutional structures. This approach, known as the subjective transaction costs theory, represents apparently irrational behavior as a rational response to high subjective transaction costs of thinking (...)
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  11. Herding, Social Influence and Expert Opinion.Michelle Baddeley - 2013 - Journal of Economic Methodology 20 (1):35 - 44.
    (2013). Herding, social influence and expert opinion. Journal of Economic Methodology: Vol. 20, Methodology, Systemic Risk, and the Economics Profession, pp. 35-44. doi: 10.1080/1350178X.2013.774845.
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  12. The Road to Serfdom's Economistic Worldview.François Godard - 2013 - Critical Review: A Journal of Politics and Society 25 (3-4):364-385.
    At the end of World War II, F. A. Hayek denounced the then-popular idea of central planning by arguing that, if pursued to its logical conclusion, it would entail totalitarianism. But there were at least two problems. First, judging by his example of Nazi Germany, state control over the economy appears to be a consequence, not a cause, of the monopolization of political power. Second, he conflated socialism and mere interference in the market with central planning. Therefore, history did not (...)
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  13. Performativity of Economic Systems: Approach and Implications for Taxonomy.Carsten Herrmann-Pillath - 2013 - Journal of Economic Methodology 20 (2):139-163.
    The paper proposes to ground the taxonomy of economic systems on the identification of strongly performative institutions as distinctive features. I analyse performativity on the basis of the Aoki model of institutions, enriched by current approaches to performativity, which I combine with Searle's notion of a status function. Performativity is conceived as resulting from the conjunction of public representations (sign systems) and behavioural dispositions which channel strategic interactions among actors such that certain sets of institutions are reproduced recurrently. I apply (...)
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  14. Science-Mart: Privatizing American Science.Tiago Mata - 2013 - Journal of Economic Methodology 20 (1):75 - 81.
    (2013). Science-mart: privatizing American science. Journal of Economic Methodology: Vol. 20, Methodology, Systemic Risk, and the Economics Profession, pp. 75-81. doi: 10.1080/1350178X.2013.774858.
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  15. Institutions, Distributed Cognition and Agency: Rule-Following as Performative Action.Carsten Herrmann-Pillath - 2012 - Journal of Economic Methodology 19 (1):21-42.
    Aoki recently proposed the concept of substantive institutions, a concept that relates the outcomes of strategic interaction with public representations of the equilibrium states of games. I argue that the Aoki model can be grounded in theories of distributed cognition and performativity, which I put into the context of Searle's philosophical account of institutions. Substantive institutions build on regularized causal interactions between internal neuronal mechanisms and external facts, shared in a population of agents. Following Searle's proposal of conceiving rule-following as (...)
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  16. The Firm, Property Rights and Methodological Individualism: Some Lessons From J.S. Mill.Amos Witztum - 2012 - Journal of Economic Methodology 19 (4):339-355.
    In modern economics, the firm is a means of overcoming the inefficiencies generated by transaction costs and incomplete contracts. Its boundaries, therefore, are the means by which the efficiency of competition can be salvaged. Whether or not agents feel comfortable with the values which underlie various ownership structures remains outside this theory. Moreover, the working of different ownership structures is entirely based on the presumption that agents' motivation (as opposed to incentives) will remain constant. This, of course, is typical of (...)
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  17. Trustworthiness is a Social Norm, but Trusting is Not.Cristina Bicchieri, Erte Xiao & Ryan Muldoon - 2011 - Politics, Philosophy and Economics 10 (2):170-187.
    Previous literature has demonstrated the important role that trust plays in developing and maintaining well-functioning societies. However, if we are to learn how to increase levels of trust in society, we must first understand why people choose to trust others. One potential answer to this is that people view trust as normative: there is a social norm for trusting that imposes punishment for noncompliance. To test this, we report data from a survey with salient rewards to elicit people’s attitudes regarding (...)
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  18. Making the Social World: The Structure of Human Civilization, John R. Searle, Oxford University Press, 2010, 224 Pages. [REVIEW]Frank Hindriks - 2011 - Economics and Philosophy 27 (3):338-346.
  19. Institutions.C. Mantzavinos - 2011 - In Ian Jarvie Jesús Zamora-Bonilla (ed.), The SAGE Handbook of the Philosophy of Science. London, Thousand Oaks, New Delhi and Singapore: pp. 399-412.
    The article provides an overview of the basic concepts and principles of the theory of institutions as well as of the mechanisms of emergence and evolution of social institutions. It introduces a distinction between formal and informal institutions based on the the criterion of the enforcement agency of institutions. Finally it discusses the problem of path dependence.
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  20. Economic Exchange as an Evolutionary Transmission Channel in Human Societies.Bertin Martens - 2011 - Biological Theory 6 (4):366-376.
    This article argues that the (epi)genetic, cultural, symbolic, and environmental transmission channels are insufficient to explain the structure of modern human societies. Economic exchange of knowledge embodied in goods and services constitutes an additional transmission channel that makes more efficient use of limited human cognitive capacity. Economic exchange results in a gradual shift in societies from task-based division of labor to cognitive specialization. This shifts scarce cognitive resources away from production and into learning. It accelerates learning and reinforces the drive (...)
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  21. What Is Money? An Alternative To Searle's Institutional Facts.J. P. Smit, Filip Buekens & Stan du Plessis - 2011 - Economics and Philosophy 27 (1):1-22.
    In The Construction of Social Reality, John Searle develops a theory of institutional facts and objects, of which money, borders and property are presented as prime examples. These objects are the result of us collectively intending certain natural objects to have a certain status, i.e. to ‘count as’ being certain social objects. This view renders such objects irreducible to natural objects. In this paper we propose a radically different approach that is more compatible with standard economic theory. We claim that (...)
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  22. Norms, Preferences, and Conditional Behavior.Cristina Bicchieri - 2010 - Politics, Philosophy and Economics 9 (3):297-313.
    This article addresses several issues raised by Nichols, Gintis, and Skyrms and Zollman in their comments on my book, The Grammar of Society: The Nature and Dynamics of Social Norms . In particular, I explore the relation between social and personal norms, what an adequate game-theoretic representation of norms should be, and what models of norms emergence should tell us about the formation of normative expectations.
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  23. Governmentality: Current Issues and Future Challenges.Ulrich Bröckling, Susanne Krasmann & Thomas Lemke (eds.) - 2010 - Routledge.
    By assembling authors with a wide range of different disciplinary backgrounds, from philosophy, literature, political science, sociology to medical anthropology ...
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  24. Structure and Change: Douglass North's Economics.Graham A. Brownlow - 2010 - Journal of Economic Methodology 17 (3):301-316.
    Douglass North is a pivotal figure in the development of the ?new? economic history as well as the ?new? institutional economics. However, the relationship between these two aspects of his thinking remains undeveloped in previous critical assessments of North's work. The relationship is clarified here. The evidence presented indicates that three distinct phases can be distinguished in his writings between the 1950s and the 2000s. The paper relates these changing views to the shifting mainstream within economics and the effects that (...)
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  25. The Division of Labour in Science: The Tradeoff Between Specialisation and Diversity.Rogier De Langhe - 2010 - Journal of Economic Methodology 17 (1):37-51.
    Economics is a typical resource for social epistemology and the division of labour is a common theme for economics. As such it should come as no surprise that the present paper turns to economics to formulate a view on the dynamics of scientific communities, with precursors such as Kitcher (1990), Goldman and Shaked (1991) and Hull (1988). But although the approach is similar to theirs, the view defended is different. Mäki (2005) points out that the lessons philosophers draw from economics (...)
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  26. A Neurolinguistic Approach to Performativity in Economics.Carsten Herrmann-Pillath - 2010 - Journal of Economic Methodology 17 (3):241-260.
    What makes institutions ?real?? One central notion has been emerging recently in sociology, which is ?performativity?, a term borrowed from the philosophy of language. I propose a neurolinguistic approach to performativity that is based on John Searle's theory of institutions, especially his concept of a ?status function? and his explanation of rule-following as a neurophysiological disposition. Positing a status function is a performative act. I proceed in two steps to establish the neurolinguistic framework. First, I apply the concept of ?conceptual (...)
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  27. Der Beitrag Erich Hoppmanns.C. Mantzavinos - 2010 - In Viktor Vanberg (ed.), Evolution und Freiheitlicher Wettbewerb. Erich Hoppmann und die aktuelle Diskussion. Tübingen: pp. 23-33.
    Das Werk Erich Hoppmanns wird durch drei Ideen geleitet. Erstens, eine Idee ontologischer Natur, dass der Markt ein komplexes Phänomen ist. Zweitens, eine Idee methodologischer Natur, dass der Markt mittels einer Systembetrachtung analysiert werden soll und nur Erklärungen des Prinzips möglich sind. Drittens, eine Idee normativer Natur, dass die Steuerung des Marktes mittels Regeln erfolgen soll, die gemäß dem regulativen Ideal der Freiheit konzipiert werden müssen.
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  28. PHD Thesis Summary: Intellectual Paths and Pathologies: How Small Events in Scholarly Life Accidentally Grow Big (2009).Altug Yalcintas - 2010 - Erasmus Journal of Philosophy and Economics 3 (1):123-125.
  29. Sufficient Reason: Volitional Pragmatism and the Meaning of Economic Institutions.Daniel W. Bromley - 2009 - Princeton University Press.
    In the standard analysis of economic institutions--which include social conventions, the working rules of an economy, and entitlement regimes --economists invoke the same theories they use when analyzing individual behavior. In this profoundly innovative book, Daniel Bromley challenges these theories, arguing instead for "volitional pragmatism" as a plausible way of thinking about the evolution of economic institutions. Economies are always in the process of becoming. Here is a theory of how they become. Bromley argues that standard economic accounts see institutions (...)
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  30. From Fictions and Aggregates to Real Entities in the Theory of the Firm.David Gindis - 2009 - Journal of Institutional Economics 5 (1):25-46.
    According to the dominant "nexus of contracts" and "collection of assets" views of the firm, the firm is a either a fiction or an aggregate. Although legal personality is important in both accounts, everything is said to be achieved by private contract alone and the law's role in creating legal entity status is dismissed. The paper challenges both these aspects by reconsidering an alternative "real entity theory" that dominated debates at the turn of the twentieth century. This forgotten view holds (...)
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  31. Apprentissage, Institutions, et Performance Économique.C. Mantzavinos, Douglass North & Syed Shariq - 2009 - L'Année Sociologique 59 (2):469-492.
    Dans cet article, nous offrons un large aperçu des interactions entre cognition, systèmes de croyances et institutions, et comment elles affectent la performance économique. Nous estimons qu'une meilleure compréhension de l’émergence des institutions, de leurs propriétés de fonctionnement et de leurs effets sur les résultats politiques et économiques doit commencer par une analyse des processus cognitifs. Nous explorons la nature de l'apprentissage individuel et collectif, en soulignant que la question n'est pas de savoir si les agents ont une rationalité parfaite (...)
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  32. Book Review of David Ruccio's Economic Representations: Academic and Everyday (2008). [REVIEW]Altug Yalcintas - 2009 - Journal of Economic Issues 43 (4):1089-1091.
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  33. Intellectual Paths and Pathologies: How Small Events in Scholarly Life Accidentally Grow Big.Altug Yalcintas - 2009 - Dissertation, Erasmus University Rotterdam
  34. Community, Economic Creativity, and Organization.Ash Amin & Joanne Roberts (eds.) - 2008 - Oxford University Press.
    'Communities of practice', like 'social capital' and 'networks', is an idea that has been widely adopted in the social sciences, particularly in discussion of innovation and creativity. This book evaluates the concept and its uses, and will be an essential guide for students and researchers.
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  35. Searle and De Soto: The New Ontology of the Social World.Barry Smith - 2008 - In Barry Smith, David Mark & Isaac Ehrlich (eds.), The Mystery of Capital and the Construction of Social Reality. Open Court. pp. 35-51.
    Consider a game of blind chess between two chess masters that is recorded in some standard chess notation. The recording is a representation of the game. But what is the game itself? This question is, we believe, central to the entire domain of social ontology. We argue that the recorded game is a special sort of quasi-abstract pattern, something that is: (i) like abstract entities such as numbers or forms, in that it is both nonphysical and nonpsychological; but at the (...)
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  36. Against Simplicity and Cognitive Individualism: Nathaniel T. Wilcox.Nathaniel T. Wilcox - 2008 - Economics and Philosophy 24 (3):523-532.
    Neuroeconomics illustrates our deepening descent into the details of individual cognition. This descent is guided by the implicit assumption that “individual human” is the important “agent” of neoclassical economics. I argue here that this assumption is neither obviously correct, nor of primary importance to human economies. In particular I suggest that the main genius of the human species lies with its ability to distribute cognition across individuals, and to incrementally accumulate physical and social cognitive artifacts that largely obviate the innate (...)
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  37. Computer-Mediated Communication and Cooperation in Social Dilemmas: An Experimental Analysis.Cristina Bicchieri & Azi Lev-On - 2007 - Politics, Philosophy and Economics 6 (2):139-168.
    University of Pennsylvania, USA, el322{at}nyu.edu ' + u + '@' + d + ' '//--> One of the most consistent findings in experimental studies of social dilemmas is the positive influence of face-to-face communication on cooperation. The face-to-face `communication effect' has been recently explained in terms of a `focus theory of norms': successful communication focuses agents on pro-social norms, and induces preferences and expectations conducive to cooperation. 1 Many of the studies that point to a communication effect, however, do not (...)
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  38. Reorienting Critical Realism: A System‐Wide Perspective on the Capitalist Economy.Andrew Brown - 2007 - Journal of Economic Methodology 14 (4):499-519.
    This paper critiques the critical realist conception of social relations as ?deep? structures separate from ?surface? social activities. The alternative conception offered by ?systematic dialectics? is advocated. Systematic dialectics takes a system?wide perspective on the contemporary economic system. From this perspective, predominant social relations are inseparable from predominant social activities contra critical realism. For example, the predominance of commodity exchange relations across the economic system necessarily implies the predominance of the activities of commodity exchange. Likewise the predominance of monetary relations (...)
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  39. The Importance of Defining the Feasible Set.Tyler Cowen - 2007 - Economics and Philosophy 23 (1):1-14.
    How should we define the feasible set? Even when individuals agree on facts and values, as traditionally construed, different views on feasibility may suffice to produce very different policy conclusions. Focusing on the difficulties in the feasibility concept may help us resolve some policy disagreements, or at least identify the sources of those disagreements. Feasibility is most plausibly a matter of degree rather than of kind. Normative economic reasoning therefore faces a fuzzy social budget constraint. Iterative reasoning about feasibility and (...)
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  40. Modernism, Reflexivity and the Washington Consensus.Daniel Gay - 2007 - Journal of Economic Methodology 14 (1):83-105.
    This paper develops a taxonomy of reflexive development practice, suggesting an examination of external values and norms; an assessment of the importance of local context; a recognition that policies can worsen the problems that they try to solve; and the idea that theory and policy should be revised as circumstances change. The taxonomy is developed as a way of addressing the difficulties encountered by the modernist Washington Consensus on the one hand and postmodernism on the other. The discussion draws on (...)
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  41. Zur Verteidigung des Institutionenökonomisch-Evolutionären Wettberbsleitbildes.C. Mantzavinos - 2007 - ORDO 58:157-166.
    Dieter Schmidtchen hat mein institutionenökonomisch-evolutionäres Wettbewerbsleitbild einer kritischen Würdigung unterzogen. In dieser Replik werden drei Arten von Argumenten zugunsten meines Wettbewerbsleitbildes vorgetragen. Zunächst wird mit Hilfe von wissenschaftstheoretischen Argumenten gezeigt, dass die Konkurrenz von Erkenntnisprogrammen auch im Fall der Wettbewerbstheorie durchaus wünscheswert ist. Dann werden die normativen Grundlagen des Leitbildes erläutert und gezeigt, wie das Prinzip der kritischen Prüfung zum Tragen kommt. Schließlich wird für eine regelgeleitete Wettbewerbspolitik plädiert, die den Schutz des Wettbewerbs als minimalistisches Ziel anstrebt.
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  42. Introduction: Thomas Schelling's Distinctive Approach.S. Abu Turab Rizvi - 2007 - Journal of Economic Methodology 14 (4):403-408.
    (2007). Introduction: Thomas Schelling's distinctive approach. Journal of Economic Methodology: Vol. 14, No. 4, pp. 403-408. doi: 10.1080/13501780701718607.
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  43. Economists as Experts: Overconfidence in Theory and Practice.Erik Angner - 2006 - Journal of Economic Methodology 13 (1):1-24.
    Drawing on research in the psychology of judgment and decision making, I argue that individual economists acting as experts in matters of public policy are likely to be victims of significant overconfidence. The case is based on the pervasiveness of the phenomenon, the nature of the task facing economists?as?experts, and the character of the institutional constraints under which they operate. Moreover, I argue that economist overconfidence can have dramatic consequences. Finally, I explore how the negative consequences of overconfidence can be (...)
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  44. Social Identity Strategies in Recent Economics.John B. Davis - 2006 - Journal of Economic Methodology 13 (3):371-390.
    This paper reviews three distinct strategies in recent economics for using the concept of social identity in the explanation of individual behavior: Akerlof and Kranton's neoclassical approach, Sen's commitment approach and Kirman et al.'s complexity approach. The primary focus is the multiple selves problem and the difficulties associated with failing to explain social identity and personal identity together. The argument of the paper is that too narrow a scope for reflexivity in individual decision?making renders the problem intractable, but that enlarging (...)
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  45. The Institutional-Evolutionary Antitrust Model.C. Mantzavinos - 2006 - European Journal of Law and Economics 22:273-291.
    The purpose of this article is to provide an alternative antitrust model to the mainstream model that is used in competition policy. I call it the InstitutionalEvolutionary Antitrust Model. In order to construct an antitrust model one needs both empirical knowledge and considerations of how to adequately deal with norms. The analysis of competition as an evolutionary process that unfolds within legal rules provides the empirical foundation for the model. The development of the normative dimension involves the elaboration of a (...)
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  46. The Role of Definitions in Institutional Analysis.C. Mantzavinos - 2006 - In Frank Daumann, C. Mantzavinos & Stefan Okruch (eds.), Wettbewerb im Gesundheitswesen. Konzeptionen und Felder ordnungsökonomischen Denkens. Budapest: pp. 85-92.
    This paper defends the claim that social scientists who are interested in the study of institutions should not conduct fights about the meaning of the terms "institution", "organization" and the other terms that are used in the theory of institutions. They should instead concentrate on constructing theories in order to explain the phenomena they are interested in. Defining the terms that one wants to use is a legitimate part of the theoretical endeavor, but it is by no means as important (...)
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  47. Response to My Critics.Kai Nielsen - 2006 - Economics and Philosophy 22 (1):147-158.
    I have been fortunate in having the critics that I had at the Pasadena Session on my Globalization and Justice. All three of them understood me very well, reported me accurately and criticized me fairly and perceptively. An author could not ask for more. In some places I will, as a result of their criticisms, have to modify or clarify what I say, but in other places, and indeed very central places, I remain intransigent and hold my ground, I hope (...)
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  48. Rushing to Revolution? A Second Look at Globalization and Justice.David A. Reidy - 2006 - Economics and Philosophy 22 (1):125-137.
    In Globalization and Justice, Kai Nielsen brings his distinctive and passionate voice and considerable philosophical abilities to one of the pressing issues of our time: Is justice possible in our increasingly globalized world? Nielsen argues that it is, though the demands of justice are great, the challenges substantial, and the odds very long. Without a clear philosophical understanding of justice and a firm and focused political will, Nielsen maintains, we are likely to have globalization without justice. This is surely correct.
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  49. Historical Small Events and the Eclipse of Utopia: Perspectives on Path Dependence in Human Thought.Altug Yalcintas - 2006 - Culture, Theory, and Critique 47 (1):53-70.
    Questions such as ‘What if such small companies as Hewletts and the Varians had not been established in Santa Clara County in California?’ or ‘What if Q-type keyboards had not been invented?’ are well known among economists. The questions point at a phenomenon called path dependence: ‘small events’, the argument goes, may cause the evolution of institutions to lock in to specific paths that may produce undesirable consequences. How about applying such skeptical views in economics to human ideas and thought (...)
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  50. “Economic Man” in Cross-Cultural Perspective: Behavioral Experiments in 15 Small-Scale Societies.Joseph Henrich, Robert Boyd, Samuel Bowles, Colin Camerer, Ernst Fehr, Herbert Gintis, Richard McElreath, Michael Alvard, Abigail Barr, Jean Ensminger, Natalie Smith Henrich, Kim Hill, Francisco Gil-White, Michael Gurven, Frank W. Marlowe & John Q. Patton - 2005 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (6):795-815.
    Researchers from across the social sciences have found consistent deviations from the predictions of the canonical model of self-interest in hundreds of experiments from around the world. This research, however, cannot determine whether the uniformity results from universal patterns of human behavior or from the limited cultural variation available among the university students used in virtually all prior experimental work. To address this, we undertook a cross-cultural study of behavior in ultimatum, public goods, and dictator games in a range of (...)
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